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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Index

A

Absorptionmetry techniques, 86-88, 95-97

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 71

Acromegaly, 91

Activities of Daily Living, 26, 160, 225, 269

Acute care, 23-24, 25

Adrenergic receptors, 59

Advertising, cigarette, 199

Affective disorders. See Depression

Age.

See also Elderly

and bone loss, 83, 89-91, 94

and calcium absorption, 90

and cancer screening, 148

and cardiovascular risk, 174

and drug effects, 59, 60

and falling, 82, 84, 264, 266, 275

and fractures, 78, 79

and high blood pressure, 34-35, 38, 40, 42

and infections, 65

and muscle impairment, 229

and nutrition requirements, 161

and oral diseases, 120, 121, 124

and physical inactivity, 225, 226, 228, 229

and renal and hepatic function, 54

and risk of cancer, 121, 137

and sensory loss, 101

Aging, attitudes toward, 210-211

Aging Population in the Twenty-first Century: Statistics for Health Policy, 26

Alameda County Study, 13-14, 228, 249-250

Alcohol use, 172

and bone loss, 92-93

offset effect and, 213

and oral diseases, 121, 127, 131

and osteoporosis, 95

and risk of cancer, 171

Alphamethyldopa, 39, 43

Alzheimer's disease, 109, 126, 216, 246

Amantadine, 68, 69, 71

American Arthritis Foundation, 180

American Association of Retired Persons, 180

American Cancer Society, 180

American College of Physicians, 67

American College of Sports Medicine, 232

Amputation, 177, 183

Angina, 250

Anthropometry, 162

Antibiotics, 66-67, 71

Anticonvulsant use, 91

Anticoronary Club of New York, 178

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Antidepressant medication, 129, 206, 208-209, 210, 219

Antihypertensive medication

adverse effects of, 42-44, 206

benefits of, 38-40

and risk of falls, 272, 281

Arrhythmias, 208

Arthritis, 36

drug treatment of, 56-57

and hearing impairment, 107

and risk of falls, 271, 272

Asians

bone mass, 85

fracture risk, 94

Aspirin, 57

Atherosclerosis, 168, 176, 184

Australian Trial on Mild Hypertension, 38, 39, 40

B

Baby boom cohort, 11

Bacteremia, 65, 66, 69, 71

Balance and gait training, 276

Bantu people, fracture rates, 85

Baroreceptor reflex, 42

Barthel Index, 164

Beck Depression Inventory, 217

Behavioral changes, and prevention of falls, 277-278

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 225

Benfluorothiazide, 39

Benzodiazepines, 54

and cognitive function, 59

and risk of falls, 272

Bereavement, 210, 217-218, 254

Beta-blockers, 39, 42, 59

Bioethicists, 31

Blacks

bone mass, 85

cancer screening and, 149

fracture risk, 94

glaucoma and, 104

high blood pressure in, 34, 35, 36, 47

physical inactivity, 227, 228

sodium sensitivity, 44

Blindness

causes of, 104, 105, 177

prevalence of, 102

prevention of, 111

Bone loss, 76

age-related, 89-91, 94

hypogonadal, 86-89

risk factors for, 85, 91-93

therapies, 89, 94, 280

Bone mass, 85

and fractures, 82-84, 92-93, 274

measurement, 86-88, 95-97

screening tests, 93

therapies, 89, 91, 275

Bone pain, cancer, 140

Boorse, Christopher, 302

Breast cancer

estrogen therapy and, 89

impairment, 140

prevalence, 139

screening, 136, 141-143, 147, 148, 149, 150

British Medical Research Council, 45

Bronchitis, 66

Butler, Robert, 113

C

Caffeine, 171

Calcitonin, 89

Calcium, and bone loss, 89, 90, 94, 171

Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, 16

Cancer

breast, 89, 139, 141-143

diet and, 158, 168

estrogen and, 89

impairment, 140

incidence and mortality, 137-140

lung, 194, 198

oral, 119, 121, 127, 130

risks for, 78, 231

screening, 130, 136-137, 141-151

smoking and, 171, 193, 194-195, 196

surgery, 163

therapy, 126, 136

Carbohydrates, 170-171

Cardiovascular disease, 46, 172

cholesterol and, 57

diet and, 173

estrogen and, 58, 89

morbidity and mortality, 35, 38-42, 45-46

physical activity and, 179

risk factors, 33, 166, 174, 176, 177

smoking and, 195, 196

Cardiovascular system, oxygen delivery, 229

Caries, 120, 121-122, 124

prevention of, 128

radiation, 126

research on, 131

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Carter Center Health Policy Project, 14

Case-control studies, 137

Cataracts, 103-104, 111, 112, 218, 272

Catastrophic Health Care Program, 292-293

Centers for Disease Control, 14, 67, 224, 225

Cerebral perfusion, 42-43

Cerebrovascular disease, 41, 172

morbidity and mortality, 38, 38, 45-46

Cervical cancer screening, 144-145, 147, 148

Chewing disorders, 119

Children

health care policy and, 296

social supports and, 253

Chlorothiazide, 39

Chlorthalidone, 39

Cholesterol levels, 35, 43

reduction, 57, 173, 174-176, 185

screening, 173-174

Chronic illness prevention, 12, 25

Chronic obstructive lung disease, 91, 193, 194

Cognitive-behavioral therapies, 210

Cognitive impairment, 184

diabetes and, 177

diet and, 158

medications and, 44, 59

and risk of falls, 272, 281

sensory loss and, 107, 109, 112

Colon and rectal cancer, 139-140, 145, 150-151, 230-231

Community intervention, exercise programs, 235

Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation, 108

Connective tissue diseases, 123

Cooper, A. F., 108

Coronary Artery Surgery Study, 195-196

Coronary heart disease

cholesterol and, 174-175

diet and, 158, 166

exercise and, 231, 232

high blood pressure treatment and, 41

morbidity and mortality, 36

risk factors, 14, 248

smoking and, 193, 194, 195

social supports and, 250

Corticosteroid use, 91

Cost-effectiveness

dietary cholesterol reduction, 175

estrogen therapy, 88

exercise programs, 236-237

high blood pressure treatment, 45

Costs

bone mass measurement, 96, 97

dental services, 126-127

depression, 210, 211-213

drug-induced disability, 55-56, 59-60

falls, 268-269, 282

health care, 11-12, 36, 182, 211, 235, 291-294, 296, 297

infections, 66, 67, 68

nutrition-related diseases, 166

osteoporosis, 76, 81-82

social isolation, 246-247

Council on Health Fraud, 180

Cushing's disease, 91

D

Deafness, 109

Decubitus ulcers, 70

Dementia, 36, 109

Dentures, 124-125, 164

Depression, 42, 80

age and, 59

costs of, 211-213

definition and prevalence, 202-204

and nutritional status, 168

recommendations, 217-219

risk factors for, 205-206

and risk of falls, 272

sensory loss and, 107, 108, 109, 112

and suicide, 213-215

treatment of, 206-211, 215-217

Descartes, René, 315-317

Diabetes mellitus, 92

and exercise, 232

nutrition and, 168, 177-178, 184

Diabetic nephropathy, 176

Diabetic retinopathy, 103-104, 105, 177

Diabetics, 115

glaucoma and, 104

oral infection and, 126

physical limitations, 231

Dialysis, 176, 293

Diastolic blood pressure, 33, 34, 35, 38, 45-46

treatment of, 40, 42, 44-45, 46-47

Diet, 159, 193

calcium in, 90

cholesterol reduction, 174, 175

and drug metabolism, 179

and nutritional status, 161-162

and oral health, 126

vitamin D in, 90-91

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Dietary status, 157, 160-161

Dietary therapies, 172, 176

Digestive system, 164

Disability

cancer, 140

classification of, 22-31, 316, 318

drug-induced, 55-56, 58, 59

falls, 268

fracture-related, 94

nutrition and, 165-166, 170-171

oral, 120

osteoporosis, 78-81

prevention of, 15-16, 53

sensory loss, 107-111, 112, 114

Disease

classification of, 24, 28, 316

consequences of, 314-317, 318

definition of, 300-305, 316

prevention, 15

social isolation and, 248-249, 250-251, 252-253

Disease model of care, 23-25, 26, 28, 303, 306-308

Disuse atrophy, 179, 225

Diuretics, 41, 42, 44

and risk of falls, 272, 281

Driving, 110

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, 86-88, 96-97

Dual-photon absorptiometry, 86-88, 95, 96

Duke Longitudinal Study, 196

Dysgeusia, 179

Dysphoria, 218

E

Ecologic studies, 137

Education

cancer screening, 151

depression, 219

exercise programs, 239

falls, 282-283

infections, 72

medication use, 60-62

nutritional, 185

oral health, 131-132

osteoporosis, 94-95

social isolation, 258-259

Efficacy, cancer screening, 141-150

Elderly

anthropometry and, 162

and cancer screening, 148, 149-150

chewing disorders, 119

cholesterol and, 173, 175

demographics, 11, 82, 295-296

depression in, 202, 203-204, 207, 218

falls, 263, 264-265, 274, 275

health care costs and, 211, 291-292

health care rationing and, 292, 294-298

health care utilization, 22, 256, 314

health promotion and disability prevention, 12-17, 23, 308

high blood pressure in, 33-34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42-43, 44

infections and, 65-66, 67-68, 71

medication use, 53-55, 56-59, 60, 61, 172, 178, 179, 276

nutritional assistance, 169, 174, 181-184

nutrition fraud and, 167, 180

physical inactivity, 224, 231, 232-233, 238

and sensory loss, 114

smoking rate, 194

social isolation, 246, 254, 256, 257, 259

suicide risk, 214-215

vitamin D deficiency in, 90-91

Electroconvulsive therapy, 209-210, 219

Electrolyte disturbance, 208

Emotional state, 27, 44

End Stage Renal Disease Program, 293-294

Environmental factors, in falls, 274, 277, 280

Estrogen, and breast cancer, 143

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 58, 86, 88-89, 94, 171, 185

Etiology, 28

caries, 122

hearing impairments, 105-107

visual impairments, 103-105

European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly, 38, 39, 43, 45

Evolution, 302

Exercise, 44, 224, 231, 232-235

cost-effectiveness of, 236-237

and prevention of falls, 275-276, 280, 284

recommendations, 237-240

F

Falls, 263-264

costs of, 268-269

determinants of, 269-275

and fractures, 42, 82, 84-85, 265-267, 268, 274-275

frequency of, 267-268

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

mortality, 78, 264-265

preventability of, 85, 269, 273, 275-280

recommendations, 280-284

Families, social support, 258-259

Fecal occult blood testing, 145, 149, 150-151

Federal Trade Commission, 180

Fever, 71

Fluorides, 89, 128, 130, 131

Foley catheters, 70

Food and Drug Administration, 61, 184

and health fraud, 179, 180

Food programs, 181-184

Fractures, 79, 263, 265-267, 268

costs of, 81-82

determinants of, 82-85

menopause and, 86

morbidity and mortality, 77-78

prevention, 88-89

recommendations, 93

risk of, 76, 94, 274

Framingham Eye Study, 104

Framingham Heart Study Cohort, 102-103

Framingham studies, 13-14, 34, 35, 173, 195, 250

Friendly Visitor Program, 254

Functional limitations, 27

medications and, 57-58, 60

nutrition and, 160

tooth loss, 125

G

Gastel, Barbara, 113

Gastrectomy, 91

Gastrointestinal disorders, 168

Geiger, H. Jack, 298-299

Gender

and fractures, 79

and high blood pressure treatment, 38

Geriatric Depression Scale, 217

Gingivitis, 128

Glaucoma, 103-104, 111, 115, 218

Gonadal function, 86

H

Handicaps, 28, 29-30

Harvard Alumni Study, 228, 229

Health burden

cancer, 137-140

depression, 202-204

falls, 264-269

high blood pressure, 34-36

infections, 65-66

malnutrition, 166-167

medication use, 55-59

oral health problems, 120-126

osteoporosis, 77-82

physical inactivity, 225-231

smoking, 194-196

social isolation, 246-251

Health care, 317-318

costs, 11-12, 36, 182, 211, 235, 291-294, 296, 297

demedicalization of, 296

disease model of, 23-25, 26, 28, 303, 306-308

goals of, 23-24, 298-300, 305, 313-314

rationing, 292, 294-298

technologies, 293-294, 296

utilization by the elderly, 22, 256, 314

Health Care Financing Administration, 16, 68

Health insurance

blood pressure screening reimbursement, 47

lack of, 291

national, 295

psychiatric care reimbursement, 215-216, 217

Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, 143

Health interview surveys, 25-26

Health maintenance organizations, 80

Health Objectives for the Nation: Year 2000, 14, 247, 249

Health professionals, 13, 298-299.

See also Physicians

and disability classification, 22, 23, 27, 31

and exercise programs, 239

and medications, 60-61

and oral health, 130

and sensory loss, 114-115

and social supports, 258

Health promotion and disability prevention, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 25 , 57, 308, 311, 313, 314

Healthy People (USDHEW), 183

Hearing aids, 112

Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly, 112

Hearing impairments, 101, 102-103

disabilities, 107-110, 112

etiology, 105-107

prevention, 111-112, 115

Hepatic function, age and, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Hepatitis, 65

immunization, 15-16

Herpes virus, 121

High blood pressure, 33-36

and life expectancy 175

nonpharmacologic therapy, 44, 47, 172, 184

nutrition and, 158, 167-172, 176

pathophysiology, 36

prevalence of, 33, 34-35

screening, 36-37, 46, 47

treatment of, 16, 35, 37-45, 46-47, 56, 57-58

Hip (femur) fractures, 28, 58, 77, 78-80, 81, 82, 83-84, 264, 265-266, 267

calcium and, 90

fluoride and, 89

prevention of, 86, 88

smoking and, 92-93

visual impairment and, 110

Hispanics

fracture risk, 85, 94

mental health care and, 211

Honolulu Heart Program, 251

Hospitalization

costs, 81, 213, 235

diabetes education and, 177-178

drug-induced, 55, 58

falls and fractures, 77, 80, 81, 266-267, 268

and infection, 65

Medicare coverage, 215

and nutrition, 183-184

suicide prevention, 215

Housing developments, 256

Hydrochlorothiazide, 39

Hypercholesterolemia, 173-176

Hyperlipidemia, 166, 168, 173

Hyperopia, 105

Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program, 36-37, 38, 39, 40, 43

Hyperthyroidism, 91

Hypertriglyceridemia, 176

Hypogonadal bone loss, 83, 86-89

Hypokalemia, 42

Hyponatremia, 42

Hypopituitarianism, 91

Hypothyroidism, 208

I

Illness behavior, 29

Immune system, 65, 253-254

Immunizations, Medicare reimbursement, 15-16

Impairment, disability, and handicap, 28-30.

See also Disability

cancer, 140

drug-induced, 59

nutritional, 165-166

oral, 120, 121-126

physical inactivity, 228-231

social isolation, 247-251

visual and hearing, 101-107

Incontinence, 58, 272

Infections, 65-66, 123-124

influenza, 67-69

nosocomial, 69-70

pneumococcal disease, 66-67

recommendations, 71-72

Influenza, 65, 67-69, 70

Injuries, from falls, 265-267, 274-275

Injury in America, 77-78, 93, 282

Institute of Medicine, 14, 77-78, 172, 282

Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 16

Committee on Health Promotion and Disability Prevention for the Second Fifty, 12-13, 30

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, 26, 110, 160

Insurance

private, 47, 215-216, 291

social, 25, 26

INSURE project, 16

International Classification of Diseases, 28, 282

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps , 22, 27-31, 228, 230, 247, 249, 311, 313, 314-317

Intraocular pressure, 104, 111

Ischemic heart disease, 38

Isoniazid prophylaxis, 70, 71

J

Johns Hopkins Hearing and Speech Clinic, 108-109

Johnson and Johnson Live for Life project, 235

K

Katz index, 164

Kenney system, 164

Koop, C. Everett, 295

Kuhn, Thomas, 317-318

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

L

Leukoplakia, 121

Life expectancy, 11

cancer screening and, 149

cholesterol reduction and, 175

estrogen therapy and, 88

high blood pressure and, 172

indices of, 164

men, 11

nutrition and, 158

physical activity and, 231, 233

smoking and, 194, 195, 196

women, 11, 148

Lipid-lowering therapy, 57

Lipophilic medications, 54

Lithium, 54

Longitudinal studies, 13-14, 113, 238

Long-term care facilities

admissions, ambulation and fractures, 80

costs, 81, 82, 215

and depression, 204

falls in, 268, 269

infections in, 65, 69, 70, 71

medications in, 60, 61-62, 276

mental health screening, 216

nutrition in, 158-159, 182, 183, 184

quality of life in, 307

Lung cancer, 140

screening for, 146, 151

smoking and, 136, 194, 198

M

Macular degeneration, 103-105, 111, 115

Malnutrition, 157-158, 171, 299

diseases and, 165-166, 167, 168-169

health effects of, 183-184

long-term care facilities and, 183

Mammography, 136, 143, 147, 149, 150

Marital status, 250

Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study, 110

Meals on Wheels, 181-182, 184

Medicaid, 11, 59-60, 215, 295

Medicare, 11-12, 15-16, 17, 295, 314

blood pressure screening reimbursement, 47

Catastrophic Health Care Program, 292-293

End Stage Renal Disease Program, 293-294

and nutritional assessments, 184

psychiatric care coverage, 215, 217

vaccination reimbursement, 67, 68, 72

Medications, 53-55, 172

adverse reactions, 55, 58-59, 60, 62

antidepressant, 129, 206, 208-209, 210, 219

antihypertensive, 38-40, 42-44, 206, 272, 281

disability effects, 56-62

and nutrition, 164-165, 178

and oral health, 125-126

osteoporosis, 82

over-the-counter, 59

prescribing practices, 54, 56, 59-60, 61, 89, 277

and risk of falls, 272, 276-277, 280, 281, 284

and sensory impairment, 115

side effects, 42, 43, 53, 61, 119, 123-124, 179, 208-209

toxicity, 42, 43, 57, 208

Melanoma, 145-146

Men, 254

bone loss, 85, 86, 91-92

calcium RDA, 90

cholesterol reduction, 174, 175

fractures, 77, 78, 86

hearing impairments, 102

high blood pressure, 35

life expectancy, 11

oral cancer and, 121

risk of falls, 264, 266-267

social isolation, 250

suicide prevention, 215

Meningitis, 66

Menopause

and bone loss, 83, 86, 93

and breast cancer, 143

and cholesterol levels, 174

Mental health services, 211, 314

Mercury sphygmomanometer blood pressure measurement, 37

Meta-analysis, 42

Mind/body paradox, 249, 315

Mini-Mental State Examination, 217

Minorities, 211, 233.

See also Blacks;

Hispanics

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 209

Morbidity and mortality

cancer, 121, 136-140, 141-143, 144, 146, 147, 151

cardiovascular, blood pressure and, 35, 36, 45-46

cardiovascular, treatment and, 38-42, 56

cholesterol levels and, 174-175

depression therapy and, 210

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

falls, 264-265

infections, 66, 67-68, 69

medications and, 53, 54

nutrition and, 158, 162-164, 166

osteoporosis, 77-78

social isolation and, 247-248, 249-250

physical inactivity and, 228, 229

smoking, 195, 196

suicide, 213

technology improvements and, 296

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 173

Muscle impairment, 229-230

Myeloma, 91

Myocardial infarction, 41, 176, 250

N

Nagi system, 27

National Cancer Institute, 14

National Center for Health Statistics, 36, 109-110

National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, 173

National health insurance, 295

National Health Interview Survey, 102, 194, 225, 227, 267, 268, 269

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 14, 34 -35, 104, 181

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 33

National Institute on Aging, 113, 218

National Institute of Mental Health, 255

Program on Mental Health of the Aging, 218

National Institutes of Health, 14-15, 132, 280, 293

Committee of Prevention Coordinators, 16

National Research Council, 26, 77-78, 161-162, 185, 282

National Survey of Black Americans, 227

Neuroendocrine mechanisms, 252

Neuroleptics, 59

Neurological problems, 126

New England Deaconess Hospital, 163

Nicotine gum, 197, 198

Nonpharmacological treatment, 44, 47, 172, 184

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), 56-57

Normativism, 301-303, 304, 305

Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, 65, 66, 69-70, 71

Nursing homes. See Long-term care facilities

Nutritional Programs for Older Adults, 182

Nutritional quackery and fraud, 166-167, 179-180, 184

Nutritional Risk Index, 164-165

Nutritional status, 157-158

dietary indices of, 161-162

food programs and, 181-184

functional indices of, 159-161

oral health and, 180-181

prognostic indicators, 162-164

and quality of life, 158-159

recommendations, 184-185

relation to diseases, 166-178

risk screening, 164-165

O

Office of Technology Assessment, 104, 111

Offset effects, 212-213

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (1987), 216

On Lok project, 16

Oophorectomy, 86

Oral cancer, 121, 126

prevention of, 127, 130

screening, 146

Oral health problems, 119-126

nutrition and, 168, 170-171, 180-181

prevention of, 126-130

recommendations, 130-132

Organ and tissue transplantation, 294

Orofacial pain, 119, 126, 128-129

Osteoarthritis, 56-57, 169

Osteoblasts, 89-90, 93

Osteoporosis, 28, 30, 58, 76

costs of, 81-82, 268

determinants of fractures, 82-85, 263, 265

disability, 78-81

morbidity and mortality, 77-78

nutrition and, 169, 171, 184

physical activity and, 179

preventability of, 85-93

recommendations, 93-95

screening tests, 88, 95-97

secondary, 83, 91-93

smoking and, 196

Otitis media, 107

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Oxygen delivery, 229

Oxygen uptake, 230, 232, 233

P

Papilloma, 121

Pap testing, 144-145, 147, 149, 150

Parkinson's disease, 272

Parsons, Talcott, 303

Passive smoking, 198

Pathology, 28

Pemphigus, 121

Perfusion, blood pressure and, 42-43

Periodontal disease, 119, 120, 122-123, 124, 126, 128

Peripheral arterial disease, 195

Pharmaceutical industry, 61, 69, 219

Physical functioning, 44

Physical inactivity, 179, 224-225

and bone loss, 89, 91

cost-effectiveness of interventions, 236-237

and falls, 275-276

impairment, disability, and handicap, 228-231

nutrition and, 161, 170, 173, 184

prevalence of, 225-228

preventability of burden, 231-235

recommendations, 237-240

Physical work capacity, 230

Physicians, 30, 47, 303.

See also Health professionals

and exercise programs, 233

and kidney disease, 293

prescribing practices, 54, 56, 59-60, 61, 89, 277

and smoking cessation, 197, 198

and treatment of depression, 207, 210, 217-218, 219

Pneumococcal disease, 66-67, 70

vaccines, 15-16, 66-67, 69, 71, 72

Pneumonia, 65, 66, 68, 69

Polar drugs, 54

Polypharmacy, 170, 179

Prepayment arrangements, 16

Presbycusis, 105-107, 112

Preventive interventions

cancer, 136-137, 141-146

diabetes mellitus, 177-178

falls, 263, 275-280, 282-283

high blood pressure, 167-172

hypercholesterolemia, 173-176

hypertriglyceridemia, 176

nutritional, 167-178

oral diseases, 126-130

osteoporosis, 76, 85-93

physical inactivity, 231-235

sensory loss, 105, 111-113

social isolation, 252-255

suicide, 214-215

smoking, 193-194

renal disease, 176

research on, 15-16

weight reduction, 178

Primary prevention, 23-24

Professional societies, 114

Progesterone, 89

Progestins, 185

Prognostic Nutritional Index, 163

Prospective payment, 80

Prostate cancer, 140

screening, 146, 151

Prozac, 209

Psychiatric illnesses, 108-109, 203

treatment, 213, 215

Psychoactive drugs, 58, 59, 60

Psychoses, 107, 108, 126

Psychosocial therapies, 210-211

Psychosomatic medicine, 249

Psychotropic drugs, 276-277

Public health interventions, 235, 236

Public policy, 26, 301, 302

depression, 217, 218

exercise programs, 239-240

health care rationing, 292, 294-298

high blood pressure, 47

medications, 61-62

oral health, 131

osteoporosis, 94-95

sensory loss, 113-114

smoking, 198-199

Public transportation, 110

Pulmonary function, 230

Pure tone audiometry, 111-112

Q

Quality-adjusted life year (QALY), 58, 88-89

Quality of life, 17, 26, 147, 305-306, 307

depression and, 202-203

fractures and, 80

hypertension therapy and, 43-44

infections and, 65

medications and, 53, 58

nutrition and, 158-159, 182

oral health and, 131

sensory loss and, 110-111

Quantitative computed tomography, 86-88, 95, 97

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

R

Race

and bone mass, 85

and fractures, 78

and hearing loss, 103

high blood pressure and, 34, 38

and vision loss, 104

Radiation caries, 126

RAND Corporation, 211-212

Randomized controlled trials, 59, 114, 276, 280

high blood pressure treatment, 39, 40-41, 42, 46

Reagan, Ronald, 292

Receptors, age and, 54-55

Recommendations

cancer screening, 150-151

depression, 217-219

falls, 280-284

high blood pressure treatment, 46-47

infections, 67, 68-69, 70, 71-72

medications, 60-62

nutrition, 184-185

oral health, 130-132

osteoporosis, 93-95

physical inactivity, 237-240

sensory loss, 113-115

smoking, 198-199

social isolation, 256-259

Recommended daily allowances, 90

Recommended Dietary Allowances, 161-162

Rectal cancer, 139-140, 145, 150-151

Rehabilitative therapies, 276

Reimbursement, 59-60

blood pressure screening, 47

psychiatric care, 215-216, 217

vaccination, 67, 68, 72

Relaxation therapy, 44

Renal function, 42, 54

End Stage Renal Disease Program, 293-294

nutrition and, 168, 176

Renin levels, 36

Research, 12, 13-15, 17, 18

cancer screening, 150-151

depression, 216-217, 218-219

drug effects, 58

exercise, 233-235, 238

falls, 272, 280-282, 284

high blood pressure, 47

infections, 72

medications, 60

nutrition, 184

oral health, 130-131

osteoporosis, 93-94

sensory loss, 113-114

smoking, 199

social support, 257-258

Reserpine, 39

Respiratory infections, 65

Retirement communities, 256

Rimantadine, 69

Risk factors, 13-15, 16, 17-18

blood pressure, 45-46

for bone loss, 85

for cancer, 127, 137

cardiovascular, 35-36, 166, 173

for caries, 122

for depression, 205-206

for falls, 84, 263, 269-274, 278-279, 281

for fractures, 82, 84, 89

infections, 65-66, 67, 69, 71

nutrition and, 167, 173

for osteoporosis, 91-93, 94

social isolation, 243, 248-249, 252, 256, 257

S

Salivary gland dysfunction, 120, 123-124, 125-126

Salmonella, 65, 70

Screening

blood pressure, 36-37

bone mass, 93

cancer, 136-137, 141-151

cholesterol, 173-174

glaucoma, 115

hearing impairment, 111-112

mental health, 216

nutritional, 164-165, 184

oral cancer, 127, 130

osteoporosis, 88, 95-97

triglyceride, 176

visual impairments, 111

Secondary osteoporosis, 83, 91-93

Secondary prevention, 111, 136

Select Committee on Aging, 179-180

Self-reports, 26

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, 11

Sensory loss

disabilities, 107-111

etiology, 103-107

and falls, 280

prevalence, 101-103

prevention of, 111-113

recommendations, 113-115

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Services

cancer screening, 150

depression, 217-218

exercise programs, 237-238

falls, 282-283

high blood pressure, 46

infections, 71

medication use, 60

nutritional, 184-185

oral health, 130

osteoporosis, 93

smoking, 198

social isolation, 256-257

Sexuality, and depression, 206

Sialoadenitis, 123

Sigmoidoscopy, 145, 147, 150-151

Single-photon absorptiometry, 86-88, 95, 96

Sjogren's syndrome, 123

Skin cancer screening, 145-146, 147, 150

Sleep disorders, 126, 206

Smoking, 131, 136, 177, 193-194

benefits of quitting, 175, 196-97

cessation techniques, 197

health effects, 194-196

and nutrition, 164, 169, 171

and oral diseases, 121, 127

and osteoporosis, 95

passive, 198

prevalence, 194

recommendations, 198-199

risk factor for bone loss, 92-93

Social insurance programs, 25, 26

Social interaction, 44, 123

Social isolation, 14

costs of, 246-247

defining, 243-244

and depression, 206

impairment, disability, and handicap, 247-251, 257

measuring, 244-246

prevalence of, 246

preventability of burden, 252-255

recommendations, 256-259

sensory loss and, 107-108, 112

Social Readjustment Rating Scale, 245

Social stressors, 205-206, 248

Socioeconomic status, 14, 213, 233

Sodium, 36, 44, 172

Sodium fluoride, 89

Stair use, 235, 236

Staphylococcus aureus, 70n

Streptoccus pneumoniae, 66

Stress, 248, 257

Stroke

hypertension and, 35, 38, 45, 56, 167

nutrition and, 158, 169

and risk of falls, 272

smoking and, 193, 194, 195

Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The (Kuhn), 317-318

Suicide, depression and, 205, 213-215

Surgery

cancer, 140

malnutrition and, 163

visual impairments, 112

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 137, 139

Systolic blood pressure, 33, 34, 35, 38, 45-46

Systolic/diastolic hypertension, 33, 34, 35, 36, 43, 45-46

treatment of, 37, 38-40, 44-45

Systolic hypertension, isolated, 33, 34, 35, 36, 45-46, 47

treatment of, 40-41, 45

Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program, 41

T

Tecumseh County Health Survey, 250

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, 126

Tetanus vaccine, 70

Thiazides, 43, 58

Three-Generation Black Family Study, 227

Thyroid disease, 107

Tinnitus, 57

Tooth loss, 77, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124-125, 181

Trauma

bone, 82, 84-85

tooth, 123

Trazadone, 209

Treatment.

See also Medications

adverse drug reactions, 55, 58-59, 60, 62

antibiotic, 66-67

bone loss, 94

cancer, 126, 136

depression, 202, 206-211, 215-216, 217, 219

high blood pressure, 35, 37-45, 46-47, 172

influenza, 68

nutritional, 160

nonpharmacological, 44, 47, 172, 184

vision loss, 105

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
×

Triamterene, 39, 43

Tricyclic antidepressants, 208-209, 210

Triglyceride screening, 176

Tuberculosis, 23, 65, 71

U

Ultrasound screening, 151

United States

cancer prevalence, 139

falls, deaths and injuries, 264, 265-266

dental care costs, 126-127

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 193

elderly population, 11, 82, 295-296

health care costs, 291-298, 305, 306

oral cancer deaths, 121

osteoporosis fractures, 76

smoking prevalence, 194

social insurance programs, 25, 26

suicides in, 213

United States Congress, 16, 216, 292

United States Postal Service, 180

United States Preventive Services Task Force, 14-15, 16, 93-94

United States Public Health Service, 14, 132, 224, 247

University of Minnesota, 307

Urinary tract infections, 65, 69

V

Vaccines

influenza, 68-69, 70, 71, 72

pneumococcal polysaccharide, 66-67, 70, 71

Vancomycin treatment, 70n

Vascular disease, 107, 177

Vascular resistance, 36

Ventricular hypertrophy, 35-36

Vertebral (spine) fractures, 77, 78, 81, 83-84, 86, 89, 92-93

Veterans Administration, 38, 39, 40, 215

Vision impairments, 101-102

disabilities, 107-108, 109-110

etiology, 103-105, 107

prevention, 111, 115

and risk of falls, 271

Vitamin A, 162

Vitamin D, 95, 171

alcohol use and, 93

and bone loss, 89, 90-91

Vitamin deficiencies, 89, 90-91, 170, 185

W

Weight

age and, 54

reduction, 44, 168, 170, 172, 177, 178

Wellbutrin, 209

Whites

bone mass, 85

and falling, 264

fracture risk, 94

high blood pressure, 34, 35

Women

bone loss, 83, 85, 86, 91-92

calcium RDA, 90

and cancer screening, 143, 144-145

cholesterol levels, 173, 174, 175

fractures, 77, 78, 88-89

hearing impairments, 102

high blood pressure, 35

life expectancy, 11

nutritional status, 181

oral health, 121, 123

osteoporosis, 58, 81-82, 95

physical inactivity, 225, 226, 233

risk of falling, 84, 264, 266

smoking rates, 194, 197

social supports and, 253

Workshop on Health Promotion and Aging, 283-284

Worksite, exercise promotion, 235

World Health Organization, 249, 299

International Classification of Diseases, 28, 282

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps , 22, 27-31, 228, 230, 247, 249, 311, 313, 314-317

Wrist (Colles) fractures, 77, 78, 81, 83-84, 86, 265-266

X

Xerostomia (dry mouth), 123-124, 125-126

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1578.
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The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability Get This Book
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Taking its title from the second 50 years of the human life span of about 100 years, this book presents wide-ranging and practical recommendations for health care providers, policymakers, and other sectors of society. These recommendations range from setting new national policies to changing the way elderly patients are interviewed in the doctor's office and from what exercises older persons should do to how city planners should design our urban environment.

The bulk of this volume presents the latest research on 13 major health threats to the elderly, covering prevalence, impact on the older person's life, cost, and intervention.

In addition, the authors provide a detailed analysis of why older people often do not receive the benefit of prevention programs.

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