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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22154.
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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 804 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation Joshua Proudfoot David Ponder Good Company Eugene, Oregon Doug Tindall BdH LLC Corvallis, Oregon Donald Wysocki oreGon State UniverSity Corvallis, Oregon Subscriber Categories Energy  •  Environment TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org  Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 804 Project 25-35 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-30856-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2015936166 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 804 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher Hedges, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program David A. Reynaud, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 25-35 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Impact Analysis Keith Alan Robinson, California DOT, Sacramento, CA (Chair) John Zamurs, ZAMuRS AND ASSOCIATES, LLC, Slingerlands, NY Craig Churchward, Avenue Design Partners, Minneapolis, MN Stephen D. Earsom, uS Fish & Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD Bill R. Kirwin, Kirwin & Company, Austin, TX Jonathan Rubin, university of Maine, Orono, ME Ted M. Sherrod, North Carolina DOT (retired), Raleigh, NC Robert A. Younie, Iowa DOT, Ames, IA Bruce H. Bradley, FHWA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 25-35 by Good Company of Eugene, Oregon. The research team is grateful for the direction and advice provided by the NCHRP 25-35 Panel. Primary authors include: • Joshua Proudfoot M.A.Ed., Principal of Good Company and the Principal Investigator • David Ponder M.P.A., Associate at Good Company • Doug Tindall P.E., Deputy Director of Oregon Department of Transportation—retired • Don Wysocki Ph.D., Associate Professor at Oregon State University Contributors of research, analysis and editing include: • Sasha Luftig B.A., Lane Transit District • Tracy Sagal M.B.A., Associate at Good Company • Jin Qiu M.P.A., Associate at Good Company • Aaron Toneys B.S., Associate at Good Company • Mark Kendall M.A., Principal at Kendall Energy Consulting • Grant Kendall M.B.A., Associate at Kendall Energy Consulting • Joshua Skov M.A. Thank you to these professionals for their contributions as prac- titioner advisors: • Allison Hamilton, Program Manager, Oregon Solar Highway Pro- gram, Oregon Department of Transportation Office of Innovative Partnerships and Funding • George Gerstle, MRP, Transportation Director of Boulder County, Colorado • Scott Eidson, Senior Analyst, 3Degrees • Ian McGowan, Senior Manager, Strategy and Analysis, 3Degrees • Jack Hoeck, Vice President of Environmental Services, Rexius • Matt Veal Ph.D., Assistant Professor at North Carolina State University • Dennis Markwardt, Director of Vegetation Management, Texas Department of Transportation • Carson Poe M.A., Transportation Industry Analyst, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

This report provides a Guidebook and Toolkit that describes the state of the practice of using highway rights-of-way (ROWs) vegetation for carbon sequestration and biomass gen- eration for use as feedstock for biopower and biofuel production. This Guidebook merges the knowledge of market conditions and regulations for environmental commodities that are energy- and/or greenhouse-gas based, regulations governing the highway ROWs for com- mercial or revenue purposes, the best practices of highway vegetation management and agronomic practices for raising feedstock crops for carbon sequestration, biopower, and biofuels. The Guidebook and Feasibility Toolkit will be useful to operations and maintenance managers, vegetation managers, alternative finance officers, and environmental managers seeking to extract greater financial and environmental value from roadside vegetation. At the time of this research, an FHWA Carbon Sequestration Pilot Project estimated that the National Highway System had nearly 5 million acres of ROW in vegetation or that could be in vegetation for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Given that operations and mainte- nance personnel already dedicate significant time and resources to vegetation management for roadway integrity, habitat, native plant restoration, invasive plant reduction, aesthetics, water quality, and erosion control, the question remained whether or not the DOTs could leverage this effort for additional greenhouse gas benefit. Given also that ROWs often need mowing and significant vegetation removal, the concept of selling the material for bioen- ergy and biofuels feedstocks seemed to be another way to leverage resources, reduce costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the production of lower carbon electricity and fuels. Concurrent with this research was a rise in voluntary carbon markets, regional and state regulations, and executive orders requiring increases in renewable energy and fuels (includ- ing those from bio-based feedstocks). Also during this time, the value of the Gas Tax for the Highway Trust Fund was eroding and fuel and energy prices were high. During the research, there were dramatic developments in domestic methane extraction and the EPA issued rules for boilers, process heaters, and incinerators that regulated biomass carbon emissions arrived. Also at the beginning of the research, a national cap and trade system for greenhouse gas emissions seemed imminent and the arrival of lower cost natural gas and the uncertainty of EPA’s stance on bio-power changed the tone of the market. Good Company was selected to answer the question of whether or not roadside vegeta- tion could be raised to reduce atmospheric carbon and generate a net financial improve- ment for the ROW operators. The researchers surveyed the literature to identify all existing pilot projects with similar goals in ROWs of all kinds, including power, water, and gas transmission corridors. Following the literature review, the research team interviewed DOT By David A. Reynaud Staff Officer Transportation Research Board F O R E W O R D

personnel, greenhouse gas regulators, carbon and energy brokers, agronomists, equipment vendors, alternative fuel producers, and biopower producers to understand the complete supply chain of the markets involved. The researchers also studied the legal and safety frameworks of ROW operators. At the time this research was conducted, the team found that while technically feasible, the market conditions were not conducive to cost reduction or new revenue sources. The resulting report, Guidebook, and Feasibility Toolkit* will help interested DOT or ROW personnel evaluate the technical and financial feasibility of ROW carbon sequestration or biomass generation projects that are specific to the resources and regional context of their agencies. *Notice to readers regarding the CD accompanying this report, CRP-CD-165: the CD menu will only open in Silverlight-compatible browsers. If your browser does not have the Silverlight plugin installed, you will be prompted to install or activate the plugin. See the readme file on the disk for further information.

1  Summary 3 Chapter 1  Primer on DOT Management Considerations 3 Overview 3 Motorist Safety 6 Asset Management 6 Environment 7 Other Regulations and Policies 8 Programmatic Considerations 10 Chapter 2  The Carbon Offset Market: A Primer for DOTs 10 Overview 11 What Is Carbon Sequestration? 12 Carbon Offset Markets, Standards, and Protocols 16 Project Development and Origination Process 23 Existing Protocols and Methodologies 26 Feasibility Toolkit 27 Chapter 3  The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 27 Overview 28 Direct Combustion for Heat and Power 30 Direct Combustion Feedstocks Potentially Applicable to Highway ROWs 32 Biomass for Transportation Fuels 33 Biofuel Feedstocks Potentially Applicable to Highway ROWs 36 Emerging Technologies 37 Initial Feasibility Assessment 42 Feasibility Toolkit 43 Chapter 4  Feasibility Toolkit 43 Decision Tree 43 DOT Management Considerations Checklist 43 Context Tool 43 Carbon Checklist 44 Bioenergy Checklist 44 Financial Pro Forma Tools  45  References 45 Chapter 1 45 Chapter 2 46 Chapter 3 C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 804: Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation explores the operational concerns, programmatic issues, and market conditions associated with utilizing highway rights-of-way (ROWs) to develop carbon sequestration projects. These projects are designed to generate saleable carbon offsets or to grow marketable biomass for sale into bioenergy markets.

The Guidebook is accompanied by a Feasibility Toolkit, available on CD-ROM, which may assist users with modeling a proposed project’s financial viability that the user can modify to develop a customized analysis.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “TRB’) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operations of this product. TRB makes no representation or warrant of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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