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4 Hydrogen and Biofuels
Pages 115-134

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From page 115...
... The issue of interfacing between the nation's electricity transmission and distribution system to provide the electricity needed for PHEVs and BEVs is addressed in Chapter 2, "Crosscutting Issues." Hydrogen is an energy carrier produced from a variety of energy sources as discussed in this chapter and is the fuel that makes vehicular fuel cells feasible. Biofuels, energy carriers for solar energy and thus renewable fuels, are produced from a variety of biological sources, such as plant materials or algae.
From page 116...
... hYdroGeN FUel PaThWaYs The hydrogen fuel/vehicle pathway integration effort is charged with looking across the full hydrogen supply chain from well (source) to tank.
From page 117...
... Research efforts are focused on the further development of options that reduce cost, dependence on imported petroleum and natural gas, and greenhouse gas emissions. The primary constraint to the broad availability of hydrogen is the construction of a distribution system similar to the natural gas pipeline network.
From page 118...
... The hydrogen production technical team facilitates the development of commercially viable technologies through nonproprietary dialogue among the commercial and federal sectors to guide program efforts. Energy sources under study include natural gas, coal, biological systems, nuclear heat, wind, solar heat, and grid-based electricity; grid-based electricity employs several types of energy sources to varying extents, depending on geographical area.
From page 119...
... The DOE's program to improve natural gas reforming, completed in 2009, has established the feasibility of distributed gen eration at fueling stations using reforming and has directionally improved gas cleanup technologies for centralized plants. Commercial options now exist to generate hydrogen either in distributed or centralized plants using natural gas.
From page 120...
... recommendation 4-2. The DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies program and the Office of Fossil Energy should continue to emphasize the importance of dem 3 L
From page 121...
... It is not practical to capture the CO2 from the distributed reforming of natural gas, and the electricity generated for use in electrolysis is dependent on the grid makeup, which on average releases large amounts of CO2. The distributed reforming of bio-derived liquids such as ethanol, sugars, or bio-oils can provide a renewable option for distributed hydrogen generation in the early stages of a hydrogen fuel buildup.
From page 122...
... It is possible, or even likely, that future state or federal regulations will encourage or mandate that a percentage of hydrogen be made in a renewable fashion. California already has such a program.5 Whereas distributed natural gas reforming has demonstrated the ability to meet the hydrogen cost targets of $2.00 to $3.00 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)
From page 123...
... These temperatures can be achieved by many means, including next-generation high-temperature nuclear reactors or solar concentrators. Most solar design concepts for this centralized production method use power towers to get the high powers and high temperatures required.
From page 124...
... Lastly, such developments must make progress against the goals for hydrogen cost. Presented in Table 4-1 are the DOE cost targets for distributed hydrogen generation from water electrolysis.
From page 125...
... High-temperature electrolysis has advantages in the reduc tion of energy requirements to split water owing to the lower voltage requirements to dissociate water, but it requires high-temperature materials that are challenging. The high-temperature option, using solid oxide technology, also has the potential to make use of waste thermal energy, thereby making nuclear power plants attractive locations for centralized generation.
From page 126...
... The DOE should continue to fund novel water electrolysis materials and methods, including alternative membranes, alternative catalysts, high-temperature and -pressure operation, advanced engi neering concepts, and systems analysis. Additional efforts should be placed on advanced integration concepts in which the electrolyzer is co-engineered with subsequent upstream and downstream unit operations to improve the overall efficiency of a stand-alone system.
From page 127...
... Internationally, this approach is pursued actively. Photoelectrochemical water splitting, utilizing electrolysis, converts solar energy directly into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen.7 A semiconductor material is used to collect light energy and produce hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis.
From page 128...
... As pointed out in the National Research Council's Phase 2 report (NRC, 2008) , there are five main ways to deliver hydrogen from centralized production to refueling stations: pipeline, liquid, gas containers, one-way liquid carriers, and two-way liquid carriers.
From page 129...
... recommendation 4-13. Hydrogen delivery, storage, and dispensing should be based on the program needed to achieve the cost goal for 2017.
From page 130...
... The hydrogen fuel cell pathway and the battery electrification pathway (hybrid electric vehicle [HEV]
From page 131...
... Biofuels and the Freedomcar and Fuel Partnership Within the DOE, the Biomass Program12 has the responsibility for managing the development and progress for the bulk of the needs for biofuels, including the needs for biomass production, feedstock logistics, and biomass conversion to a biofuel. Historically the DOE focused on biofuel distribution and end use through the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership (DOE, 2010)
From page 132...
... 2008. Annual Progress Report, DOE hydrogen Program.
From page 133...
... 2008. Reiew of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, Second Report.


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