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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
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Interim Report on 21st Century
Cyber-Physical Systems Education

Committee on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                        OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS    500 Fifth Street, NW    Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under award number CNS-1341078. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
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OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE COMPUTER
SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture (2015)

Bulk Collection of Signals Intelligence: Technical Options at the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues (2015)

Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues (2014)

Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps (2013)

Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce? Criteria for Future Decision-Making (2013)

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps (2013)

Continuing Innovation in Information Technology (2012)

Computing Research for Sustainability (2012)

The Safety Challenge and Promise of Automotive Electronics: Insights from Unintended Acceleration (2012, with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the Transportation Research Board)

Strategies and Priorities for Information Technology at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2011)

The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level? (2011)

Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options (2011)

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps (2011)

Limited copies of CSTB reports are available free of charge from:

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

National Research Council

The Keck Center of the National Academies

500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

(202) 334-2605/cstb@nas.edu

www.cstb.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

COMMITTEE ON 21ST CENTURY CYBER-
PHYSICAL SYSTEMS EDUCATION

JOHN A. (JACK) STANKOVIC, University of Virginia, Co-Chair

JAMES (JIM) STURGES, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Co-Chair

ALEXANDRE BAYEN, University of California, Berkeley

CHARLES R. FARRAR, Los Alamos National Laboratory

MARYE ANNE FOX, University of California, San Diego

SANTIAGO GRIJALVA, Georgia Institute of Technology

HIMANSHU KHURANA, Honeywell International, Inc.

PANGANAMALA R. (PR) KUMAR, Texas A&M University, College Station

INSUP LEE, University of Pennsylvania

WILLIAM MILAM, Ford Motor Company

SANJOY K. MITTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOSÉ M.F. MOURA, Carnegie Mellon University

GEORGE J. PAPPAS, University of Pennsylvania

PAULO TABUADA, University of California, Los Angeles

MANUELA M. VELOSO, Carnegie Mellon University

Staff

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer, Study Director

SHENAE BRADLEY, Senior Program Assistant

JON EISENBERG, Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

ROBERT F. SPROULL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair

LUIZ ANDRE BARROSO, Google, Inc.

STEVEN M. BELLOVIN, Columbia University

ROBERT F. BRAMMER, Brammer Technology, LLC

EDWARD FRANK, Apple, Inc.

SEYMOUR E. GOODMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology

LAURA HAAS, IBM Corporation

MARK HOROWITZ, Stanford University

FARNAM JAHANIAN, Carnegie Mellon University

MICHAEL KEARNS, University of Pennsylvania

ROBERT KRAUT, Carnegie Mellon University

SUSAN LANDAU, Google, Inc.

PETER LEE, Microsoft Corporation

DAVID E. LIDDLE, US Venture Partners

BARBARA LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, Cornell University

JOHN STANKOVIC, University of Virginia

JOHN A. SWAINSON, Dell, Inc.

ERNEST J. WILSON, University of Southern California

KATHERINE YELICK, University of California, Berkeley

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer

SHENAE BRADLEY, Senior Program Assistant

EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer

RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager

For more information on CSTB, see its website at http://www.cstb.org; write to CSTB, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; call (202) 334-2605; or email CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

Preface

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are increasingly relied on to provide functionality and value to products, systems, and infrastructure in sectors including transportation (aviation, automotive, rail, and marine), health care, manufacturing, and electrical power generation and distribution. CPS are smart, networked systems with embedded sensors, computer processors, and actuators that sense and interact with the physical world (including people); support real-time, guaranteed performance; and are often found in critical applications. Cyber-physical systems have the potential to provide much richer functionality, including efficiency, flexibility, autonomy, and reliability, than systems that are loosely coupled, discrete, or manually operated, but also can create vulnerability related to security and reliability. Advances in CPS could yield systems that can communicate and respond faster than humans (e.g., autonomous collision avoidance for automobiles) or more precisely (e.g., robotic surgery); enable better control and coordination of large-scale systems, such as the electrical grid or traffic controls; improve the efficiency of systems (e.g., “smart buildings”); and enable advances in many areas of science. As CPS become more pervasive, so too will demand for a workforce with the capacity and capability to design, develop, and maintain them.

Building on its research program in CPS, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has begun to explore requirements for education and training. As part of that exploration, NSF asked the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies to study the topic and prepare interim and final reports examining the need for and content of a cyber-physical

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

BOX P.1 Statement of Task

An ad hoc committee will conduct a study on the current and future needs in education for cyber-physical systems (CPS). Two workshops would be convened early on to gather input and foster dialogue, and a brief interim report would be prepared to highlight emerging themes and summarize related discussions from the workshops. The committee’s final report would articulate a vision for a 21st century CPS-capable U.S. workforce. It would explore the corresponding educational requirements, examine efforts already under way, and propose strategies and programs to develop faculty and teachers, materials, and curricula. It would consider core, cross-domain, and domain-specific knowledge. It would consider the multiple disciplines that are relevant to CPS and how to foster multi-disciplinary study and work. In conducting the study, the committee would focus on undergraduate education and also consider implications for graduate education, workforce training and certification, community colleges, the K-12 pipeline, and informal education. It would emphasize the skills needed for the CPS scientific, engineering, and technical workforce but would also consider broader needs for CPS “fluency.”

systems education. The committee’s statement of task is provided in Box P.1. The results of this study are intended to inform those who might support efforts to develop curricula and materials (such as NSF), faculty and university administrators, industries with needs for CPS workers, and current and potential students about intellectual foundations, opportunities, and curricular needs.

To gather perspectives on these topics, the Committee on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education, appointed by the NRC, convened two workshops (on April 30, 2014, and October 2-3, 2014, in Washington, D.C.) and received briefings from additional experts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on June 26, 2014, via teleconference. Chapter 1 summarizes material presented at the workshops and in the briefings. The committee has also conducted initial deliberations and identified several emerging themes, which are discussed in Chapter 2. Following issuance of this interim report, the committee will continue its information gathering and deliberations and issue its final report providing its findings and recommendations later in 2015.

Jack Stankovic and Jim Sturges, Co-Chairs

Committee on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Ella Atkins, University of Michigan,

Bernd Girod, Stanford University,

Scott A. Hareland, Medtronic, Inc.,

Chenyang Lu, Washington University in St. Louis,

Douglas A. Stuart, Boeing Company,

Janos Sztipanovits, Vanderbilt University,

Daniel Weihs, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology,

Yannis Yortsos, University of Southern California, and

Feng Zhao, Microsoft Research Asia, Microsoft Corporation.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
×

before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21762.
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Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are increasingly relied on to provide the functionality and value to products, systems, and infrastructure in sectors including transportation, health care, manufacturing, and electrical power generation and distribution. CPS are smart, networked systems with embedded sensors, computer processors, and actuators that sense and interact with the physical world; support real-time, guaranteed performance; and are often found in critical applications. Cyber-physical systems have the potential to provide much richer functionality, including efficiency, flexibility, autonomy, and reliability, than systems that are loosely coupled, discrete, or manually operated, but also can create vulnerability related to security and reliability. Advances in CPS could yield systems that can communicate and respond faster than humans; enable better control and coordination of large-scale systems, such as the electrical grid or traffic controls; improve the efficiency of systems; and enable advances in many areas of science. As CPS become more pervasive, so too will demand for a workforce with the capacity and capability to design, develop, and maintain them.

Building on its research program in CPS, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has begun to explore requirements for education and training. As part of that exploration, NSF asked the National Research Council of the National Academies to study the topic. Two workshops were convened in 2014, on April 30 and October 2-3 in Washington, D.C., to explore the knowledge and skills required for CPS work, education, and training requirements and possible approaches to retooling engineering and computer science programs and curricula to meet these needs. Interim Report on 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education highlights emerging themes and summarizes related discussions from the workshops.

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