National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

EMPOWERING THE

Defense Acquisition Workforce

TO IMPROVE MISSION OUTCOMES
USING DATA SCIENCE

Committee on Improving Defense Acquisition
Workforce Capability in Data Use

Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics
Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics
Air Force Studies Board
Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Board on Higher Education and Workforce
Policy and Global Affairs

Committee on National Statistics
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contract FA8650-19-F-9301 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68493-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68493-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25979

This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25979.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING DEFENSE ACQUISITION WORKFORCE CAPABILITY IN DATA USE

WENDY M. MASIELLO, U.S. Air Force (retired), Co-Chair

REBECCA NUGENT, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Chair

PHILIP S. ANTON, Stevens Institute of Technology

TRILCE ESTRADA, University of New Mexico

MILLARD FIREBAUGH, University of Maryland (until December 2019)

STEPHEN FORREST, NAE,1 University of Michigan

CHRISTINE FOX, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

MELVIN GREER, Intel Corporation

CHARLES ISBELL, Georgia Institute of Technology

PETER LEVINE, Institute for Defense Analyses

ANN McKENNA, Arizona State University

ALYSON WILSON, North Carolina State University

JUN ZHUANG, University at Buffalo

Staff

LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer, Study Co-Director

TYLER KLOEFKORN, Senior Program Officer, Study Co-Director

CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer

STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer

SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020)

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner

BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant

MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND ANALYTICS

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles, Chair

HÉLÈNE BARCELO, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

RUSSEL E. CAFLISCH, NAS,1 New York University

DAVID S.C. CHU, Institute for Defense Analyses

RONALD R. COIFMAN, NAS, Yale University

JAMES (JIM) CURRY, University of Colorado, Boulder

RONALD D. FRICKER, JR., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

SHAWNDRA HILL, Facebook

TRACHETTE JACKSON, University of Michigan

LYDIA KAVRAKI, NAM,2 Rice University

TAMARA KOLDA, NAE,3 Sandia National Laboratories

PETER KOUMOUTSAKOS, ETH Zurich

RACHEL KUSKE, Georgia Institute of Technology

JILL PIPHER, Brown University

YORAM SINGER, WorldQuant

TATIANA TORO, University of Washington

LANCE WALLER, Emory University

KAREN E. WILLCOX, University of Texas, Austin

Staff

MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Director

CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer

SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant

LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer (until December 2019)

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020)

TYLER KLOEFKORN, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner

BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant (until September 2020)

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2Member, National Academy of Medicine.

3Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

COMMITTEE ON APPLIED AND THEORETICAL STATISTICS

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NICHOLAS J. HORTON, Amherst College, Co-Chair

LANCE WALLER, Emory University, Co-Chair

F. DUBOIS BOWMAN, University of Michigan

ALICIA CARRIQUIRY, NAM,1 Iowa State University

RONG CHEN, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey

WEI CHEN, NAE,2 Northwestern University

MICHAEL J. DANIELS, University of Florida

AMY H. HERRING, Duke University

TIM HESTERBERG, Google, Inc.

REBECCA A. HUBBARD, University of Pennsylvania

KRISTIN LAUTER, Microsoft Research

DAVID MADIGAN, Columbia University

XIAO-LI MENG, Harvard University

RAQUEL PRADO, University of California, Santa Cruz

NANCY M. REID, NAS,3 University of Toronto

CYNTHIA RUDIN, Duke University

AARTI SINGH, Carnegie Mellon University

ELIZABETH A. STUART, Johns Hopkins University

JONATHAN WAKEFIELD, University of Washington

ALYSON G. WILSON, North Carolina State University

Staff

TYLER KLOEFKORN, Director

CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer

SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant

LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer (until December 2019)

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020)

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner

BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant (until September 2020)

MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Medicine.

2Member, National Academy of Engineering.

3Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
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AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

ELLEN M. PAWLIKOWSKI, NAE,1 U.S. Air Force (retired), Chair

KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE, The Boeing Company

CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, NAS,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARK COSTELLO, Georgia Institute of Technology

WESLEY HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JAMES E. HUBBARD JR., NAE, Texas A&M University

LESTER L. LYLES, U.S. Air Force (retired)

WENDY M. MASIELLO, U.S. Air Force (retired)

LESLIE ANN MOMODA, HRL Laboratories, LLC

OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University

HON F. WHITTEN PETERS, Williams & Connolly, LLP

HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc.

JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group

MICHAEL D. SCHNEIDER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

GRANT H. STOKES, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Director

GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

EVAN ELWELL, Research Assistant

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

LAURA HAAS, NAE,1 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair

DAVID E. CULLER, NAE, University of California, Berkeley

ERIC HORVITZ, NAE, Microsoft Research

CHARLES ISBELL, Georgia Institute of Technology

ELIZABETH MYNATT, Georgia Institute of Technology

CRAIG PARTRIDGE, Colorado State University

DANIELA RUS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE, Cornell University

MARGO I. SELTZER, NAE, University of British Columbia

NAMBIRAJAN SESHADRI, NAE, University of California, San Diego

MOSHE Y. VARDI, NAS2/NAE, Rice University

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Senior Board Director

SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant

RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director

KATIRIA ORTIZ, Associate Program Officer

BRENDAN ROACH, Program Officer

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE

Policy and Global Affairs

KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair

ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, University of Wisconsin, Madison

JAIME CURTIS-FISK, The Dow Chemical Company

MARIELENA DESANCTIS, Broward College

APRILLE J. ERICSSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY, University of Maine

GABRIELA GONZALEZ, NAS,1 Louisiana State University

TASHA R. INNISS, Spelman College

SALLY K. MASON, University of Iowa

DOUGLAS S. MASSEY, NAS, Princeton University

RICHARD K. MILLER, NAE,2 Olin College of Engineering

PATRICIA SILVEYRA, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

KATE STOLL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Washington Office

MEGHNA TARE, University of Texas

MARY WOOLLEY, NAM,3 President and CEO, Research! America

Staff

LEIGH MILES JACKSON, Acting Director

THOMAS RUDIN, Director (until November 2020)

AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant

ARIELLE BAKER, Associate Program Officer

ASHLEY BEAR, Senior Program Officer

LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer

FRAZIER BENYA, Senior Program Officer

IMANI BRAXTON-ALLEN, Senior Program Assistant (until April 2021)

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Senior Program Officer

ALEX HELMAN, Program Officer

REBEKAH HUTTON, Program Officer

PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Associate Program Officer

LAYNE A. SCHERER, Senior Program Officer

JOHN VERAS, Senior Program Assistant

MARQUITA WHITING, Senior Program Assistant

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2Member, National Academy of Engineering.

3Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

ROBERT M. GROVES, NAS1/NAM,2 Georgetown University, Chair

LAWRENCE D. BOBO, NAS, Harvard University

ANNE C. CASE, NAS/NAM, Princeton University

MICK P. COUPER, University of Michigan

JANET CURRIE, NAS/NAM, Princeton University

DIANA FARRELL, JPMorgan Chase Institute, Washington, DC

ROBERT GOERGE, University of Chicago

ERICA L. GROSHEN, Cornell University

HILARY HOYNES, University of California, Berkeley

DANIEL KIFER, Pennsylvania State University

SHARON LOHR, Arizona State University

JEROME P. REITER, Duke University

JUDITH A. SELTZER, University of California, Los Angeles

C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Stanford University

ELIZABETH A. STEWART, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

JEANETTE M. WING, Columbia University

Staff

BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director

TARA BECKER, Program Officer

CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

MICHAEL L. COHEN, Senior Program Officer

DANIEL L. CORK, Senior Program Officer

STUART ELLIOTT, Scholar

MARY GHITELMAN, Senior Program Assistant

NANCY J. KIRKENDALL, Senior Program Officer

REBECCA KRONE, Program Coordinator

CHRISTOPHER D. MACKIE, Senior Program Officer

MALAY MAJMUNDAR, Senior Program Officer

ANTHONY S. MANN, Program Associate

KRISZTINA MARTON, Senior Program Officer

MICHAEL J. SIRI, Associate Program Officer

JORDYN WHITE, Program Officer

___________________

1Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
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Preface

The ability to use analytical tools to collect and analyze data is rapidly expanding and bringing along new challenges and opportunities. Following the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options and Roundtable on Data Science Postsecondary Education—and in recognition of the rapidly evolving premium on data and its power—the Department of Defense (DoD) requested this study to determine how it could prepare its acquisition workforce to embrace and exploit the rapidly evolving promise of data science.

To carry out the task, the National Academies appointed a committee of 13 members. The committee was extraordinary in its makeup, with experts in defense acquisition processes, policies, analyses, and workforce management; leading industry data scientists; and academic experts in engineering, mathematics, statistics, computer science, data science, and education.

Over the course of the study, the committee came to appreciate the complexity and diversity of the DoD acquisition and personnel systems and processes, as well as the multitude of ways industry and government counterparts have addressed the upskilling of their workforces. In the end, the committee concluded that embracing data science and the possibilities for insight at the acquisition level must be driven by leadership. It will take time to upskill the entire acquisition workforce, but the tools, training, and supplemental skills are available today. Deliberate commitment, resources, and clear priorities across DoD will be required to make it happen.

We thank all of the members of the committee for their intensive effort and collaborative spirit in crafting this report. We were aided by remark-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

ably talented co-study directors, Lida Beninson and Tyler Kloefkorn, and an able group of staff, including Carl-Gustav Anderson, Selam Araia, Steven Darbes, Adrianna Hargrove, Heather Lozokowski, Katiria Ortiz, Michelle Schwalbe, and Ben Watzak. It was our pleasure and honor to be a part of this study.

We look forward to seeing the DoD acquisition community harness data to address today’s challenges and opportunities as well those on the horizon, both in the acquisition process and in the products that system delivers.

Wendy M. Masiello and Rebecca Nugent, Co-Chairs

Committee on Improving Defense Acquisition

Workforce Capability in Data Use

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee would like to thank the following individuals for providing input to this study.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

Bess Dopkeen, U.S. House Committee on Armed Services

Eric Eckstrand, Naval Postgraduate School

Tammy Foster, Lockheed Martin

Michael Gilmore, Institute for Defense Analyses

Vance Gilstrap, Defense Acquisition University

James Greene, Naval Postgraduate School

Mary Hauber, Air Force Contracting Center

Pete Herrmann, Air Force Contracting Center

Hans Jerrell, Defense Acquisition University

Sallie Ann Keller, University of Virginia

Mark Krzysko, Department of Defense

Bruce Litchfield, Lockheed Martin

Megan McKernan, RAND Corporation

Sears Merritt, MassMutual

Robert Mortlock, Naval Postgraduate School

William Muir, Naval Postgraduate School

Paul Nielsen, Optum Technologies

Walter Owen, Naval Postgraduate School

Sezin Palmer, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

William Parker, Defense Acquisition University

Renee Pasman, Lockheed Martin

Matthew Rattigan, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Rene Rendon, Naval Postgraduate School

David Robinson, Defense Acquisition University

Thomas Sasala, U.S. Navy

Clyde Scandrett, Naval Postgraduate School

James Scrofani, Naval Postgraduate School

Garry Shafovaloff, Human Capitals Initiative

Heidi Shyu, VK Integrated Systems

Jaeki Song, Texas Tech University

Nancy Spruill, Department of Defense (ret.)

Luis Stevens, Target Corporation

Carol Tisone, Defense Acquisition University

Darlene Urquhart, Defense Acquisition University

Eileen Vidrine, U.S. Air Force

Maryann Watson, Defense Acquisition University

Rebecca Weirick, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army

Roger Westermeyer, Air Force Contracting Center

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

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×

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stephen M. Robinson, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25979.
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The effective use of data science - the science and technology of extracting value from data - improves, enhances, and strengthens acquisition decision-making and outcomes. Using data science to support decision making is not new to the defense acquisition community; its use by the acquisition workforce has enabled acquisition and thus defense successes for decades. Still, more consistent and expanded application of data science will continue improving acquisition outcomes, and doing so requires coordinated efforts across the defense acquisition system and its related communities and stakeholders. Central to that effort is the development, growth, and sustainment of data science capabilities across the acquisition workforce.

At the request of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science assesses how data science can improve acquisition processes and develops a framework for training and educating the defense acquisition workforce to better exploit the application of data science. This report identifies opportunities where data science can improve acquisition processes, the relevant data science skills and capabilities necessary for the acquisition workforce, and relevant models of data science training and education.

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