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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2007 www.TRB.org N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 582 Subject Areas Planning and Administration Best Practices to Enhance the TransportationâLand Use Connection in the Rural United States Hannah Twaddell RENAISSANCE PLANNING GROUP Charlottesville, VA A N D Dan Emerine INTERNATIONAL CITY/COUNTY MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Washington, DC Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 582 Project 8-52 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-09894-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2007932303 Â© 2007 Transportation Research Board COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report.
CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 582 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher J. Hedges, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 8-52 PANEL Field of Transportation PlanningâArea of Forecasting Shelley S. Mastran, Reston, VA (Chair) George Smith, California DOT, Sacramento, CA David Boyd, MSA Professional Services, Madison, WI Charles R. Carr, Mississippi DOT, Jackson, MS Stephen Hoesel, Fort Dodge, IA Polly A. McMurtry, Vermont Agency of Transportation, Montpelier, VT Rosemary Monahan, US Environmental Protection Agency, Boston, MA Melisa D. Montemayor, Texas DOT, Laredo, TX David W. Sears, US Department of Agriculture, Bethesda, MD Elizabeth Fischer, FHWA Liaison Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
This report presents guidance on how best to integrate land use and transportation in rural communities. The study highlights programs and investment strategies that support community development and livability while providing adequate transportation capacity. The research consisted of an extensive review of current literature; a series of focus group discussions with community, tribal, and transportation agency staff and officials; and a sur- vey aimed at a cross section of rural transportation planners. The research identified key principles for successful land use and transportation integration and outlines specific approaches suitable to a range of rural community types. This report will be useful to trans- portation planners and decisionmakers who deal with land use and transportation issues in rural communities. Rural communities throughout the United States are facing a wide and complex range of challenges that both affect and are affected by the transportation system. These include eco- nomic shifts away from traditional employment in local farming and manufacturing toward industries such as agribusiness and tourism; changing demographics such as rising percent- ages of elderly residents or new levels of racial and ethnic diversity; rapid growth in some rural areas and population decline in others; and a lack of adequate capacity and/or com- mitment to engage the public in transportation and land use planning. These trends are fur- ther complicated by funding challenges associated with operating, maintaining, and build- ing transportation infrastructure. Although urban areas may be facing many of the same or similar issues, the presence of such challenges in a rural setting poses a unique set of circumstances that requires a dis- tinctly different approach. Although abundant research findings exist on strategies and measures to address the effects of growth and development on transportation systems and services in urban and metropolitan areas, there has been little corresponding research to address how rural communities can work with transportation agencies to set and reach mutual goals for livability and mobility. Under NCHRP Project 08-52, a research team led by Hannah Twaddell of Renaissance Planning Group and Dan Emerine of the International City/County Management Associa- tion undertook this study to identify (1) common problems related to rural transportation systems and (2) measures to address these problems by enhancing the transportationâland use connection. The report highlights programs that support rural development and land use strategies that maximize transportation capacity as well as community livability. The research team identified three distinct types of rural communities that can particu- larly benefit from integrated land use and transportation planning: exurban communities on the fringes of metropolitan centers; destination communities that are attracting tourists F O R E W O R D By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
and new residents; and production communities that are struggling with the decline of their key industries. Strategies to address the problems faced by these various types of communi- ties are organized in three major categories: setting a regional framework for development; improving accessibility to targeted activity centers; and enhancing community design. The report also highlights elements common to successful communities, including col- laborative (often regional) partnerships; an active public involvement and education process; a focus on quality of life and a sustainable future; and strong local leadership. Illus- trated with numerous case studies, the report will help rural planners and decisionmakers understand the challenges they face and select the most effective and appropriate approach for their own communities.
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 4 Chapter 2 Profile of the Rural United States 4 Economic and Social Conditions of the Rural United States 4 Rural and Non-Rural Counties 5 Growing and Declining Rural Counties 6 The Influence of Urban Proximity on Growth 6 The Influence of Economic Dependence on Growth 6 Rural Demographic Subgroups 8 Chapter 3 Rural Community Types and Issues 8 Exurban Communities 9 Destination Communities 10 Production Communities 12 Accessibility and Livability Challenges Faced by Rural Communities 14 Chapter 4 Best Practices for Improving Rural Accessibility and Livability 14 Setting the Regional Framework 15 Improving Local Accessibility 16 Enhancing Community Design 17 Chapter 5 Facilitating Effective Planning 17 Context-Sensitive Solutions: A Proven Process Framework 17 Increasing Local/State Dialogue through Rural Consultation 18 Tools for Effective Planning Processes 18 Key Principles for Successful Land Use and Transportation Integration 20 Chapter 6 Additional Research Needed 20 Public Transit 20 Intelligent Transportation Systems 20 Planning for Native American Communities 22 References 23 Bibliography 25 Glossary 26 Appendix A Demographic, Social, and Economic Profile of the Rural United States 34 Appendix B Case Studies 81 Appendix C Survey Summary 94 Appendix D Focus Group Summary