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BASIC PLASMA EXPERIMENTS 134 no analogue in uncharged fluids, and they are therefore uniquely a plasma phenomenon. They are sensitive to kinetic effects and can be used as a diagnostic of plasma behavior as well as for plasma heating. An extensive body of knowledge has now been obtained from experiments that have used a variety of antennas and boundary conditions to elucidate the unusual properties of these modes. A wide variety of linear and nonlinear phenomena that involve Bernstein waves has been explored in the last decade, and they continue to be an important topic for basic research. Results from such studies have been used to interpret satellite observations of space plasmas. This knowledge has also been used to develop schemes for heating plasmas and for diagnosing plasma behavior. For example, there are potential applications using these waves to improve the stability and confinement properties of tokamak plasmas. However, an improved understanding of the nonlinear behavior of large-amplitude Bernstein waves will be required for such applications. Mode Conversion. Understanding mode conversion has been an important area of investigation in the last decade. In finite-temperature, spatially nonuniform plasmas, there can be degeneracy in the wave dispersion near plasma resonances, and mode conversion can occur near the spatial locations of these resonances. In particular, long-wavelength waves, which are often electromagnetic in character, can convert into electrostatic waves that then convect away the wave energy. Consequently, mode conversion can provide an important physical mechanism for absorption of the energy of electromagnetic waves. A variety of cases have now been studied, including the conversion of electromagnetic waves to Bernstein waves, Langmuir waves, lower and upper hybrid waves, and whistler waves. However, several important issues remain to be addressed. For example, although the linear transfer of energy has been observed, quantitative studies of the converted waves, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the associated electric field patterns have yet to be done, and theories of these phenomena have yet to be tested quantitatively. Understanding mode conversion is of great practical importance because of potential applications to plasma heating and use in plasma diagnostics. Wave-Particle Interactions Magnetically Trapped Particle Instabilities. The ubiquitous spatial nonuniformities of magnetic fields in laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas can cause the generation of two distinct populations of plasma particles: passing particles and mirror-trapped particles. Under very general conditions, the bounce motion of the trapped particles can result in the spontaneous amplification of various plasma modes. Recent experiments, based on an arrangement of multiple mirrors, have now elucidated the fundamental nature of these processes.