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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure
Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems
Testing for the Future Fight

Committee on Assessing the
Physical and Technical Suitability of
DoD Test and Evaluation Ranges and Infrastructure

Board on Army Research and Development

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract W911NF-18-D-0002 with the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49857-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 309-49857-0
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26181

Limited copies of this report may be available through the Board on Army Research and Development, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3111.

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Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26181.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING THE PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL SUITABILITY OF DoD TEST AND EVALUATION RANGES AND INFRASTRUCTURE

DANA “KEOKI” JACKSON, NAE,1 MITRE Corporation, Chair

DARRYL AHNER, Air Force Institute of Technology

KAREN BUTLER-PURRY, Texas A&M University

GRAHAM V. CANDLER, University of Minnesota

GORDON FORNELL, United States Air Force, Retired

DERRICK HINTON, Scientific Research Corporation

ROB KEWLEY, stimlytics.cloud, LLC

LAURA J. McGILL, Sandia National Laboratories

HANS MILLER, MITRE Corporation

HEIDI C. PERRY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory

GARY POLANSKY, Sandia National Laboratories

KARL F. SCHNEIDER, Department of the Army, Retired

WILLIAM WILSON, Carnegie Mellon University

Staff

LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce, Study Director

WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Director, Board on Army Research and Development (BOARD)

STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer, BOARD

CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner, BOARD

CAMERON MALCOM, Research Assistant, BOARD

CLEMENT MULOCK, Program Assistant, BOARD

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer, Air Force Studies Board

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator, Board on Physics and Astronomy

SAMUEL ZINKGRAF, Research Assistant, BOARD (through May 2021)

Consultant

ROBERT POOL, Writer

___________________

NOTE: See Appendix D, Disclosure of Unavoidable Conflicts of Interest.

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

BOARD ON ARMY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

KATHARINA McFARLAND, U.S. Army (retired), Chair

MICHAEL BEAR, BAE Systems, Vice Chair

ANDREW ALLEYNE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

DAVID AUCSMITH, University of Washington

JAMES BAGIAN, NAE1/NAM,2 University of Michigan

JOAN BIENVENUE, University of Tennessee

LYNN DUGLE, Independent Consultant

JOHN FARR, United States Military Academy at West Point

GEORGE “RUSTY” GRAY III, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory

WILLIAM HIX, U.S. Army (retired)

GREGORY JOHNSON, Lockheed Martin

DUNCAN McGILL, Mercyhurst University

CHRISTINA MURATA, Deloitte

ADITYA PADHA, Deloitte

ALBERT SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Inc.

GEOFFREY THOME, SAIC

JAMES THOMSEN, Seaborne Defense, LLC

JOSEP TORRELLAS, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Staff

WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Director

STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer

SARAH JUCKETT, Program Officer

TINA LATIMER, Program Coordinator

CAMERON MALCOM, Research Assistant

CLEMENT MULOCK, Program Assistant

CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

Preface

Our nation’s warfighters go into combat to fight and win equipped with weapon systems that must operate under the harshest conditions, against determined and capable adversaries. They rightfully expect that these weapons have been tested and proven effective under operationally relevant conditions, against realistic threats that represent the battlefield they will confront. The Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) test and training range enterprise makes possible this essential developmental and operational testing, and these key resources for national security rest on the dedicated contributions of thousands of military personnel, civil servants, defense contractors, and representatives of national laboratories and federally funded research and development centers. They are at the heart of the range enterprise, and labor under extremely challenging conditions, generally unseen and unknown to the public due to the criticality of their work. The future viability of DoD’s range enterprise depends on addressing dramatic changes in technology, rapid advances in adversary military capabilities, and the evolving approach the United States will take to closing kill chains in a Joint All Domain Operations environment. This recognition led DoD’s Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E), the Honorable Robert Behler, to request that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine examine the physical and technical suitability of DoD’s ranges and infrastructure through 2035.

The study committee brought a diverse set of perspectives and expertise to the questions posed in the statement of task, with members from industry, academic, and government backgrounds, versed in the application of emerging technology, the operational use and test of advanced

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

weapon systems, the rapidly changing landscape of digital technologies, and the organizational and budgetary complexity faced by the OT&E community and the range enterprise. The committee readily acknowledges that the extraordinary diversity of DoD missions and test environments, and the large quantity of range locations and installations, precluded an exhaustive evaluation of all range capabilities and gaps in relation to the future OT&E landscape. Nevertheless, the committee is confident that the findings and conclusions described in this report represent common themes fully supported by a survey of several of the most significant ranges, and an extensive review of prior studies and reports on OT&E needs and the implications for the range enterprise. The committee also notes that this unclassified study addresses certain key challenges and solutions at a general level due to the sensitive nature of many U.S. military capabilities and the intelligence gathered on current and future threats posed by U.S. adversaries. The combined background in national security matters of the committee underpins its belief that this report’s recommendations address DoD’s overarching range enterprise needs, while recognizing that the second, classified phase of this study will provide important additional detail and context regarding the test and evaluation requirements for the ranges posed by new weapons capabilities and threat characteristics.

The committee is grateful for the contributions of a wide range of noted experts and thought leaders in military weapon systems development, test, and evaluation; innovation and emerging technologies; software-intensive systems and digital capabilities; and the operational challenges both current and future faced by the U.S. military. Likewise, we received outstanding support from representatives of many test and training ranges spanning warfighting domains across land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, who contributed their time and insights Many of the experts who participated in the study’s workshops and committee meetings have a distinguished record of public service, including in the military, and we thank them for that service to our nation. We also are pleased to acknowledge the gracious support from Mr. Robert Arnold, Senior Advisor of Sustainable Ranges, and Dr. Raymond O’Toole, acting Director, Operational Test and Evaluation, in providing connections and access to key officials, DoD resources, and reference materials that were indispensable to the study committee. It has been a privilege to work with these dedicated public servants and subject matter experts on this important priority for the nation’s defense.

Keoki Jackson, Chair
Committee on Assessing the Physical
and Technical Suitability of DoD Test and
Evaluation Ranges and Infrastructure

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee would like to thank the following individuals for providing input to this study:

ANDRE’ “DRE” ABADIE, U.S. Army Futures Command

JAMES AMATO, Army Test and Evaluation Command

ZACH BARBER, Nevada Test and Training Range

LISA BARNEBY, Point Mugu Sea Range

STEPHEN BEARD, Missile Defense Agency

ROBERT BEHLER, Former Director, Operational Test and Evaluation

MARC BERNSTEIN, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics)

ASHTON BURKE, Test Resource Management Center

DEVIN CATE, U.S. Air Force

ERIC CLINTON, Test Resource Management Center

VICTORIA COLEMAN, U.S. Air Force

CHRIS COLLINS, Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering

RYAN “RHINO” CONNER, Electromagnetic Spectrum Superiority, U.S. Air Force

MICHAEL CONTRATTO, 96th Test Wing

JAMES COOKE, U.S. Army

DENNIS CRALL, Joint Staff J6

FREDERICK CRAWFORD, Institute for Defense Analyses

MISSY CUMMINGS, Duke University

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

BILL DARDEN, Atlantic Test Range

EVAN DERTIEN, Air Force Materiel Command

JESSIE DIETZ, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

FRED DRUMMOND, Office of the Secretary of Defense

JASON ECKBERG, U.S. Air Force

VIV EDWARDS, Nevada Test and Training Range

JOHN ELLIS, Missile Defense Agency

FRED ENGLE, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Readiness

ERIC FELT, Air Force Research Laboratory

JOHN FIORE, Naval Surface Warfare Center

MATT FUNK, NAVAIR Acquisition and Tech Support Division

JOHN GARSTKA, Office of the Secretary of Defense

JEFFREY GERAGHTY, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

CONRAD GRANT, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

WILLIAM GREENWALT, American Enterprise Institute

DEREK GREER, NAVAIR Integrated Battlespace Simulation and Test

ED GREER, Formerly with the Office of Developmental Test & Evaluation

ROBERT GRIMES, Nevada Test and Training Range

SCOTT HOSCHAR, Atlantic Test Range

ARTHUR HUBER, Air Force Materiel Command

CHRIS JARBOE, Atlantic Test Range

PAUL KAWSHNAK, Aberdeen Proving Ground

PAUL KETRICK, National Cyber Range Complex

MICHAEL LABER, Point Mugu Sea Range

EDGAR LACY, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division

BRIAN LEONG, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

PETER LEVINE, Institute for Defense Analysis

RYAN “CHEECH” LUCERO, Nevada Test and Training Range

MIKE MACKINAW, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

JOSHUA MARCUSE, Google

DONALD MARTIN, Nevada Test and Training Range

BARRY MOHLE, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division

CARL MURPHY, Test Resource Management Center

BRIAN NOWOTNY, Test Resource Management Center

JOHN OKUMA, Institute for Defense Analyses

DANIEL OSBURN, 412th Test Wing

RAYMOND O’TOOLE, Director, Operational Test and Evaluation

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

BRENT PARKER, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

DAN PATT, Thomas H Lee Partners

JOHN PEARSON, Office of the Secretary of Defense Air Warfare

JANE PINELIS, Joint Artificial Intelligence Center

CARROLL “RICK” QUADE, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy Research, Development, Test & Evaluation

JACK RILEY, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

STEVE ROGERS, Air Force Space Command

LEE ROSEN, SpaceX

DANIEL ROSS, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division

ROBIE SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin

GEORGE RUMFORD, Test Resource Management Center

DAVID SAYRE, Missile Defense Agency

SCOTT SBUKOFF, Pacific Multi-Domain Training Experimentation Capability

HERMAN “HEMET” SCHIRG, Nevada Test and Training Range

CAPT WILLIAM SELK, Commanding Officer, VX-1

KENNETH SENECHAL, NAVAIR

ARUN SERAPHIN, Senate Armed Services Committee

JASON STEWART, Atlantic Test Range

JACOB SUGGS, Missile Defense Agency

ROBERT TAMBURELLO, Test Resources Management Center

MICHAEL TAYLOR, SpaceX

NEIL THURGOOD, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army

BRYAN TITUS, Air Force Space Command

GIL TORRES, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division

RODNEY TRAYLOR, Nevada Test and Training Range

ANDREW TREE, Point Mugu Sea Range

DAVID TREMPER, Office of the Secretary of Defense

EDWARD TUCKER, Arnold Engineering Development Complex

ROBERT VARGO, Atlantic Test Range

JEFFREY WHITE, Secretary of the Army

MICHAEL WHITE, Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering

KEVIN WILLIAMS, Missile Defense Agency

LEMUEL WILLIAMS, Missile Defense Agency

GEOFFREY WILSON, Test Resource Management Center

ERIC “GLOCK” WRIGHT, Nevada Test and Training Range

GREG ZACHARIAS, Chief Scientist, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation

PETER “ZUPP” ZUPPAS, Nevada Test and Training Range

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

The committee would also like to express its gratitude to Maya Thomas and Christopher Lao-Scott, Research Librarians at the National Academies Research Center, for their assistance with fact checking.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Sharon Beerman-Curtin, Strategic Consulting, LLC,

Russel Caflisch, NAS, New York University,

Stephen Di Domenico, Coldsquared Consulting,

Kathleen Dussault, Lemon Grove Associates,

James Michael Gilmore, Institute for Defense Analysis,

Lester Lyles, NAE, Independent Consultant,

Chris Maston, Georgia Tech Research Institute, and

Julie Ryan, Wyndrose Technical Group.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Tracy,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
×

NAE, Boeing (retired). He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems: Testing for the Future Fight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26181.
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Rigorous operational testing (OT) of weapon systems procured by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is fundamental to ensuring that these sophisticated systems not only meet their stated requirements, but also perform under realistic operational conditions when faced by determined adversaries employing their own highly capable offensive and defensive weaponry. DoD's test and training range enterprise provides the geography, infrastructure, technology, expertise, processes, and management that make safe, secure, and comprehensive OT possible. The challenges facing the nation's range infrastructure are both increasing and accelerating. Limited test capacity in physical resources and workforce, the age of test infrastructure, the capability to test advanced technologies, and encroachment impact the ability to inform system performance, integrated system performance and the overall pace of testing.

Necessary DoD Range Capabilities to Ensure Operational Superiority of U.S. Defense Systems assesses the physical and technical suitability of DoD test and evaluation ranges, infrastructure, and tools for determining the operational effectiveness, suitability, survivability, and lethality of military systems. This report explores modernization, sustainment, operations, and resource challenges for test and evaluation ranges, and makes recommendations to put the DoD range enterprise on a modernization trajectory to meet the needs of OT in the years ahead.

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