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Page 50
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22753.
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22753.

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

51 1. Dillon, R.W. and J.A. Baily, Legal and Political Aspects of Free Transit in Major Metropolitan Areas, North- western University Transportation Center, Evanston, Ill., 1970, 95 pp. 2. Goodman, K. and M. Green, Low Fare and Fare-Free Transit: Some Recent Applications by U.S. Transit Sys- tems, UI-5050-5-4, Urban Mass Transportation Admin- istration, Washington, D.C., 1977, 156 pp. 3. Renn, A., “Replay: Small Cites Should Have Fareless Transit,” Urbanophile, May 5, 2010 [Online]. Avail- able: small-cities-should-have-fareless-transit/. 4. Olsen, D., “Let’s Knock Off the Fare Box,” The Tyee, British Columbia, July 12, 2007 [Online]. Available at: 5. Hodge, D.C., J.D. Orrell III, and T.R. Strauss, Fare-free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service, and Attain- ment of Transit System Goals, Report No. WA-RD 277.1, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, 1994. 6. Fleishman, D., C. Schweiger, D. Lott, and G. Pierlott, TCRP Report 32: Multipurpose Transit Payment Media, Transportation Research Board, National Research Coun- cil, Washington, D.C., 1998, 132 pp. 7. Vobora, A., Fare-Free Service at Lane Transit District: An Overview of Financial and Operation Impacts, Lane Transit District, Jan. 2008. 8. Sharon Greene and Associates, Fare Free Muni System Feasibility Analysis, prepared for the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency, Jan. 29, 2008. 9. The Fareless Transit System Research Work Group, Fareless Transit in the Portland Metropolitan Region, prepared for Vera Katz, Mayor of the City of Portland, Oregon, 1999. 10. Community Transportation Association of America, An Analysis of the Impacts of Introducing a Fare for Rid- ers of Advance Transit, prepared for Advance Transit, Hanover, New Hampshire, Oct. 2008. 11. LSC Transportation Consultants, Inc., Addendum to the Aspen Transit Development Plan: Evaluation of Implementation of Transit Fare, prepared for the City of Aspen, Sep. 18, 2009. 12. Baum, H., “Free Public Transport,” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1973, pp. 3–19. 13. Stewart, S. and D. Hull, Free Transit, Deep Discount Fare Policy and Other Strategies Employed to Create a High Ridership Transit System, Report PW08082, City of Hamilton Public Works Department Transit Division, Hamilton, ON, Canada, June 23, 2008. 14. McCollum, B. and R. Pratt, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Chap- ter 12—Transit Pricing and Fares, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washing- ton, D.C., 2004. RefeRenceS 15. Joyce D. and M. Hanly, Bus Fare Elasticities, ESRC Transport Studies Unit University College London, for U.K. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999 [Online]. Available: 16. Linsalata, J. and L. Pham, Fare Elasticity and Its Appli- cation to Forecasting Transit Demand, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C., Aug. 1991. 17. Black, B. and G. Jackson, Free Fare Report, Transit Staff Report for Asheville City Council, Feb. 2007. 18. Kansas Corporation Commission, No Pay May: Proj- ect Description, Analysis of Ridership Data, and Survey Results, Report No. DOT-T-89-04, Office of the Secre- tary of Transportation—Technology Sharing Program, Washington, D.C., 1988, 50 pp. 19. Studenmund, A.H. and D. Connor, “The Fare Free Tran- sit Experiments,” Transportation Research Part A: Pol- icy and Practice, Vol. 16A, No. 4, 1982, pp. 261–269. 20. Perone, J.S. and J.M. Volinski, Fare, Free, or Some- thing in Between?, National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2003. 21. Keuchel, S., et al., Kommunaler Nutzen von ÖPNV- Angeboten am Beispiel fahrscheinfreier Tarif-/Finan- zierungskonzepte bei Stadtbusverkehren von Klein- und Mittelstädten, Forschungsbericht FE 70.588/99 im Auftrag des Bundesministers für Verkehr, Bau-und Wohnungswesen, Recklinghausen, Germany, Fach- hochschule Gelsenkirchen, 2000. 22. Storchmann, K., “Externalities by Automobiles and Fare- Free Transit in Germany—A Paradigm Shift?” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2003. 23. Paterson, R., “Free Transport in Action,” Free Public Trans- port [Online]. Available: http://www.freepublictransport. org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5 &Itemid=5. 24. Olsen, D., “No Hassle Transit? Try Hasselt,” The Tyee, July 9, 2007 [Online]. Available: 2007/07/09/NoFares3/. 25. Black, B. and G. Jackson, Free Fare Report, Transit Staff Report for Asheville City Council, Feb. 2007. 26. Reynolds, J., Fare-Free Transit Pilot Project—Final Report, Report COMS-008-08, The Corporation of the Town of Milton, Milton, Canada, Feb. 2008. 27. Horton, W., Town Manager, Information Report: Janu- ary 2002–September 2002, Chapel Hill Transit Ridership, Memorandum to Mayor and Town Council, Oct. 21, 2002. 28. Ren, G., Y. Lui, and L. Su, Free Public Transporta- tion: Case Study of Changning City, China, Unpublished research paper prepared by Faculty and Students of South- east University, submitted for inclusion in the 90th TRB Annual Meeting, July 2010. 29. “Is Free Public Transportation Sustainable?” Bejing Review, June 27, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.bjreview.

52 30. Volinski, J., “Common Sense Techniques to Help Improve Speed of Fixed Route Buses,” Proceedings of the Ameri- can Public Transportation Association Bus and Para- transit Conference, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2008. 31. Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; KFH Group, Inc.; Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglass, Inc.; and K. Hunter- Zaworski, TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd ed. (Exhibits 4-2 and 4-3), Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003. 32. Volinski, J., Evaluating the Possibility of Establishing a Proof of Payment Fare System for the Washoe County RTC Bus System, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2006. 33. Scheiner, J.I. and G. Starling, “The Political Economy of Free-fare Transit,” Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2, Dec. 1974, pp. 170–184. 34. NSI Research Group, Final Report from the Free-Fare Telephone Survey, conducted for the Capital Metro Trans- portation Authority, Apr. 1990. 35. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., Fareless Transit: Issues and Experiences, Prepared for Tri-Met, Sep. 1998. 36. Smeltz, A., “CATA Study to Explore Fare-Free Rider Access,”, Jan. 17, 2011 [Online]. Available: to-explore-farefree-rider-access-632905/. 37. Turner, H., “Corvallis Bus System Goes Fareless Feb. 1,”, ABC News, Jan. 27, 2001 [Online]. Available: 38. Volinski, J. and V. Perk, Miami Surface Shuttle Ser- vices: Feasibility Study for Transit Circulator Services in Downtown Miami, Brickell, Overtown, and Airport West, prepared for the Miami–Dade County Metropoli- tan Planning Organization, Center for Urban Transpor- tation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, June 2000. 39. Volinski, J. and V. Perk, Electrowave Shuttle Services Technical Assistance Report, prepared for the City of Miami Beach, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, Apr. 2003. 40. Brown, S., “Fear and Loathing with SRTA,” The Con- sumer Vision, Jan./Feb. 2011 [Online]. Available: http:// JanFeb2011-CV-magazine.htm. 41. Hendrix, S., “As Shelter Moves Farther Out, Network of Buses Connects Homeless and Downtown,” Washing- ton Post, Nov. 6, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www. AR2010110503169.html. 42. Chapel Hill/Carrboro Chamber of Commerce website [Online]. Available: aboutchcar/community_profile.html. 43. Explore Hanover Downtown website [Online]. Available: 44. Facebook page for Logan, Utah [Online]. Available: http:// 99201446. 45. Colorado Ski Authority website [Online]. Available: http:// 46. Donnelly, R.M., P.M. Ong., and P.M. Gelb, Evaluation of the Denver RTD Off-Peak Free Fare Transit Dem- onstration, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, D.C., 1980. 47. Misner, J., Small City Transit: East Chicago, Indiana. Free-fare Transit in a High Density, Industrialized Area, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976. 48. Goss, W.P., et al., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts Fare-free Bus Research and Demonstra- tion Project, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, D.C., 1978. 49. Steenberghen, T., P. Lannoy, and C. Macharis, Impact of “Free” Public Transport on Travel Behaviour: A Case Study, Project CP/63, Belgian Science Policy, Brussels, Belgium, 2006. 50. Brown, J., D.B. Hess, and D. Shoup, “Fare Free Public Transit at Universities,” Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2003, p. 69.

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems.

The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.

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