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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

9 Committtee on Acutee Exposure G Guideline Leevels Committeee on Toxicoology Board on n Environmeental Studiess and Toxicoology Division D on Earth E and Liffe Studies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, NW WASHINGTON, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. W81K04-11-D-0017 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, con- clusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-36894-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-36894-4 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

The Na ational Academy of Sciences iss a private, nonpprofit, self-perpeetuating societyy of distingu uished scholars engaged in scieentific and enginneering researchh, dedicated to the furtheraance of science and a technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authoritty of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acadeemy has a manddate that req quires it to advisse the federal goovernment on sccientific and techhnical matters. D Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is preesident of the Naational Academyy of Sciences. The Nattional Academy y of Engineering was establisheed in 1964, undeer the charter of the Nationaal Academy of Sciences, S as a paarallel organizattion of outstandiing engineers. Itt is autonom mous in its adm ministration and in i the selection of its memberss, sharing with tthe Nationaal Academy of Sciences S the ressponsibility for advising the feederal governmeent. The Naational Academy y of Engineerin ng also sponsorss engineering pprograms aimedd at meeting g national needs, encourages edu ucation and reseearch, and recoggnizes the superrior achievements of engineeers. Dr. C. D. Mote, M Jr., is pressident of the Nattional Academyy of Engineeering. The Insstitute of Mediccine was established in 1970 by tthe National Accademy of Sciencces to securre the services of o eminent memb bers of appropri ate professions in the examinatiion of policcy matters pertaiining to the heaalth of the publiic. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to thee National Acaddemy of Sciencess by its congresssional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, a upon its owwn initiative, too identify issues of medicall care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzzau is presidentt of the Institutee of Medicin ne. The National Research h Council was organized o by thee National Acadeemy of Sciencess in 1916 too associate the broad b community y of science andd technology w with the Academyy’s purposees of furthering knowledge and advising the feederal governmeent. Functioningg in accordaance with generaal policies deterrmined by the A Academy, the Coouncil has become the prin ncipal operating agency a of both the t National Acaademy of Sciencces and the Natioon- al Acaddemy of Engineeering in providin ng services to thhe government, tthe public, and tthe scientifiic and engineerring communitiees. The Councill is administereed jointly by booth Academ mies and the Insttitute of Medicin ne. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and D Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chaiir and vice chair,, respectively, off the National Reesearch Councill. www.natiional-academies.oorg

COMMITTEE ON ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS Members EDWARD C. BISHOP (Chair), HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE DEEPAK K. BHALLA, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI LUNG CHI CHEN, New York University, Tuxedo KATHLEEN L. GABRIELSON, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD GUNNAR JOHANSON, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden MARGARET M. MACDONELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL DAVID A. MACYS, U.S. Department of the Navy (retired), Oak Harbor, WA MARIA T. MORANDI, University of Montana, Missoula LEENA A. NYLANDER-FRENCH, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC FRANZ OESCH, University of Mainz (retired), Mainz, Germany NU-MAY RUBY REED, California Environmental Protection Agency (retired), Davis GEORGE C. RODGERS, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ROBERT SNYDER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ KENNETH R. STILL, Portland State University, Portland, OR Staff SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects Sponsor U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE v

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Members DAVID C. DORMAN (Chair), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC DEEPAK K. BHALLA, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI VICTORIA A. CASSANO, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield, MA DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY MARY E. DAVIS, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV B. BHASKAR GOLLAPUDI, Exponent, Inc., Midland, MI TERRANCE J. KAVANAGH, University of Washington, Seattle, WA JAMES E. LOCKEY, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH MARGARET M. MACDONELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL MARTIN A. PHILBERT, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI IVAN I. RUSYN, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX KENNETH R. STILL, Portland State University, Portland, OR Staff SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate vi

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM PRAVEEN AMAR, Independent Consultant, Lexington, MA RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC MICHAEL J. BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA JONATHAN Z. CANNON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GAIL CHARNLEY ELLIOTT, HealthRisk Strategies, Washington, DC DOMINIC M. DI TORO, University of Delaware Newark, DE DAVID C. DORMAN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, New York WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY ROBERT A. HIATT, University of California, San Francisco PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario H. SCOTT MATTHEWS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley TERRY L. MEDLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI GINA M. SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA PETER S. THORNE, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent, Bellevue, WA Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Senior Director ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar and Director of Risk Assessment RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects vii

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Review of California’s Risk-Assessment Process for Pesticides (2015) Rethinking the Components, Coordination, and Management of the US Environmental Protection Agency Laboratories (2014) Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making, Tools and Approaches for the US Environmental Protection Agency (2014) Review of the Styrene Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (2014) Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (2014) Review of EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process (2014) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s State-of-the-Science Evaluation of Nonmonotonic Dose–Response Relationships as They Apply to Endocrine Disruptors (2014) Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides (2013) Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead (2012) Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy (2012) A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials (2012) Macondo Well–Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012) Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011) Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011) A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug Administration (2011) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011) Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change (2010) The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010) Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2009) Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune—Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009) Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009) Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009) Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008) Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008) Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008) Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008) Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007) Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007) Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007) viii

Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007) Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (eighteen volumes, 2000-2014) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu ix

OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Potential Health Risks to DOD Firing-Range Personnel from Recurrent Lead Exposure (2012) Review of Studies of Possible Toxic Effects from Past Environmental Contamination at Fort Detrick: A Letter Report (2012) Review of Risk Assessment Work Plan for the Medical Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Facility at Fort Detrick, A Letter Report (2011) Assistance to the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command with Preparation of a Risk Assessment for the Medical Countermeasures Test and Evaluation (MCMT&E) Facility at Fort Detrick, Maryland, A Letter Report (2011) Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report (2010) Evaluation of the Health and Safety Risks of the New USAMRIID High-Containment Facilities at Fort Detrick, Maryland (2010) Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations: Final Report (2008) Managing Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure (2008) Review of Toxicologic and Radiologic Risks to Military Personnel from Exposures to Depleted Uranium (2008) Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants, Volume 1 (2007), Volume 2 (2008) Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005) Review of the Army's Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel (2004) Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004), Volume 2 (2007), Volume 3 (2008) Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003) Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002) Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001) Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002), Volume 3 (2003), Volume 4 (2004), Volume 5 (2007), Volume 6 (2008), Volume 7 (2009), Volume 8 (2009), Volume 9 (2010), Volume 10 (2011), Volume 11 (2012), Volume 13 (2012), Volume 14 (2013), Volume 15 (2013), Volume 16 (2014), Volume 17 (2014), Volume 18 (2014) Review of the U.S. Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000) Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000) Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000) Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000) x

Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999) Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1(1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999) Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998) Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996) Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000), Volume 5 (2008) xi

Preface Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)1 can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving rail- road cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation’s railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthoriza- tion Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identi- fied approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents. As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substanc- es in 1993. Subsequently, Standard Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances was published in 2001, providing updated procedures, methodologies, and other guidelines used by the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in developing the AEGL values. Using the 1993 and 2001 NRC guidelines reports, the NAC—consisting of members from EPA, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of En- ergy (DOE), the Department of Transportation (DOT), other federal and state governments, the chemical industry, academia, and other organizations from the private sector—has developed AEGLs for more than 270 EHSs. In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology (COT) the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared this report. This report is the nineteenth volume in that 1 As defined pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. xiii

xiv Preface series. AEGL documents for the cyanide salts, diketene, methacrylaldehyde, pen- taborane, tellurium hexafluoride, and tetrafluoroethylene are each published as an appendix in this report. The committee concludes that the AEGLs developed in these appendixes are scientifically valid conclusions based on the data reviewed by NAC and are consistent with the NRC guideline reports. The committee’s review of the AEGL documents involved both oral and written presentations to the committee by the authors of the documents. The committee examined the draft documents and provided comments and recom- mendations for how they could be improved in a series of interim reports. The authors revised the draft AEGL documents based on the advice in the interim reports and presented them for reexamination by the committee as many times as necessary until the committee was satisfied that the AEGLs were scientifical- ly justified and consistent with the 1993 and 2001 NRC guideline reports. After these determinations have been made for an AEGL document, it is published as an appendix in a volume such as this one. The interim report of the committee that led to this report was reviewed in draft form by individuals selected for their diverse perspectives and technical ex- pertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and criti- cal comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivi- ty, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of the com- mittee interim report, which summarize the committee’s conclusions and recom- mendations for improving NAC’s AEGL documents A. Wallace Hayes (Harvard School of Public Health), Sam Kacew (University of Ottawa), and Judith Zelikoff (New York University). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of this volume before its re- lease. The review of the interim report was overseen by Robert Goyer (Universi- ty of Western Ontario [retired]). Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the interim report was car- ried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this re- port rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by Ernest Falke and Iris A. Camacho from EPA. The committee also acknowl- edges Susan Martel, the project director for her work this project. Other staff members who contributed to this effort are James J. Reisa (director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology), Radiah Rose (manager of editorial projects), Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic (manager of the Technical Information

Preface xv Center), and Tamara Dawson (program associate). Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the development of this report. Edward C. Bishop, Chair Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

DEDICATION The Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels dedicates this volume to our late colleague Dr. Donald E. Gardner. Don was a member of the committee for 12 years, and served as chair for 8 of those years. He was a distinguished toxicologist, respected leader, and valued friend.

Contents NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE REVIEW OF ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR SELECTED AIRBORNE CHEMICALS .............................. 3 APPENDIXES 1 CYANIDE SALTS .................................................................................. 13 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 2 DIKETENE ............................................................................................. 41 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 3 METHACRYLALDEHYDE ................................................................. 62 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 4 PENTABORANE ................................................................................... 86 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 5 TELLURIUM HEXAFLUORIDE ...................................................... 139 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 6 TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE ........................................................... 163 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels xix

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Extremely hazardous substances can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where these substances are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 19 identifies, reviews, and interprets relevant toxicologic and other scientific data for selected AEGL documents for cyanide salts, diketene, methacrylaldehyde, pentaborane, tellurium hexafluoride, and tetrafluoroethylene in order to develop acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for these high-priority, acutely toxic chemicals.

AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three levels - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 - are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

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