THE CROATIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS
Founded in 1861, the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the highest scientific and artistic institution in the Republic of Croatia.
The founder of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, bishop of Đakovo and Srijem, whose proposal to found the Academy of Sciences was unanimously approved by the Croatian Parliament in April 1861. Bishop Strossmayer was elected the patron of the Academy and the historian Canon Franjo Rački the first president. This national academy of sciences and arts took the name Accademia Slavorum Meridionalium (of the South Slavs).
The Academy promotes and organizes scientific research and encourages the application of the findings of this research, develops artistic and cultural activities, and is concerned with Croatian cultural heritage and its affirmation throughout the world. It also publishes the results of scientific research and artistic creation and makes proposals and gives its opinion on the promotion of sciences and arts in the fields that are of special importance to the Republic of Croatia.
The Croatian Academy’s scientific and artistic activities are carried out through its nine departments (I—Department of Social Sciences, II—Department of Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences, III—Department of Natural Sciences, IV—Department of Medical Sciences, V—Department of Philological Sciences, VI—Department of Literature, VII—Department of Fine Arts, VIII—Department of Music and Musicology, and IX—Department of Technical Sciences), as well as through its
scientific councils and committees. The research is performed through the scientific and research units (institutes) of the Croatian Academy in Zagreb and other Croatian towns. The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts collaborates with other academies of sciences and arts, international scientific organizations, universities, scientific institutions, state bodies, cultural and other institutions, as well as with individual scholars and artists from Croatia and abroad.
The main bodies of the Academy are the Assembly, which includes all full members of the Academy, the Presidency, the executive body of the Assembly, which consists of the Management Board members, secretaries of the departments, and five full members of the Academy.
The Academy consists of honorary, full, corresponding, and associate members. Full members reserve the right to bear the title of Fellow of the Croatian Academy (F.C.A.), and they are part of the permanent working structure of the Academy.
The Croatian Academy may elect as honorary members, persons who are exceptionally meritorious for the development and progress of sciences and arts. Among its deceased members, we should mention the Nobel Laureates Lavoslav Ružička, Vladimir Prelog, Ivo Andrić, and Linus Pauling; Nikola Tesla, world famous scientist and inventor; Vlaho Bukovac, famous Croatian painter; Ivan Meštrović, world famous sculptor; and Andrija Štampar, founder of the World Health Organization; Dmitrij Ivanovič Mendeljejev; and numerous other world-renowned scientists and artists.
The managment board of the Academy for the period from 2011 to 2014 consists of the President, Professor Zvonko Kusić; two vice-presidents, Professor Velimir Neidhardt and Professor Jakša Barbić; Secretary-General, Professor Pavao Rudan; and Secretary, Marina Štancl.
More information is available at http://info.hazu.hr/.
THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES (IUMS)
The Union is one of the 31 Scientific Unions of the International Council of Science (ICSU). It was founded in 1927 as the International Society of Microbiology, and became the International Association of Microbiological Societies affiliated with the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) as a Division in 1967. It acquired independence in 1980 and became a Union Member of ICSU in 1982.
The objectives of the Union are to promote the study of microbiological sciences internationally: initiate, facilitate, and coordinate research and other scientific activities that involve international cooperation; ensure the discussion and dissemination of the results of international conferences,
symposia, and meetings and assist in the publication of their reports; represent microbiological sciences in ICSU; and maintain contact with other international organizations. The major goal of IUMS is to promote research and the open exchange of scientific information for advancement of the health and welfare of humankind and the environment and it strongly discourages any uses of knowledge and resources to the contrary. In particular, the IUMS strives to promote ethical conduct of research and training in the areas of biosecurity and biosafety so as to prevent use of microorganisms as biological weapons and therefore to protect the public’s health and to promote world peace. IUMS seeks that all its member societies adopt or develop a Code of Ethics to prevent misuse of scientific knowledge and resources. The scientific activities of the Union are conducted by the three Divisions of Bacteriology & Applied Microbiology (BAM), Mycology, and Virology and by six specialist international committees, eight international commissions, and two international federations. Their major activities include the classification and nomenclature of bacteria, fungi, and viruses; food microbiology; medical microbiology and diagnostics; culture collections; education; and biological standardization. The Divisions are responsible for the organization of their International Congresses (International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology, International Congress of Mycology, and International Congress of Virology), and the committees, commissions, and federations organize their own meetings.
More information is available at http://www.iums.org/.
THE ROYAL SOCIETY
The Royal Society is a self-governing fellowship of many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering, and medicine.
The Society’s fundamental purpose, reflected in its founding charters of the 1660s, is to recognize, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity.
The Society has played a part in some of the most fundamental, significant, and life-changing discoveries in scientific history, and Royal Society scientists continue to make outstanding contributions to science in many research areas.
The Royal Society is the national academy of science in the United Kingdom, and its core is its Fellowship and Foreign Membership, supported by a dedicated staff in London and elsewhere. The Fellowship comprises the most eminent scientists of the United Kingdom, Ireland,
and the Commonwealth. Its current president is Sir Paul Nurse, a geneticist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2001.
A major activity of the Society is identifying and supporting the work of outstanding scientists. The Society supports researchers through its early and senior career schemes, innovation and industry schemes, and other schemes.
The Society facilitates interaction and communication among scientists via its discussion meetings, and disseminates scientific advances through its journals. The Society also engages beyond the research community, through independent policy work, the promotion of high-quality science education and communication with the public.
The Royal Society’s Science Policy Centre provides independent, timely, and authoritative scientific advice to U.K., European, and international decision makers. It champions the contribution that science and innovation can make to economic prosperity, quality of life, and environmental sustainability and is a hub for debate about science, society, and public policy.
More information is available at www.royalsociety.org.
THE U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMIES
The National Academies of the United States comprise four organizations: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appro-
priate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Cicerone and Dr. Mote are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
More information is available at http://www.national-academies.org.