National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume II: Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22224.
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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 173 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Administration  •  Public Transportation Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers Volume II: Research Report Gail Murray Cathleen Sullivan Joey Goldman Bethany Whitaker NelsoN\Nygaard CoNsultiNg assoCiates San Francisco, CA and Mark Chase Alexandra Reisman tufts uNiversity Medford, MA Nancy Whelan Tina Spencer NaNCy WhelaN CoNsultiNg San Francisco, CA

TCRP REPORT 173, VOLUME II Project H-49 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-30823-6 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activ ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 173, VOLUME II Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT H-49 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Debra W. Alexander, Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI (Chair) Doran J. Barnes, Foothill Transit, West Covina, CA Peter Benjamin, Garrett Park, MD Dwight A. Ferrell, Fulton County, Atlanta, GA James M. Gilligan, NJ Transit Corporation, Newark, NJ Lawrence F. Hughes, Lawrence F. Hughes Consulting, Flushing, NY Wendy Jia, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Ronald Kilcoyne, Lane Transit District, Eugene, OR Maurice Palumbo, Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District, San Rafael, CA Stephen L. Salin, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Duncan J. Watry, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Planning Department, Oakland, CA Victor Austin, FTA Liaison Carol Kuester, Metropolitan Transportation Commission Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Christopher Zeilinger, CTAA Liaison Jennifer L. Weeks, TRB Liaison

TCRP Report 173: Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple tran- sit providers. The report comprises two volumes: the Transit Integration Manual and the Research Report. Together, these documents can help guide the process of transit service integration by (1) showing the benefits of integration; (2) illustrating the range of potential types of integration activities; and (3) describing procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success. This report will be of interest to transit operators, metropolitan planning organizations, and others interested in the coordination and integration of transit services to improve customer service in areas with multiple transit providers. In many transit service regions, individual travel needs often extend beyond the service area of a single public transportation agency. As a result, a high percentage of public transit riders in these service areas use systems that interface with at least one other public trans- portation provider. These conditions occur not only in larger metropolitan areas but also in smaller communities; yet, full coordination of operations and services to meet these travel needs and service delivery challenges is often the exception. Under TCRP Project H-49, Nelson\Nygaard was tasked (1) to identify and document the motivations, benefits, and barriers to public transportation coordination and integration that facilitate seamless travel in areas with multiple transit service providers and (2) to provide guidance on how to integrate and coordinate delivery of transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The Transit Integration Manual describes a range of possible integration activities, poten- tial benefits of integration, and related management responsibilities for efficient delivery of integrated transit services. The Research Report reviews the steps used to prepare the Manual and, in a set of appendixes, provides detailed case studies and summarizes supporting litera- ture that served as a background for the research project. The appendixes also include sug- gested guidance on overall evaluation of transit integration activities. By reviewing and evaluating lessons learned from past efforts, this report provides guidance to assist agencies in getting started and increase their chances of success in providing fully integrated transit service in areas with multiple transit providers. F O R E W O R D By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1  Summary 7 Chapter 1 Background and Overview 7 Problem Statement 7 Overview of Public Transit Integration and Coordination 9 Overview of Final Report 10 Chapter 2 Research Approach 10 Introduction 11 Agency Profiles 11 Literature Review 12 Case Studies 18 Chapter 3 Research Findings 18 Overview 18 Common Benefits and Challenges of Coordination and Integration 24 Strategies to Overcome Challenges 32 Overarching Issues Related to Integration Efforts 36 Lessons Learned 40 Chapter 4 Assessment of Costs and Benefits 40 Analytical Approach 41 Measuring Success: Costs and Benefits in Transit Integration 42 Agency Profiles: Overview 45 Case Studies: Summary Findings 49 Lessons Learned: A Post-Implementation Approach 50 Cost-Benefit Analysis in ORCA Case Study 53 Conclusions 55 Chapter 5 Conclusion and Actions for Implementation 55 Actions to Promote Integration at Agency, Organizational, and Governmental Levels 57 Topics for Future Research 58 Summary 59  Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Glossary 61  Bibliography 64  Appendixes C O N T E N T S

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 173, Volume II: Research Report provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers.

Appendixes to the research report provide detailed case studies and summarize supporting literature that served as a background for the research project.

This report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume I: Transit Integration Manual. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.

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