National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25934.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 224 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions Herbert Hackney Charles Murphy Christina Bittle Metron AviAtion, inc. Herndon, VA Craig Seymour rKG, inc. Boston, MA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 224 Project 02-86 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67340-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2020944257 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 224 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-86 PANEL Field of Environment Ann B. Richart, Nebraska DOT, Lincoln, NE (Chair) David Ballard, Jenkintown, PA Kevin R. Carlson, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN Sarah Katherine Eleam, Croy Engineering, Greenville, SC Carl Mikeman, Skyline Aviation, EL Cajon, CA Andrew Y. Ndolo, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, DC Rebecca Didio, FAA Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison

Temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) are put in place to provide for the security of VIP movements, special events, or by the Department of Defense to protect the airspace or the ground. It has been difficult to quantify the impacts on airports and their businesses affected by TFRs. ACRP Research Report 224: Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions discusses the types of TFRs and when they are used. The Impact Estimation Tool can help airports and airport tenants estimate and quantify the economic impacts from TFRs. TFRs are used for a number of different reasons: president and vice president travel, other VIP travel, military operations, and special events such as the Super Bowl. VIP TFRs have a greater impact than any other type of TFRs, and the biggest impact occurs at general aviation (GA) airports. The biggest impacts are from long-duration, frequently recur- ring TFRs. There are processes in place with the Transportation Security Administration so that private aircraft can traverse a TFR, but this must be planned and coordinated in advance. Not all VIP travel is known weeks in advance, which can leave pilots with no options. Businesses on the airport may also be impacted, but the impact had never been quantified. Metron Aviation was selected to identify the financial and other ramifications that are a result of TFRs. Their research included a literature review, interviews, surveys of stake- holders impacted by TFRs, and the collection of TFR data for a 5-year period ending in August 2019. To assist airports with determining the financial impact of a TFR, they developed the TFR Impact Estimation Tool and a video on how to use it. The TFR Impact Estimation Tool is designed for the airport, or any other business on the airport, to deter- mine the financial impact from a TFR. This report and the tool will be useful to airport staff and their stakeholders in anticipating and mitigating the financial impacts from TFRs, and are available at TRB’s website (www.TRB.org) by searching for ACRP Research Report 224. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Project Background 3 1.2 Selected Impact Examples 3 1.3 Outline 4 Chapter 2 Facts About Airspace Restrictions 4 2.1 Types of Airspace Restrictions 6 2.2 Historical Occurrence of Airspace Restrictions 12 2.3 Presidential Travel History 12 2.4 Restrictions Near Washington, D.C. 14 2.5 Restrictions Used in Other Countries 16 Chapter 3 Impacts of Airspace Restrictions 16 3.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Impacts 17 3.2 Economic Impact Modeling 20 3.3 Example Impacts 21 3.4 VIP TFRs 26 3.5 Other TFR Types 36 3.6 FAA Grant Assurances 39 Chapter 4 Models to Assess Quantitative and Qualitative Impacts of TFRs 39 4.1 Impact of Restrictions on Flight Counts 46 4.2 Method for Estimating Impact of Airspace Restrictions 46 4.3 Electronic Tool for Estimating TFR Impact 47 4.4 Model Inputs 48 4.5 Model Outputs 50 Chapter 5 Mitigating the Impact of TFRs 50 5.1 Short-Term Mitigations 50 5.2 Longer-Term Mitigations 53 References and Bibliography 56 Appendix A Presidential Domestic Trips in 2016 and 2018 62 Appendix B Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols 65 Appendix C Airport Codes C O N T E N T S

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Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) can be implemented for several reasons, including security, hazards, space operations, special events, and VIP travel. VIP TFRs, specifically presidential TFRs, have much greater impact than other types of TFRs because they encompass a larger geography, are longer in duration, and may have little advance notice.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 224: Understanding Impacts to Airports From Temporary Flight Restrictions identifies financial and other ramifications of TFRs on airports and aviation-related businesses.

Also included as part of the report is an electronic tool that will estimate the financial ramifications of a TFR for a specific airport or related business. Further, a video was created that shows how to use the spreadsheet, with instructional voiceovers explaining its features.

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