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Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century (2010)

Chapter:Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
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Appendix B
Biosketches of Committee Members

Marshall H. Cohen, Co-Chair, received his Ph.D. in physics from Ohio State University in 1952. He is a professor emeritus in the Astronomy Department at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Before going to Caltech, he was a professor of electrical engineering and then a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, spent 2 years as a professor of applied electrophysics at the University of California at San Diego, and then went to Caltech in 1968. Dr. Cohen has conducted radio astronomy research in solar physics and active galactic nuclei (AGN) and optical research on magnetic white dwarfs and on AGN. He was also involved with commissioning the Arecibo telescope and in developing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the network that was set up to manage VLBI observations in the 1970s. Currently, he uses the Very Long Baseline Array to study the statistics of superluminal sources. Using the large telescopes at the Palomar and the W.M. Keck Observatories, he conducts polarization observations of the spectrum to study the relations among the different classes of objects and their evolution. Dr. Cohen has been very involved with activities of the National Research Council, having been a member of the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Editorial Board; the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Class I Membership Committee; the United States National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science (USNC-URSI); chair of NAS Section 12: Astronomy; and chair of the 1980s Astronomy Survey Committee. He was also on panels of the 1970s and 1990s astronomy survey study.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

Albin J. Gasiewski, Co-Chair, received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1989. Previously, he had received M.S. and B.S. degrees in electrical engineering and he received a B.S. degree in mathematics from Case Western Reserve University in 1983. From 1989 to 1997 Dr. Gasiewski was a faculty member within the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. As an associate professor there, he developed and taught courses on electromagnetics, remote sensing, instrumentation, and wave propagation theory. From 1997 through 2005 he worked at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, where he was chief of the Microwave Systems Development Branch of the ESRL Physical Science Division. In 2006 he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder, where he directs the NOAA-CU Center for Environmental Technology. His technical interests include passive and active remote sensing, radiative transfer theory and applications, electromagnetics, antennas and microwave circuits, electronic instrumentation, airborne sensors, meteorology, and oceanography. Dr. Gasiewski was the 2005-2006 president of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society and was the General Co-chair of IGARSS 2006 in Denver, Colorado. He is also a member of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), where he currently serves as vice chair of the United States National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science (USNC-URSI) Commission F. He served on the U.S. National Research Council’s Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) from 1989 to 1995 and on the USNC-URSI from 1996 to 1997.


Donald C. Backer is a professor of astronomy and chair of the Astronomy Department at the University of California, Berkeley. Professor Backer received a bachelor of engineering physics degree from Cornell University in 1966, a Master of Science degree in radio astronomy from Manchester University in 1968, and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Cornell University in 1971. He spent 2 years as a postdoctoral research assistant at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, and 2 years as a National Research Council (NRC) Fellow at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Since 1975 he has been at the University of California, Berkeley. His past duties have included serving as executive officer, and later chair, of the U.S. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network. More recently he has served on the board of the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association and the visiting committees of the NRAO and the Haystack Observatory and is currently on the visiting committee of the Arecibo Observatory serving as chair. He chaired Commission J of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science from 1997 to 1999 and was an NRC ex officio member. Professor Backer’s research interests have focused on pulsars and active galactic

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

nuclei. One research effort involves the timing of an array of millisecond pulsars for use as celestial clocks. The long-term goal is setting limits on the gravitational wave background that may result from the coalescence of massive black holes in distant galaxies. His short-term goals include the investigation of small-scale turbulence in the interstellar plasma. He is involved with instrumentation for pulsar data acquisition at the Arecibo, Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Nançay Observatories. Another of Professor Backer’s activities is focused on a deeper understanding of an enigmatic object in our galactic center, which may be the site of a massive black hole. VLBI observations at millimeter wavelengths are being pursued as well as proper motion measurements and also circular polarization. Professor Backer is a past member of the NRC’s Committee on Radio Frequencies (former chair), the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Review Committee, and the 1980s Astronomy Survey Committee. He currently serves on the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics and the United States National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science.


Roberta Balstad (formerly Roberta Balstad Miller) is a senior research scientist at Columbia University and a senior fellow with the Center for International Earth Sciences Information Network (CIESIN). Dr. Balstad has published extensively on science policy, information technology and scientific research, remote sensing applications and policy, and the role of the social sciences in understanding global environmental change. She is the author of numerous articles and books, including City and Hinterland: A Case Study of Urban Growth and Regional Development (1979), and editor, with Harriet Zuckerman, of Science Indicators: Implications for Research and Policy (1980). Dr. Balstad received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1974. She was a senior fellow at Oxford University in 1991 to 1992 and a guest scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in 1994. She is currently chair of the U.S. National Committee on Science and Technology Data (CODATA) and chaired the Priority Area Assessment Panel on Scientific Data and Information of the International Council for Science (ICSU). She is a member of the board of directors of the Open Geospatial Consortium and of the U.S. National Committee for the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Before joining Columbia University, Dr. Balstad had been the director of the Division of Social and Economic Sciences at the National Science Foundation, the founder and first executive director of the Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA), and president/chief executive officer of CIESIN. In 1998, she led CIESIN’s transition from Saginaw, Michigan, to become part of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where she served as CIESIN’s director through April 2006. Dr. Balstad has lectured widely, both in the United States and abroad. From 1992 to 1994, she was vice president of the International Social Science Council and has also served as chair of the NRC Steering Committee on Space Applications and Commercialization, of the NATO Advisory Panel on Advanced Scientific Workshops/Advanced

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

Research Institutes, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, and of the Advisory Committee of the Luxembourg Income Study. She currently serves as chair of St. Antony’s College Trust (Oxford University) in North America.


Steven W. Ellingson is an associate professor in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. Ellingson received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Ohio State University in 2000. Before going to Virginia Tech, he held research positions at Ohio State University, Raytheon, and Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Dr. Ellingson was previously a captain in the U.S. Army, on active duty between 1989 and 1993. His research interests are in the general areas of electromagnetics, applied signal processing, and instrumentation. He is specifically interested in direction finding, interference mitigation, wireless communications, radio astronomy, and the design of antennas and receivers. He has been working closely with the Long Wavelength Array. Dr. Ellingson is a member of the NRC’s Committee on Radio Frequencies and is a senior member of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers.


Darrel Emerson was an assistant director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), responsible for Arizona Operations, in Tucson, Arizona. His responsibilities included the operation of the NRAO 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, which undertakes fundamental astronomical research in the range 67-300 GHz. He is heavily involved in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project. Dr. Emerson received his Ph.D. in radio astronomy in 1973 from the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, England. Before joining the NRAO, he worked for several years with the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy 100-meter radio telescope at Effelsberg, near Bonn, Germany, and then with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in Millimeter-waves in Grenoble, France. His current research interests include spectral line studies of nearby normal galaxies and the development of millimeter-wave observational techniques.


Aaron S. Evans is an associate professor of astronomy at the University of Virginia and an associate astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, in 1996. His current research primarily deals with observations of colliding galaxies and their associated phenomena (starbursts and active galactic nuclei). The study of these galaxies requires a multi-wavelength approach, which to date has included optical to mid-infrared imaging, as well as near-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy. The observing facilities at which he carries out these programs are the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii (University of Hawaii

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

2.2-meter, United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, W.M. Keck Observatory); the Hubble Space Telescope; the Owens Valley Millimeter Array in California; the Steward Observatory 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona; and the IRAM 30-meter telescope in Spain. Dr. Evans received a NASA/American Society for Engineering Education Faculty Fellowship Award in 2002, and chaired the National Science Foundation’s NRAO 5-Year Proposal Panel. He also served on the NRC’s Committee to Review the Science Requirements for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.


Joel T. Johnson is a professor of electrical and computer engineering in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Ohio State University. He received his Ph.D. in 1996 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Johnson’s research interests include microwave remote sensing of geophysical media, both active and passive; the application of numerical techniques in electromagnetics to remote sensing problems; and the design of systems for radio frequency interference mitigation. He served from 2005 to 2009 as chair of the Frequency Allocations in Remote Sensing (FARS) Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society; the FARS Committee’s mission is to provide technical assessments, guidance, and recommendations regarding matters of frequency sharing and interference between remote sensing and other uses of the radio spectrum.


Paul Kolodzy is a private consultant with Kolodzy Consulting, LLC. He received his Ph.D. and M.S. in chemical engineering from Case Western Reserve University and his B.S. in chemical engineering from Purdue University. Prior to his work as a private consultant, he was the senior technology adviser and consultant to M2Z Networks. Before joining M2Z Networks he was the director of the Center for Wireless Network Security (WiNSeC) at the Stevens Institute of Technology. Prior to serving there, he was the senior spectrum policy adviser at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the director of the Spectrum Policy Task Force charged with developing the next-generation spectrum policy. Dr. Kolodzy has also been a program manager in the Advanced Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), managing research and development for communications programs developing generation-after-next capabilities. Before serving at DARPA, he had been the director of Signal Processing and Strategic Initiatives at Sanders (now BAE Systems), a premier electronic warfare company. Dr. Kolodzy got his start as the group leader and staff member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Lincoln Laboratory, working on optical systems for laser radars, signal processing, and target recognition for acoustics, radio frequency (synthetic aperture radar), and optical signatures. Dr. Kolodzy has 20 years of experience in technology development for advanced communications, networking, electronic warfare, and spectrum policy for government, private–sector, and academic groups.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

He participated in the NRC Computer Science and Telecommunications Board’s Forum on Spectrum Management Policy Reform.


David B. Kunkee conducts microwave remote sensing research at Aerospace Corporation. This research is related to the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and NASA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer. Dr. Kunkee is active in radio science applications and is an amateur radio hobbyist. He is a member of Commission F of the International Union of Radio Science and is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, Antennas and Propagation Society, and Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1995.


Molly K. Macauley is a senior fellow and director of academic programs at Resources for the Future, Inc. (RFF). Dr. Macauley’s research at RFF has included public finance, energy economics, the value of information, and economics and policy issues of outer space. She has been a visiting professor in the Department of Economics at the Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Macauley has testified before Congress on numerous occasions on topics including space commercialization, remote sensing, and legislative and regulatory space policy. She has served on many committees, including the congressionally mandated Economic Study of Space Solar Power for which she was chair. She currently serves on the Space Studies Board of the NRC, the Applied Sciences Advisory Group for NASA’s Earth Sciences, and the Climate Working Group of NOAA’s Science Advisory Board.


James M. Moran is a professor and senior radio astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and chair of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard University. He has made fundamental and far-ranging contributions to astronomy through his key developments of radio spectroscopy combined with interferometry. He has used these techniques to study cosmic masers and has obtained, among other important results, direct and definitive evidence for the existence of a supermassive black hole. Dr. Moran observes molecular masers to study the dynamics of gas surrounding putative black holes in nearby galaxies. These masers can be tracked precisely in position and velocity with intercontinental arrays of radio telescopes operating as very long baseline interferometers. With the high angular resolution provided by these interferometers, he is able to measure the orbital characteristics of the gas as well as the mass and location of the black hole. Dr. Moran was principal investigator of the Sub-millimeter Array, an eight-element linked interferometric array, built near the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and used to study planetary atmospheres, star formation, quasars, dust and gas distribu-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

tion in nearby galaxies, and spectral lines from highly redshifted galaxies. Dr. Moran served on the U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union (member, January 2000 through December 2002), the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (member, August 1998 through June 2002) and its Panel on Radio and Sub-millimeter-wave Astronomy (vice chair, November 1998 through December 2001), the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science (ex officio member, January 1991 through December 1993), and CORF’s Subcommittee on Radio Astronomy (member, July 1984 through June 1987). Dr. Moran is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.


Lee G. Mundy is a professor and chair of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Maryland at College Park. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1984 from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Mundy studies the dense interstellar medium, star formation, and the initial stages of planet formation utilizing observations at centimeter through near-infrared wavelengths and radiative transfer modeling tools. The observations are mainly acquired with the Very Large Array and Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association/Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and through a Space Infrared Telescope Facility legacy project that is mapping five major molecular clouds and more than 100 compact cores. Dr. Mundy is also collaborating with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in studies of a number of mission concepts for submillimeter through near-infrared wavelength space interferometers. Dr. Mundy has published extensively.


Timothy J. Pearson is a senior research associate at the California Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1977, after which he held a postdoctoral position at Caltech and has been at Caltech since then. Dr. Pearson’s research interests include the statistics of radio sources, and radio interferometry and its application to observations of active galactic nuclei and the cosmic microwave background radiation. He uses radio telescopes at Cambridge, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and the Cosmic Background Imager in Chile. Currently he is an associate editor for the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Christopher S. Ruf is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences and in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of Michigan. He is also director of the Space Physics Research Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Dr. Ruf works in microwave radiometry, an important area of remote sensing and radio frequency protection issues. His research interests include Earth environmental remote sensing, synthetic thinned aperture radiometry, the mitigation of radio frequency interference,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

self-contained end-to-end radiometer calibration systems, the use of stationary statistical properties of upwelling radiances to constrain absolute accuracy and the long-term stability of satellite measurements, and the profiling of the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere using multispectral, multisensor, and climatological databases. Before assuming his position at the University of Michigan, Dr. Ruf had been an instrument scientist for the NASA TOPEX and Jason-I microwave radiometers, and he is currently a science team member for the NASA Juno, Aquarius, and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager microwave radiometers. Dr. Ruf has received numerous awards, including the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Prize Paper Award. He is the editor in chief of the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, a member of URSI Commission F, and a past member of the NRC’s Committee on Radio Frequencies.


Frederick S. Solheim is the president of Radiometrics Corporation, where he develops ground-based microwave radiometers for atmospheric and terrestrial remote sensing. Dr. Solheim was heavily involved with the development of the patented frequency-agile design that allows flexibility for a variety of atmospheric remote sensing applications used in the company’s radiometers. His research interests include microwave radiometry and radiosonding for profiles of temperature, water vapor, and cloud liquid. Dr. Solheim also conducts research in signal propagation. Previously he worked with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado.


David H. Staelin is a professor of electrical engineering in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has been a member of the EECS faculty and the Research Laboratory of Electronics since 1965. He also was the assistant director, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (1990-2001); co-founder, MIT Venture Mentoring Service (2000); chair, MIT’s EECS Graduate Area in Electronics, Computers, and Systems (1976-1990); and a faculty member of MIT’s Leaders for Manufacturing Program (1985-1998). He was a director of Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. (1969-1978) and a co-founder and chair of PictureTel Corp. (1984-1987). His research interests include remote sensing, wireless communications, signal processing, estimation, environmental sensing, microwave atmospheric sounding, and meteorological satellites. Dr. Staelin was a member of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee (2003-2005), chair of the NRC’s Committee on Radio Frequencies (1983-1986), and a member of several NASA committees and working groups, including the Space Applications Advisory Committee, the Advanced Microwave Sounder Working Group, the Geostationary Platform—Earth Science Steering Committee; and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Science Steering Group. He was the principal investigator for the NASA Nimbus-E Micro-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×

wave Spectrometer (launched in 1972 on Nimbus-5) and the Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (launched in 1975 on Nimbus-6). He was a co-investigator of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Spectrometer (launched in 1977 on Nimbus 7) and the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment (launched in 1977 on Voyagers 1 and 2). Additionally, he is a member of the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder team (Aqua launched in 2002), the NPOESS Preparatory Project Science Team (to be launched in about 2010), the NOAA International Program Office Sounder Operational Algorithm Team, and the NASA Precipitation Mapping Mission Science Team. Dr. Staelin is a fellow of the IEEE and American Association for the Advancement of Science and received the 1996 Distinguished Achievement Award from the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society.


Alan B. Tanner is an engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1989 from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. His research interests include propagation, aperture synthesis, radiometers, and sounding. Dr. Tanner is involved in GeoSTAR, a microwave sounder intended for geosynchronous orbit.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biosketches of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2010. Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12800.
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Radio observations of the cosmos are gathered by geoscientists using complex earth-orbiting satellites and ground-based equipment, and by radio astronomers using large ground-based radio telescopes. Signals from natural radio emissions are extremely weak, and the equipment used to measure them is becoming ever-more sophisticated and sensitive.

The radio spectrum is also being used by radiating, or "active," services, ranging from aircraft radars to rapidly expanding consumer services such as cellular telephones and wireless internet. These valuable active services transmit radio waves and thereby potentially interfere with the receive-only, or "passive," scientific services. Transmitters for the active services create an artificial "electronic fog" which can cause confusion, and, in severe cases, totally blinds the passive receivers.

Both the active and the passive services are increasing their use of the spectrum, and so the potential for interference, already strong, is also increasing. This book addresses the tension between the active services' demand for greater spectrum use and the passive users' need for quiet spectrum. The included recommendations provide a pathway for putting in place the regulatory mechanisms and associated supporting research activities necessary to meet the demands of both users.

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