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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26668.
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Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future Raphael Apeaning and Kyra Howe, Rapporteurs Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Proceedings of a Workshop

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Award No. DTNH2217H00028 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organiza- tion or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-69219-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-69219-9 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26668 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Navigating an Electric Vehicle Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26668.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www. nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www. nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR NAVIGATING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE FUTURE GARY MARCHANT, Arizona State University, Chair CARLA BAILO, Center for Automotive Research NADY BOULES, NB Motors, LLC ZHENHONG LIN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory JOSHUA LINN, University of Maryland, College Park DEIDRE STAND, Wildcat Discovery Technologies ANNA STEFANOPOULOU, University of Michigan KATE WHITEFOOT, Carnegie Mellon University Staff CATHERINE WISE, Associate Program Officer KASIA KORNECKI, Program Officer JASMINE BRYANT, Program Assistant ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Associate Director REBECCA DeBOER, Research Assistant KYRA HOWE, Research Assistant, Rapporteur RAPHAEL APEANING, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, Rapporteur (until November 2021) v

BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS JARED COHON, NAE,1 Carnegie Mellon University VICKY BAILEY, Anderson Stratton Enterprises, LCC CARLA BAILO, Center for Automotive Research DEEPAKRAJ DIVAN, NAE, Georgia Technology University MARCIUS EXTAVOUR, XPRIZE TJ GLAUTHIER, TH Glauthier Associates, LLC PAULA GLOVER, Alliance to Save Energy NAT GOLDHABER, Claremont Creek Ventures DENISE GRAY, LG Energy Solution Michigan Inc. Tech Center JOHN KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BARBARA KATES-GARNICK, Tufts University ARATI PRABAHAKAR, NAE, Actuate JOSÉ SANTIESTEBAN, NAE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (retired) ALEXANDER SLOCUM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GORDON VAN WELIE, NAE, ISO – New England DAVID VICTOR, University of California, San Diego, Deep Decarbonization Initiative JOHN WALL, Cummins, Inc. (retired) ROBERT WEISENMILLER, Robert Weisenmiller, LLC JETTA WONG, JLW Advising Staff K. JOHN HOLMES, Director/Scholar ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Associate Director BRENT HEARD, Program Officer KASIA KORNECKI, Program Officer CATHERINE WISE, Associate Program Officer REBECCA DeBOER, Research Assistant KYRA HOWE, Research Assistant JASMINE BRYANT, Program Assistant HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Manager 1  Member, National Academy of Engineering. vi

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- tives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceed- ings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Nelson Kelly, Macomb Community College, Anna Stefanopoulou, University of Michigan, and Nancy Whiting, Transportation Research Board. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by John Kassakian, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. 1  Member, National Academy of Engineering. vii

Contents SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS 1 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 29 B Biographies of Planning Committee Members 32 C Biographies of Workshop Speakers 36 D Workshop Registrants 49 E Acronyms and Abbreviations 61 ix

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The widespread adoption of electric vehicles will play a critical role in decarbonizing the transportation sector as the nation moves toward net-zero emissions. Recent announcements from automakers and the federal government, as well as provisions in the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021, aim to stimulate electric vehicle (EV) deployment, and ongoing technology improvements continue to make EVs a more affordable and practical option. However, many challenges remain to meet the needs of all buyers and drivers and to ensure that manufacturing supply chains and the electric system can support this large-scale transformation.

As a follow-up activity to its 2021 report Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy - 2025-2035, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a 4-day virtual workshop on October 25-28, 2021, to identify some of the challenges to widespread EV deployment and discuss policy, technical, and market strategies to help federal agencies and other stakeholders plan for the future. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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