National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

Harnessing Light

Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century

Committee on Optical Science and Engineering

Board on Physics and Astronomy

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1998

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract No. MDA972-94-1-0015, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECS-9414956, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under Contract No. 50-SBNB-4-C-8197. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily express the views of the sponsors.

Cover: For photo credit and description, see p. 12.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-05991-7

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-86525

Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

COMMITTEE ON OPTICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

CHARLES V. SHANK,

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Chair

ARAM MOORADIAN,

Winchester, Massachusetts,

Vice Chair

DAVID ATTWOOD,

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

GARY BJORKLUND,

Optical Networks, Inc.

ROBERT BYER,

Stanford University

MICHAEL CAMPBELL,

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

STEVEN CHU,

Stanford University

THOMAS DEUTSCH,

Massachusetts General Hospital

ELSA GARMIRE,

Dartmouth College

ALASTAIR GLASS,

Lucent Technologies

JOHN GREIVENKAMP,

University of Arizona

ARTHUR GUENTHER,

Sandia National Laboratories

THOMAS S. HARTWICK,

TRW (retired)

ROBIN HOCHSTRASSER,

University of Pennsylvania

ERICH IPPEN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

KRISTINA JOHNSON,

University of Colorado at Boulder

DENNIS KILLINGER,

University of South Florida

HERWIG KOGELNIK,

Lucent Technologies

ROBERT SHANNON,

University of Arizona

GLENN T. SINCERBOX,

University of Arizona

BRIAN THOMPSON,

University of Rochester

ELI YABLONOVITCH,

University of California, Los Angeles

THOMAS BAER,

Biometric Imaging Systems,

Special Consultant

DONALD SHAPERO, Director,

Board on Physics and Astronomy

ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Director,

National Materials Advisory Board

SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer,

National Materials Advisory Board

DANIEL MORGAN, Program Officer,

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

ROBERT C. DYNES,

University of California, San Diego,

Chair

ROBERT C. RICHARDSON,

Cornell University,

Vice Chair

IRA BERNSTEIN,

Yale University

STEVEN CHU,

Stanford University

VAL FITCH,

Princeton University

IVAR GIAEVER,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

JOHN HUCHRA,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD,

California Institute of Technology

R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON,

University of Washington

KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR,

General Motors Corporation

J. ANTHONY TYSON,

Lucent Technologies

GEORGE WHITESIDES,

Harvard University

DAVID WILKINSON,

Princeton University

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director

DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer

NATASHA CASEY, Program Associate

GRACE WANG, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD

ROBERTA. LAUDISE,

Lucent Technologies,

Chair

JAMES C. WILLIAMS,

GE Aircraft Engines,

Past Chair

REZA ABBASCHIAN,

University of Florida

MICHAEL I. BASKES,

Sandia National Laboratories

JESSE (JACK) BEAUCHAMP,

California Institute of Technology

FRANCIS DISALVO,

Cornell University

EARL DOWELL,

Duke University

EDWARD C. DOWLING,

Cleveland Cliffs, Inc.

THOMAS EAGAR,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ANTHONY G. EVANS,

Harvard University

JOHN A.S. GREEN,

The Aluminum Association, Inc.

SIEGFRIED S. HECKER,

Los Alamos National Laboratory

JOHN H. HOPPS, JR.,

Morehouse College

MICHAEL JAFFE,

Hoechst Celanese Corporation (retired)

SYLVIA M. JOHNSON,

SRI International

LISA KLEIN,

Rutgers University

HARRY LIPSITT,

Wright State University

ALAN G. MILLER,

Boeing Commercial Airplane Group

RICHARD S. MULLER,

University of California, Berkeley

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR.,

Motorola

ELSA REICHMANIS,

Lucent Technologies

KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

JAMES WAGNER,

Case Western Reserve University

BILL G.W. YEE,

Pratt & Whitney

RICHARD CHAIT, Director

ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Past Director

ROBERT M. EHRENREICH, Senior Program Officer

SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer

THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer

CHARLES HACH, Program Officer

BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer

LOIS LOBO, Research Associate

MARLENE CROWELL, Financial Analyst

AIDA NEEL, Senior Project Assistant

JANICE PRISCO, Senior Project Assistant

PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

ROBERT J. HERMANN,

United Technologies Corporation,

Co-chair

W. CARL LINEBERGER,

University of Colorado,

Co-chair

PETER M. BANKS,

Environmental Research Institute of Michigan

WILLIAM BROWDER,

Princeton University

LAWRENCE D. BROWN,

University of Pennsylvania

RONALD G. DOUGLAS,

Texas A&M University

JOHN E. ESTES,

University of California, Santa Barbara

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University

L. LOUIS HEGEDUS,

Elf Atochem North America, Inc.

JOHN E. HOPCROFT,

Cornell University

CAROL M. JANTZEN,

Westinghouse Savannah River Company

PAUL G. KAMINSKI,

Technovation, Inc.

KENNETH H. KELLER,

University of Minnesota

KENNETH I. KELLERMANN,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

MARGARET G. KIVELSON,

University of California, Los Angeles

DANIEL KLEPPNER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOHN KREICK,

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company

MARSHA I. LESTER,

University of Pennsylvania

NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

CHANG-LIN TIEN,

University of California, Berkeley

NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

W. DALE COMPTON,

Purdue University,

Chair

ELEANOR BAUM,

The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art

RUTH M. DAVIS,

Pymatuning Group, Inc.

HENRY J. HATCH,

Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.

STUART L. KNOOP,

Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC

NANCY G. LEVESON,

University of Washington

ROBERT M. NEREM,

Georgia Institute of Technology

LAWRENCE T. PAPAY,

Bechtel Technology and Consulting

BRADFORD W. PARKINSON,

Stanford University

JERRY SCHUBEL,

New England Aquarium

BARRY M. TROST,

Stanford University

JAMES C. WILLIAMS,

GE Aircraft Engines

RONALD W. YATES,

U.S. Air Force (retired),

Consultant

DOUGLAS C. BAUER, Executive Director

Page viii Cite
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

Preface

In July 1994, the National Research Council (NRC) issued a report titled Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science: An Investment in the Future (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). The report found that optical science had become an integral part of a wide range of scientific disciplines and was a key contributor to economically important applications in many areas. Some aspects of optical science, however, and all of optical engineering, were beyond the scope of the 1994 report, which therefore recommended undertaking a more comprehensive assessment of the broad field of optical science and engineering.

A program initiation and planning meeting was organized by the Board on Physics and Astronomy in cooperation with the National Materials Advisory Board. This effort resulted in the formation of the Committee on Optical Science and Engineering in early 1995, under the auspices of the two boards and with funding from three federal agencies: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

The charge to the committee was as follows:

  • Survey the field of optical science and engineering (OS&E). Define the technical scope and institutional structure of the OS&E community.

  • Examine progress over the last decade and project the future impact of OS&E on societal needs in the short (3-5 years) and long terms (5-20 years). Focus on leading-edge developments. Develop a vision for the future and identify some "grand challenges" that could give the field direction and could focus efforts in areas that have potential for benefit to society.

  • Identify technical opportunities and prioritize them in the context of national needs.

  • Identify institutional and educational innovations that are needed to develop and organize the field in a more coherent fashion and to optimize the contributions of OS&E to addressing critical national needs.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×
  • Determine how public policy influences the ability of OS&E to address national needs.

  • Examine trends in private and public research activities and compare them with those in other countries.

The committee met for the first time in March 1995. It held six workshops over the course of the following year to gather technical input from the optical science and engineering community. There were also presentations and public forums at several professional society meetings, to inform the community about the study, to solicit further input, and to begin building a foundation of community support for the study process. Based on these inputs, additional inquiries by members of the committee, and extensive discussion and debate within the committee, this report was prepared to present the study's findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

The committee thanks the many members of the OS&E community who provided their assistance to the study by participating in the workshops and through other means (see Appendix B). Without such a broad range of input, no single group could have hoped to examine a field as broad and diverse as this one. Thanks are also due to Doug Vaughan of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for his assistance in writing the Overview.

A final note on terminology: Many terms are used to describe this field and its various overlapping subfields. This report often simply uses the word optics, in its broadest sense, to include the whole spectrum of activity in the field, across all subfields, and from basic research to engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making their published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

Arthur Ashkin, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired)

David H. Auston, Rice University

Arthur N. Chester, Hughes Research Laboratories

Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems

Paul A. Fleury, University of New Mexico

John L. Hall, JILA/University of Colorado

Wendell T. Hill, University of Maryland, College Park

William Howard, Scottsdale, Arizona

Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Paul W. Kruse, Infrared Solutions

Robert Laudise, Lucent Technologies

Jacques I. Pankove, University of Colorado at Boulder

Don W. Shaw, Texas Instruments (retired)

Watt W. Webb, Cornell University

and one anonymous reviewer

While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
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2

Optics in Health Care and the Life Sciences

83

Surgery and Medicine

84

Introduction of Lasers

85

Understanding the Interaction of Light with Tissue

87

Minimally Invasive Therapy

89

Advanced Therapeutic Applications of Lasers

92

Optical Diagnostic Techniques

97

Nontechnical Considerations

105

Tools for Biology

106

Visualization Techniques

106

Measurement and Analysis Techniques

112

Micromanipulation Techniques

116

Biotechnology

117

DNA Analysis

117

Pharmaceutical Screening

119

Summary and Recommendations

120

Surgery and Medicine

120

Tools for Biology

122

Biotechnology

123

References

123

3

Optical Sensing, Lighting, and Energy

125

Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems

127

Environmental and Atmospheric Monitoring

128

Earth and Global Surface Monitoring

133

Astronomy and Planetary Probes

136

Industrial Chemical Sensors

140

Digital, Video, and Thermal Imaging Cameras

141

Law Enforcement and Security

143

Common Everyday Optical Sensors

147

Lighting

148

Lighting History, Future Directions, and Standards

149

New Lighting Sources and Distribution Systems

150

Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation

155

Aircraft Applications

155

Automobile Applications

156

Energy

158

Inertial Confinement Fusion Using Lasers

158

Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium for Nuclear Energy

160

Space Solar Cells

160

Terrestrial Solar Cells

161

Solar Thermal Energy

163

Summary and Recommendations

164

Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems

164

Lighting

165

Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation

166

Energy

166

References

167

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5954.
×

4

Optics in National Defense

169

Surveillance

173

Night Vision

176

Laser Systems Operating in the Atmosphere and in Space

179

Laser Range Finders, Designators, Jammers, and Communicators

180

Laser Weapons

182

Fiber-Optic Systems

184

Displays

186

Special Techniques

188

Chemical and Biological Species Detection

188

Laser Gyros for Navigation

189

Optical Signal Processing

190

Summary and Recommendations

190

References

194

5

Optics in Industrial Manufacturing

195

Use of Light to Perform Manufacturing

197

Photolithography

197

Laser Materials Processing

201

Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Using Optics

208

Use of Optics to Control Manufacturing

210

Metrology

211

Machine Vision

213

Sensors

215

Specific Industrial Applications

215

Automobile Manufacturing

215

The Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Industry

218

Display Manufacturing

221

The Chemical Industry

221

Aircraft Manufacturing

223

The Construction Industry

225

The Printing Industry

227

Increasing Use of Optics in Industrial Manufacturing

229

Summary and Recommendations

230

References

233

6

Manufacturing Optical Components and Systems

235

Introduction

235

A Brief History

237

An Overview of the Industry Today

237

Low-Volume Manufacturing of Specialty Optics

239

Spherical Lenses

240

Aspheres

242

Computer-Controlled Deterministic Grinding and Polishing

244

Diffractive Elements

245

Optical Coatings

246

Optical Glasses, Polymers, and Specialty Materials

248

Case Study: Photolithography Equipment

249

Case Study: Optics for the National Ignition Facility

251

Key Technical Challenges

253

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HARNESSING LIGHT

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Optical science and engineering affect almost every aspect of our lives. Millions of miles of optical fiber carry voice and data signals around the world. Lasers are used in surgery of the retina, kidneys, and heart. New high-efficiency light sources promise dramatic reductions in electricity consumption. Night-vision equipment and satellite surveillance are changing how wars are fought. Industry uses optical methods in everything from the production of computer chips to the construction of tunnels. Harnessing Light surveys this multitude of applications, as well as the status of the optics industry and of research and education in optics, and identifies actions that could enhance the field's contributions to society and facilitate its continued technical development.

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