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Appendix J: Human Reliability Analysis
Pages 356-359

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From page 356...
... Human error has been shown repeatedly to be a significant contributor to the risk associated with nuclear power plant operations. Researchers from Idaho National Laboratory, for example, found that human error was a significant contributor in over 75 percent of significant operating events that occurred during a 6-year period (1992-1997)
From page 357...
... J.1  NEED TO MORE REALISTICALLY MODEL COMPLICATING SITUATIONAL FACTORS In responding to severe accidents at nuclear plants, operators are likely to face complex, unanticipated conditions (e.g., multiple interacting faults, failed or degraded sensors, goal conflicts, and situations not fully covered by procedures) that require them to engage in active diagnosis, problem solving, and decision making to determine what actions to take.
From page 358...
... Likewise, assessing potential radiation levels during a severe accident and how they may affect personnel access and ability to perform functions is important. The assessment of how plant staff may be injured during an external event, such as being injured by falling debris in an earthquake, needs to consider the potential for injury not just in vital areas such as the control room, but also in other parts of the plant, because the need to provide care to injured plant personnel may affect the ability of uninjured personnel to perform emergency response tasks.
From page 359...
... As discussed in Chapter 4, the majority of the physical systems that had been counted on to mitigate the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi plant were unavailable because of the loss of onsite power. Recovery ultimately depended on the ingenuity of the people on the scene to develop and implement alternative mitigation plans in real time (see Chapter 4)

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