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Appendix D: Biotechnology
Pages 130-135

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From page 130...
... -sponsored -sponsored BioMADE initiative.1 The DARPA Living Foundries program was developed to create a revolutionary, biologically based manufacturing platform to provide new materials, capabilities, and manufacturing paradigms for the DoD and the nation and seeks to develop the tools, technologies, and methodologies to transform biology into an engineering practice, speeding the biological design–build–test cycle and expanding the complexity of systems that can be engineered. In 2021, DoD sponsored BioMADE, a new manufacturing innovation institute to "enable domestic bioindustrial manufacturing at all scales, develop technologies to enhance U.S.
From page 131...
... program, for research funding to support the development of improved human health and environmental risk assessments of new biotechnology products, including chemicals; pesticides; and genetically modified microorganisms used in chemical production, microbial fuel cells, mining and resource extraction, building materials, waste remediation and pollution control, and nonpesticidal agriculture applications (e.g., biofertilizers, weather and climate modification; EPA, 2020)
From page 132...
... Molecular methods for detection of plasmids, gene products, and microbial populations are standard and routinely used. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology can be used to analyze the nucleic acid extracts from total, genomic, or plasmid DNA for quantifying gene copies or to analyze genetic variations in specific genomic regions and verify the presence of a modified gene.
From page 133...
... . TABLE D-1 Issues Identified Through a Bioengineering Horizon Scan in 2020 <5 Years 5–10 Years >10 Years Access to biotechnology through Agricultural gene drives Bio-based production of materials outsourcing Crops for changing climates Neuronal probes expanding new sensory Live plant dispensers of chemical capabilities signals Function-based design in protein Distributed pharmaceutical development and Malicious use of advanced engineering manufacturing neurochemistry Philanthropy shapes bioscience Genetically engineered phage therapy Enhancing carbon sequestration research agendas State and international regulation of Human genomics converging with computing Porcine bioengineered replacement DNA database use technologies organs Microbiome engineering in agriculture Governance of cognitive enhancement Phytoremediation of contaminated soils Production of edible vaccines in plants Rise of personalized medicine such as cell therapies NOTE: Issues are grouped according to likely timeline for realization.
From page 134...
... 2009. Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules.
From page 135...
... 2017. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products: Final Version of the 2017 Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology.

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