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B Committee Methods for Gathering Information This appendix details the methods used by the National Research Council Committee to Review the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program to gather information to carry out its work. The methods were review- ing written information from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, inviting comments from stakeholders, and hearing presentations at two information-gathering meetings. WRITTEN INFORMATION FROM NIOSH The NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program (AFF Pro- gram) provided a roughly 500-page notebook of information to the committee in advance of the committeeâs first meeting. The notebook, referred to by NIOSH and the committee as the evidence package, contained information on the history of the AFF Program; the programâs resources, goals, and objectives; intramural research activities; extramural research funded by NIOSH; program products and technology transfer; and relevant NIOSH-wide processes and activities. The AFF Program and others in NIOSH provided extensive additional information to the committee in response to questions that arose during the evaluation process. All interactions and follow-up with NIOSH were carried out through staff. A list of materials provided to the committee by NIOSH is found in Appendix C. In addition to written materials provided by NIOSH, the committee had independent access to other NIOSH papers and conference materials. 275
276 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH STAKEHOLDER COMMENTS The committee was directed by the Framework Document to consider stake- holder input in assessing the impact and relevance of the NIOSH AFF Program. Issues of interest included whether stakeholder input was taken into consideration in shaping the program and stakeholdersâ views on the programâs research activi- ties and products. The Framework Document did not specify the means of eliciting input from stakeholders. The committee determined that conducting a systematic survey was not feasible within the constraints of the project. As an alternative, the committee invited stakeholders to provide comments relevant to its evaluation of the impact and relevance of the NIOSH AFF Program. The objective was to assemble com- ments from a diverse group of organizations and individuals. Individual invitations to comment were sent to about 200 people and organizations. The invitation was also posted on a publicly available Web site. Identification of Stakeholders The committee identified possible stakeholders in the NIOSH AFF Program through several means. The intramural research program provided a list of its stakeholders, who included collaborators and partners. Working independently and drawing on suggestions from committee members and staff, the committee identified as possible stakeholders individuals and organizations with an interest in equipment safety, child and youth safety in agriculture, occupational chemical exposures, farmworker safety and health, logger safety and health, fishing vessel safety, and labor issues. The group included researchers in academe and private organizations, professional societies, organizations representing labor and industry, and others that deal directly with AFF safety and health or were considered likely to be aware of safety and health issues. Stakeholders were identified in the vari- ous sectors associated with AFF: academe, government, non-profit interests, and labor. The committee also identified potential stakeholders among minority-group professional organizations and small business associations. The list of stakehold- ers included representatives of federal and state agencies and of researchers and organizations in other countries. Letters to Stakeholders The invitation to comment on the NIOSH AFF Program was issued in a letter from committee Chair Paul Gunderson (see Box B-1). The committee staff sent the letter by e-mail in early April 2007 to each of the identified stakeholders. Committee
A pp e n d i x B 277 BOX B-1 Letter Inviting Comment on the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Dear Colleague: As the Chair of the National Academies Committee to Review the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AFF) Research Program, I invite your input to our committeeâs work. The committeeâs charge is to evaluate the impact and relevance of NIOSHâs work in reducing workplace injury and illness and identify future directions NIOSH might take. The Committee to Review the NIOSH AFF Program is seeking input and advice from a variety of individuals and organizations that we believe are likely to have an interest in agriculture, forestry, and fishing safety and health and associated research. You have been identified as a potential source for such inputs and advice. The committeeâs charge is to examine the following issues for the NIOSH AFF Research Program: 1.â Progress in reducing workplace illness and injuries through occupational safety and health research, assessed on the basis of an analysis of relevant data about workplace illnesses and injuries and an evaluation of the effect that NIOSH research has had in reducing illness and injuries. 2.â Progress in targeting new research to the areas of occupational safety and health most relevant to future improvements in workplace protection. 3.â Significant emerging research areas that appear especially important in terms of their relevance to the mission of NIOSH. The committee will evaluate the AFF Safety and Health Research Program using an assessment framework developed by the NRC/IOM Committee to Review the NIOSH Research Programs. The evaluation will consider what the NIOSH program is producing as well as whether the program can reasonably be credited with changes in workplace practices, or whether such changes are the result of other factors unrelated to NIOSH. For cases where impact is difficult to measure directly, the com- mittee reviewing the AFF Safety and Health Research Program may use information on intermediate outcomes to evaluate performance. The NIOSH AFF Safety and Health Program provided the NRC evaluation committee with informa- tion on its work in five goal areas: (1) Hazard Surveillanceâreduce hazards, illnesses, and injuries in the AFF workforce by conduct- ing population-based and hazard surveillance; (2) Priority Populations at Riskâreduce injuries, illnesses, and fatalities among subgroups of the working population determined to be at high risk or underserved by traditional occupational health approaches; (3) Chemical Exposuresâdetermine the chronic effects of agricultural exposures/health outcomes from toxic exposures and develop appropriate interventions to reduce the incidence of disease; (4) Hazard Control Systemsâreduce injuries and illnesses in AFF Program-related industries by developing and demonstrating control systems and making them available; and continued
278 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH BOX B-1 Continued (5) Outreachâreduce injuries and illnesses by informing and educating employers and employees about occupational safety and health hazards and control systems. We would be very grateful for your comments on any or all of these areas. It would be valuable for the committee to know whether you are familiar with NIOSH activities and products related to agriculture, forestry, and fishing safety and health and what kind of experience you may have had working with the agency or its products. The committee would be particularly interested in comments you may have on the relevance and impact of NIOSHâs work in agriculture, forestry, and fishing safety and health over the past 10 years in any of the five areas of research it has defined. In addition, we would value your views on two other matters included in the committeeâs charge. First, what have you seen as the major research needs and challenges over the past 10 years in ag- riculture, forestry, and fishing safety and health? Second, what do you see as significant emerging research needs or opportunities concerning agriculture, forestry, and fishing safety and health? The committee will review the comments it receives at its remaining meeting, which will be held on May 30-31, 2007. We encourage you to submit your comments in time for consideration at the May meeting. You are welcome to comment as an interested individual or from the perspective of your organization. In addition, please feel free to share this letter with other individuals or organizations with an interest in the AFF safety and health research program. Please provide your comments through our National Academies staff, using any of a variety of routes: e-mail, mail, fax, telephone, or through our web-based comment form, where providing name and affiliation is optional. However, note that any written comments submitted to the committee (whether by mail, e-mail, fax, or the projectâs comment form) will be included in the studyâs public access file. If you have any questions about contacting the committee or providing materials for the com- mitteeâs consideration, I encourage you to speak with our study director Peggy Tsai. Contact details are provided at the end of this letter. Thank you very much for any assistance you can provide to our study committee as we conduct our review of the NIOSH AFF Safety and Health Research Program. Sincerely, Paul Gunderson, Ph.D. Chair, Committee to Review the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Submitting Comments to the Study Committee Mail: Peggy Tsai Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001
A pp e n d i x B 279 members did not contact any stakeholders directly. The letter was also made avail- able publicly from early April through early June 2007 in a posting on a National Academies Web site. In addition, a NIOSH Web page noted the opportunity for NIOSH stakeholders to provide input to the review and provided a link to the Na- tional Academies site. Interested stakeholders were asked to send their comments to the study staff via postal mail, e-mail, or the project Web site. Responses could be submitted anonymously through the Web site. The committee invited stakeholder comments on several points: familiarity with NIOSH activities and products related to AFF, experience in working with NIOSH, the relevance and impact of NIOSHâs work over the last decade in reducing occupational injuries and fatalities, and the major research challenges over the last decade and significant emerging research needs in AFF safety and health. By June 2006, 64 responses had been received. Stakeholder comments are available to the public through the National Academies Public Access file and were provided to NIOSH in their original form. Overall, the NIOSH stakeholders who responded provided favorable com- ments. The committee recognizes that the responses to the request for comments are not necessarily representative of all NIOSH stakeholders. However, the com- ments provided to the committee gave helpful insights into respondentsâ perspec- tives on the NIOSH AFF Program and informed the committeeâs understanding of the programâs relationship with some of its stakeholders. Comments on Emerging Research Needs or Opportunities To assist the committee in reviewing stakeholder input, the staff compiled the comments on emerging research needs or opportunities. The compilation is presented in Box B-2; some comments are captured in abbreviated form, and oth- ers are presented nearly verbatim. No attempt was made to evaluate the merits of individual stakeholder suggestions or to set priorities within or between the broad research categories used by the staff to group the comments. The presentation of suggestions in Box B-2 does not represent an endorsement by the committee. Respondents The following responded to the committeeâs invitation for comments on the NIOSH AFF Program: Brian Aldrich Steven Banks Cornell University Farmer
280 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH BOX B-2 Emerging Research in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Safety and Health Suggested by Stakeholders Social Attitudes Gain better understanding of the social factors on farms that affect safety practices. Childrenâs Safety With changes in the global marketplace, it is important to understand the changing role of children as sources of labor on farms and societyâs tolerance of putting children at undue risk. Hearing Impairment and Loss Assess the prevalence of hearing loss in workers in agriculture (and in rural areas in general). Effective- ness of hearing-loss prevention programs must be assessed and established before widespread implementation. Additional research is needed to explore the association between hearing impairment and traumatic oc- cupational injury in agriculture. Healthcare Affordable healthcare should be available to farmers and rural workers. Healthcare availability and afford- ability may be factors in the demise of family farms. Surveillance Implement a comprehensive surveillance program on a national scale to monitor occupational disease, injury, and death. Resources can then be focused better to address and prevent disease, injury, and death. A more comprehensive surveillance system is needed. Less emphasis should be placed on writing papers and reports, and more on implementing surveillance in the workforce and working face to face with organizations and workers. James Bittner Bob Callender Singer Farms New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Donald S. Bloswick University of Utah Paul Clemente New York State Department of Roy Buchan Environmental Conservation Colorado State University Henry P. Cole University of Kentucky
A pp e n d i x B 281 Ergonomics Design of equipment and tools. Educational Collaboration More involvement with the universities that offer agriculture degrees is needed. In the last 4 or 5 years, that appears to have fallen drastically. Web sites for the University of Texas center are all but useless. High-school agricultural science teachers need an intensive laboratory safety workshop and certification. NIOSH is perhaps the best-positioned entity to assist in this endeavor by providing funding to conduct week-long safety certification workshops. Immigrant and Migrant Workers Immigrants do more of the low-quality at-risk work than non-immigrants. Communication should be made available in their own languages so that their exposure to risk can be reduced. There should be less emphasis on migrant labor. There needs to be much more emphasis on sustaining the work of older producers and laborers. Applied Research Pulmonary disease, ergonomic issues, noise exposure, and traumatic injury associated with farm machinery will be important research topics. Applied field research is necessary to address the problems of oc- cupational safety. There are so many unknowns that regional and local research may be needed. Translational methods that are participatory should be developed and demonstrated. Prevention and Treatment Gain better understanding of risk and protective factors for stress-related illness on the farm. Miscellaneous Implement safety standards in areas that are being placed into land trusts. Emerging subjects include zoonotic infectious diseases, special populations, and the psychosocial impact of diminishing natural resources on AFF workers. Mary Lou Wranesh Cook Helene Dembrowski SUNY Institute of Technology Dembrowski Orchards, Inc. George Cook Mike DeSpain University of Vermont Tribal EPA Jim T. Criswell Eileen Douglas Oklahoma State University Unknown George Daniels Daniel Dructor Farm Employers Labor Service America Loggers Council
282 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH Linda Fetzer Karen Mountain Pennsylvania State University Migrant Clinicians Network Kimberly Fleming Cynthia Mulbury Cornell Cooperative Extension Northern Orchard Co., Inc Ralph Gaiss Melvin L. Myers Northeast Equipment Dealers University of Kentucky Association Emory University Judith Gillan Anne Nolan The New England Small Farm Institute Hudson River HealthCare Inc. Kevin Hackett Mike Olin Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Farmer Service Program Sharon Pahlman Dan Hair Cooperative Extension, University of Workersâ Compensation Fund Maryland George F Henning Dwayne Pavelock Pennsylvania Agromedicine Sam Houston State University Ron Jester William Pickett University of Delaware Queenâs University Katherine H. Kirkland Mark Purschwitz Association of Occupational and Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation Environmental Clinics (AOEC) Deborah Reed Richard Klossner University of Kentucky Farmer Marie Reed Jeffrey Levin Texas Department of State Health Southwest Center for Agricultural Services Health, Injury Prevention, and Education Heidi Roeber Rice HealthPartners Occupational and John May Environmental Medicine NYCAMH/Northeast Center
A pp e n d i x B 283 Dan Roth Doug Ullrich Finger Lakes Coalition of Farmworker Sam Houston State University Agencies Peter Wallingford Charles V. Schwab Wallingfordâs Fruit House Iowa State University Louise Waterman Charles Siepel Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food New Mexico State University, and Markets Cooperative Extension Service John R. Wheat Jim Steinke The University of Alabama Farm Equipment Safety Source Catharine Young James Tollett The New York State Senate Southern Arkansas University Tom Zangrillo Robin Tutor Scattered Acres Farm East Coast Migrant Head Start Project COMMITTEE MEETINGS The committee held three face-to-face meetings during the course of its study. The first two included open sessions for information gathering. The agendas for the open sessions appear below. The third meeting was closed. After the third meet- ing, the committee held a subcommittee meeting and several e-mail exchanges to finalize its report. Meeting I January 19, 2007 Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. Friday, January 19, 2007 10:00 a.m. Welcome and Introductory Remarks Paul Gunderson, PhD Committee Chair
284 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH 10:05 a.m. NIOSH Overview Lewis V. Wade, PhD NIOSH Senior Scientific Advisor 10:30 a.m. NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Overview George Conway, MD, MPH Director, NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Program 11:00 a.m. Surveillance (Chapter 3) John P. Sestito, JD, MS NIOSH Surveillance Program Coordinator 11:30 a.m. Children Working in Agriculture (Chapter 4.1) Dawn N. Castillo, MPH Chief, Surveillance and Field Investigations Branch NIOSH Division of Safety Research 12:00 p.m. Lunch 1:00 p.m. National Childrenâs Center Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety Program Barbara C. Lee, RN, PhD Director, National Farm Medicine Center, National Childrenâs Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, Marshfield Clinic 1:30 p.m. Commercial Fishing Safety (Chapter 4.4) Jennifer M. Lincoln, PhD Commercial Fishing Research Program Officer Assistant Program Manager, NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 2:00 p.m. Chemical Exposures and Health Effects (Chapter 5) Teresa M. Schnorr, PhD, MS Director, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies 2:30 p.m. Break 2:45 p.m. Tractor Safety (Chapter 6) John R. Myers, MSF Health Statistician, NIOSH Division of Safety Research 3:15 p.m. Health Communications/Outreach (Chapter 7) Larry Chapman, PhD Department of Biological Systems Engineering University of WisconsinâMadison
A pp e n d i x B 285 3:45 p.m. Public Comment (Individuals should sign up ahead of time at the registration table to provide comment) 4:15 p.m. Wrap-up of Open Session Paul Gunderson, Committee Chair 4:30 p.m. Adjourn Meeting II March 28-29, 2007 Beckman Center of the National Academies 100 Academy Drive Irvine, CA Wednesday, March 28, 2007 9:00 a.m. Welcome and Introductions Description of study charge and goals for the meeting Paul Gunderson, Committee Chair 9:10 a.m. Panel on the NIOSH Ag Centers â¢ Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center Richard A. Fenske, Director â¢ Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety Marc B. Schenker, Director â¢ High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety Stephen J. Reynolds, Director â¢ Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention, and Education Jeffrey L. Levin, Director 11:10 a.m. Break 11:25 a.m. Forestry Landscape John J. Garland, Professor Emeritus of Forest Engineering Oregon State University 12:00 p.m. Fishing Landscape Michael M. Rosecrans, Chief of Fishing Vessel Safety, U.S. Coast Guard 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30 p.m. Agricultural Health Study ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Michael Alavanja (via teleconference), NIH Senior Investigator
286 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH 2:00 p.m. Regulatory PerspectiveâCal/OSHA William Krycia, Regional Manager, Department of Industrial Relations 2:30 p.m. Pesticide SafetyâCalifornia Environmental Protection Agency Charles M. Andrews, Chief of Worker Health and Safety Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation 3:00 p.m. Break 3:20 p.m. Producer Communities â¢ Organics David Runsten, Executive Director, Community Alliance with Family Farms â¢ Dairy Ray Souza, President, Western United Dairymen â¢ Crops and Growers George Daniels, Executive Vice President, Farm Employers Labor Service 4:50 p.m. Wrap-up for the day 5:00 p.m. Adjourn Thursday, March 29, 2007 8:30 a.m. LaborPanel * â¢ California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. Ilene Jacobs, Director, California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. Michael Marsh, Director, Agricultural Worker Health Project, California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. â¢ International Brotherhood of Teamsters Mike Johnston (via teleconference), Campaign Coordinator, Strategic Research and Campaigns Department 9:30 a.m. Break 9:45 a.m. The Future of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing â¢ Vision of forestry for the future Robert B. Rummer (via teleconference), USDA Forest Service, Project Leader of Forest Operations and Engineering Research â¢ Vision of agriculture for the future Brad Rein, USDA National Program Leader â¢ Vision of fishing for the future Jerry Dzugan, Director of Alaska Marine Safety Education Association
A pp e n d i x B 287 11:15 a.m. Public Comment (Individuals should sign up ahead of time at the registration table to provide comment) 11:40 a.m. Wrap-up of Open Session Paul Gunderson, Committee Chair *Representatives of the United Farm Workers of America, United Food and Com- mercial Workers, Farm Labor Organizing Committee, and Frente Indigena De Organizaciones were invited to speak to the committee but declined. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee extends its gratitude to the NIOSH staff. The AFF Program staff faced the substantial task of assembling the initial set of materials that were pro- vided to the committee for this study. They also assembled a considerable amount of material in response to the committeeâs requests for additional information. The committee extends particular thanks to the NIOSH staff who gave presentations or responded to questions from the committee at its meetings, including Lewis Wade, George Conway, John Sestito, Dawn Castillo, Barbara Lee, Jennifer Lincoln, Teresa Schnorr, John Myers, Larry Chapman, Richard Fenske, Marc Schenker, Stephen Reynolds, and Jeffrey Levin. The committee also thanks the many members of the agriculture, forestry, and fishing communities outside NIOSH who contributed to the study by providing comments on the NIOSH AFF Program, making presentations at the committeeâs meetings, or providing additional information in response to committee requests. In addition to those listed earlier in this appendix, the committee acknowledges David Wegman of the National Academies Committee for the Review of NIOSH Research Programs, Michael Alavanja, Charles Andrews, George Daniels, Jerry ÂDzugan, John Garland, Ilene Jacobs, Mike Johnston, William Krycia, Michael Marsh, Brad Rein, Michael Rosecrans, Robert Rummer, David Runsten, and Ray Souza. The committee recognizes especially the assistance of George Conway. Dr. Conway served as the committeeâs point of contact for the NIOSH AFF Program and was tireless and gracious in his efforts to respond to the committeeâs many information requests and questions. The committee is also grateful for the assis- tance of Raymond Sinclair, who ably and patiently acted as a liaison between the committee and NIOSH as a whole. The committee appreciates the support of Andrew Pope, director of the Insti- tute of Medicine Board on Health Sciences Policy, Greg Symmes, deputy execu- tive of the Division of Earth and Life Studies, and Evan Douple and Sammantha Magsino, who serve as staff to the Committee for the Review of NIOSH Research Programs.