Biographical Notes on Authors and Commentators
PAUL BERG earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Western Reserve University in 1952. After serving on the faculty at Washington University, Dr. Berg moved to Stanford, where he is presently Willson Professor of Biochemistry and director of the Medical School's Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine. His research uses biochemical molecular genetic approaches for the analysis of eukaryotic gene expression and recombination, basic knowledge for understanding, preventing, managing, and curing genetic diseases. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He is also a foreign member of the French Academy and the Japanese Biomedical Society. In 1980, Dr. Berg received the Albert Lasker Medical Award and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly recombinant DNA. He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1985.
PETER F. CARPENTER is a visiting scholar at the Center for Biomedical Ethics at Stanford. He is the retired president of the ALZA Development Corporation, former executive director of the Stanford University Medical Center, and deputy executive director of the U.S. Price Commission. He serves on a number of nonprofit foundation boards and is an advisor on institutional missions, values, and ethics.
R. ALTA CHARO is assistant professor of law and medical ethics at the University of Wisconsin Law and Medical Schools. She has also
served as a legal analyst for the Biological Applications Program of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and as an American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow in Science, Technology, and Diplomacy at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Prior to her joint appointment at the University of Wisconsin, Ms. Charo lectured in law at Columbia University in New York and at the Sorbonne in Paris.
JAMES F. CHILDRESS is the Edwin B. Kyle Professor of Religious Studies and professor of medical education at the University of Virginia, where he is also chairman of the Department of Religious Studies and principal of the Monroe Hill Residential College. He is the author of numerous articles and several books on biomedical ethics, including Principles of Biomedical Ethics (with Tom L. Beauchamp), Priorities in Biomedical Ethics, and Who Should Decide? Paternalism in Health Care. Formerly vice chairman of the national Task Force on Organ Transplantation, he serves on the Board of Directors of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and is a member of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee, and the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Hastings Center, and he has been the Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Professor of Christian Ethics at Georgetown University and a visiting professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School and Princeton University. He received his B.A. from Guilford College, his B.D. from Yale Divinity School, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University.
ROBERT MULLAN COOK-DEEGAN, is the director of the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Academy of Sciences. Prior to his appointment at the IOM, he was a senior research fellow at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University and an associate in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Johns Hopkins University. He was previously an outside consultant to the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Cook-Deegan served as the acting executive director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Congress from December1988 until October 1989. Before that, he was a senior associate at the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the U.S. Congress, where he worked for six years. While at OTA, he directed the project “Mapping our Genes—Genome Projects: How Big? How Fast?” and subsequently obtained an award from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to write a book on the science and politics of the human genome. He is currently at work on that book and on establishing a public archive of the material gathered for it, under a grant from the National Science Foundation.
LEON EISENBERG received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and did his internship at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. After a year as an instructor in physiology at the University of Pennsylvania and two years in the Army Medical Corps at Walter Reed Medical Center, he served as a resident in psychiatry at the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital and then as a fellow in child psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins Hospital under Professor Leo Kanner, whom he succeeded as chief of child psychiatry in 1961. His research interests include early infantile autism, the influence of the social environment on cognitive development, and the relationship between culture and mental disorder. He moved to Harvard in 1967 as chief of psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, later becoming chairman of the Executive Committee of the Harvard Department of Psychiatry and Presley Professor of Psychiatry. In 1980, he assumed the chair of the newly created Department of Social Medicine, which brings the disciplines of anthropology, history, sociology, economics, political science, and law to bear on research and teaching in medicine.
DONALD S. FREDRICKSON, a graduate of the University of Michigan, began a career in biomedical research at Harvard Medical School before he moved to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1953. After many years in both clinical and laboratory research and several leadership posts in the National Heart Institute, he became president of the Institute of Medicine in 1974. A year later, however, he returned to NIH to become its director (“just in time to reap the whirlwind from Asilomar”) and to accept responsibility for the establishment of the NIH Guidelines for Recombinant DNA Research as the rules for conduct of genetic engineering in the United States. Resigning the directorship of NIH in 1981, Dr. Fredrickson later became president and chief executive officer of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. At present, he divides his time between consulting and scholarship, including historical research and writing as a Scholar of the National Library of Medicine.
CARL W. GOTTSCHALK is a career investigator of the American Heart Association and Kenan Professor of Medicine and Physiology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He is a renal physiologist and has made extensive use of micropuncture techniques in his research. He has been interested in public policy issues involving care of patients with renal disease and chaired the Bureau of the Budget's Committee on Chronic Kidney Disease. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
KATHI E. HANNA is a senior analyst and project director at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). She came to the
Institute of Medicine in March 1989 to direct this project and then returned to OTA in late 1990 to participate in assessments of biotechnology in a global economy, basic research for the 1990s, and the implications of population screening for cystic fibrosis. Dr. Hanna is also directing an assessment of the effects of estrogen deficiency on the health of women. Her previous work at OTA consists of science policy studies on such topics as demographics and the scientific work force, the regulatory environment for science, and research funding as an investment. Prior to her work at OTA, she was a science associate at the American Psychological Association, where she was responsible for oversight of policies related to the protection of human participants in research and policies on animal research, and the genetics coordinator at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Dr. Hanna received her A.B. in biology from Lafayette College, an M.S. in human genetics from Sarah Lawrence College, and a doctorate from the School of Business and Public Management, George Washington University. Her thesis focused on the use of analytical information by policymakers.
WALTER HARRELSON is Distinguished Professor of Hebrew Bible, emeritus, at Vanderbilt University and former dean of its Divinity School. He has written extensively on contemporary ethical questions, on interreligious dialogue, and on the relationship of religion and political life. He lectures widely on these questions as well as on the import of biblical religion for contemporary life. His books include The Ten Commandments and Human Rights (1980) and Jews and Christians: A Troubled Family (1990, with Rabbi Randall M. Falk).
WILLIAM HUBBARD, JR., received his baccalaureate degree from Columbia University after having completed the first two years of medical school at the University of North Carolina. From 1944 to 1959 he was a house officer and faculty member at New York University-Bellevue Medical Center. From 1959 to 1970 he was dean of the medical school of the University of Michigan. From 1970 through 1984 Dr. Hubbard was president of the Upjohn Company; he is now retired. Previously, he was a trustee of Columbia University, a member and chairman of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine, a member of the National Science Board of the National Science Foundation, and president of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Dr. Hubbard is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a trustee of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.
PATRICIA A. KING is professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. She is a graduate of Wheaton College (1963) and Harvard Law School (1969). She specializes in family law and the relationship between biomedical ethics, law, and public policy, particularly reproduction. Professor King has served on numerous public bodies con-
cerning biomedicine and public policy. They include the National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel.
JEFFREY LEVI is a Washington-based health policy consultant. With degrees in government from Oberlin College and Cornell University, he has worked on AIDS policy issues for organizations such as the Institute of Medicine, Gay Men's Health Crisis, and AIDS Action Council. From 1983 to 1989, he served as political director and executive director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, where he was chief lobbyist and spokesperson on AIDS and gay/lesbian civil rights issues. He has testified on AIDS policy issues before numerous congressional committees and served on various government advisory bodies.
ERNEST R. MAY is an authority on American diplomatic history and he has been a professor of history since 1963. He was dean of Harvard College from 1969 to 1971 and acting associate dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard during the academic year 1971-1972. He was director of the Institute of Politics from 1971 to 1974 and chairman of the Department of History from 1976 to 1979. In 1981, he was named Charles Warren Professor of History. Professor May received his A.B. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been a consultant at various times to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Smithsonian Institution, and various committees of the Congress. He is currently chairman of the Board of Visitors of the Defense Intelligence College. His publications in the areas of history and diplomacy are numerous.
DOROTHY NELKIN holds a university professorship at New York University, where she is also professor of sociology and affiliated professor in the School of Law. Her research focuses on controversial areas of science, technology, and medicine as a means of understanding their social and political implications and the relationship of science to the public. This work includes studies of antiscience movements, the social impact of new technologies, public policies concerning science and medicine, and media communication of science and risk. Most recently she has examined the social and ethical implications of the diagnostic tests that are emerging from research in genetics and the neurosciences. She has served on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS. She is currently a
member of the Board of Medicine in the Public Interest and of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing. She has been a Guggenheim fellow, a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Clare Boothe Luce Visiting Professor at New York University. Her books include Controversy: The Politics of Technical Decisions; Science as Intellectual Property; The Creations Controversy; Workers at Risk; Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology; A Disease of Society: The Cultural Impact of AIDS (with D. Willis), and Dangerous Diagnostics: The Social Power of Biological Information (with L. Tancredi).
STANLEY JOEL REISER is the Griff T. Ross Professor of Humanities and Technology in Health Care at the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston. He received his education at Columbia University (A.B.), the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center (M.D.), and Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (Ph.D.). His first academic post was on the faculty of Harvard University, holding appointments in the Medical School and the College, and also at Massachusetts General Hospital. His teaching and research centered on the humanistic and technological dimensions of health care. In 1982 he moved to Houston to become professor and director of the Program on Humanities and Technology in Health Care. His publications include Medicine and the Reign of Technology, Ethics in Medicine, and The Machine at the Bedside. He is currently co-editor of the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care.
RICHARD A. RETTIG joined the professional staff of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Academy of Sciences, in 1987, first as director of the Council on Health Care Technology and more recently as director of the IOM study of the end-stage renal disease program of Medicare. Dr. Rettig received his bachelor's degree from the University of Washington in 1958 and his Ph.D. in political science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1967. He has worked for the federal government and for the state of New Jersey, and he has held academic appointments at Cornell University, Ohio State University, and the Illinois Institute of Technology. Dr. Rettig was a senior social scientist with the RAND Corporation from 1975 through 1981 and has written extensively about the Medicare end-stage renal disease program and medical technology. He is the author of Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971.
PAUL SLOVIC is president of Decision Research of Eugene, Oregon, and a professor of psychology at the University of Oregon. During the past 15 years, Dr. Slovic and his associates have developed methods for describing risk perceptions and measuring their impacts on individuals, industry, and society. Their work has included creation of a taxonomic
system to understand and predict perceived risk, attitudes toward regulation, and impacts resulting from accidents or failures. Dr. Slovic has been a consultant to numerous companies and government agencies. He is a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and a past president of the Society for Risk Analysis.