National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 6 A National Ocean Acidification Program
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

References

Adger, W.N. 2003. Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography 79(4): 387-404.

Adger, W.N., I. Lorenzoni, and K.L. O’Brien (Eds). 2009. Adapting to climate change thresholds, values, governance. Cambridge University Press.

Accornero, A., C. Manno, K.R. Arrigo, A. Martini and S. Tucci. 2003. The vertical flux of particulate matter in the polynya of Terra Nova Bay: Part I: Chemical constituents. Antarctic Science 15: 119-132.

Al-Horani, F.A., S.M. Al-Moghrabi, and D. de Beer. 2003. The mechanism of calcification and its relation to photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Marine Biology 142: 419-426.

Albright, R., B. Mason, and C. Langdon. 2008. Effect of aragonite saturation state on settlement and post-settlement growth of Porites astreoides larvae. Coral Reefs 27: 485-490.

Alvarez-Filip, L., N.K. Dulvy, J.A. Gill, I.M. Côté, and A.R. Watkinson. 2009. Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: Region-wide declines in architectural complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276: 3019-3025. published online before print June 10, 2009. [doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0339]

Andersen, T., J. Carstensen, E. Hernandez-Garcia, and C.M. Duarte. 2009. Ecological thresholds and regime shifts: Approaches to identification. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24: 49-57.

Andersson, A.J., I.B. Kuffner, F.T. Mackenzie, P.L. Jokiel, K.S. Rodgers, and A. Tan. 2009. Net loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: mesocosm-scale experimental evidence. Biogeosciences 6: 1811-1823.

Andersson, A.J., F.T. Mackenzie, and L.M. Ver. 2003. Solution of shallow-water carbonates: An insignificant buffer against rising atmospheric CO2. Geology 31(6): 513-516.

Andersson, A.J., N.R. Bates, and F.T. Mackenzie. 2007. Dissolution of carbonate sediments under rising pCO2 and ocean acidification: Observations from Devil’s Hole, Bermuda. Aquatic Geochemistry 13(3): 237-264.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Andrews, A.H., E.E. Cordes, M.M. Mahoney, K. Munk, K.H. Coale, G.M. Cailliet, and J. Heifetz. 2002. Age, growth, and radiometric age validation of a deep-sea habitat-forming gorgonian (Primnoa resedaeformis) from the Gulf of Alaska. Hydrobiologia 471: 101-110.

Anthony, K.R.N., D.I. Kline, G. Diaz-Pulido, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2008. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 17442-17446.

Armstrong, J.L., J.L. Boldt, A.D. Cross, J.H. Moss, N.D. Davis, K.W. Myers, R.V. Walker, D.A. Beauchamp, and L.J. Haldorson. 2005. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 52(1-2): 247-265.

Armstrong, J.L., K.W. Myers, D.A. Beauchamp, N.D. Davis, R.V. Walker, and J.L. Boldt. 2008. Interannual and spatial feeding patterns of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon in the Gulf of Alaska in years of low and high survival. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137: 1299-1316.

Armstrong, R.A., C. Lee, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S.G. Wakeham. 2002. A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies In Oceanography 49: 219-236.

Arnold, K.E., H.S. Findlay, J.I. Spicer, C.L. Daniels, and D. Boothroyd. 2009. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.) Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 3087-3107.

Aronson, R.B., S. Thatje, A. Clarke, L.S. Peck, D.B. Blake, C.D. Wilga, and B.A. Seibel. 2007. Climate change and invasibility of the Antarctic benthos. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 129-154.

Arrigo, K.R. 2007. Marine manipulations. Nature 450: 491-492.

Arrow, K.J. and A.C. Fisher. 1974. Environmental preservation, uncertainty, and irreversibility. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 88(2): 312-319.

Baker, D.J., R.W. Schmitt, and C. Wunsch. 2007. Endowments and new institutions for long-term observations. Oceanography 20(4): 10-14.

Barcelos e Ramos, J., H. Biswas, K.G. Schulz, J. LaRoche, and U. Riebesell. 2007. Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on the marine nitrogen fixer Thrichodesmium, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21: GB2028.

Barry, J.P. and J.C. Drazen. 2007. Response of deep-sea scavengers to ocean acidification and the odor from a dead grenadier. Marine Ecology Progress Series 350: 193-207.

Barry, J.P., B.A. Seibel, J.C. Drazen, M.N. Tamburri, K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, E.T. Peltzer, K. Osborn, P.J. Whaling, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer. 2003. Deep-sea field experiments on the biological impacts of direct deep-sea CO2 injection. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 5-8, 2003, Alexandria, VA.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, and P.J. Whaling. 2005. Utility of deep sea CO2 release experiments in understanding the biology of a high-CO2 ocean: Effects of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: CO9S12.

Barry, J.P., P.J. Whaling, and R.K. Kochevar. 2007. Growth, production, and mortality of the chemosynthetic vesicomyid bivalve Calyptogena kilmeri from cold seeps off central California. Marine Ecology 28(1): 169-182.

Bates, N.R., J.M. Mathis, and L.W. Cooper. 2009. Ocean acidification and biologically induced seasonality of carbonate mineral saturation states in the western Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research. 114: C11007. [doi:10.1029/2008JC004862]

Bathmann, U., G. Fischer, P.J. Müller, and D. Gerdes. 1991. Short-term variations in particulate matter sedimentation off Kapp Norvegia, Weddell Sea, Antarctica: Relation to water mass advection, ice cover, plankton biomass and feeding activity. Polar Biology 11(3): 185-195.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Bellerby, R.G.J., K.G. Schulz, U. Ribesell, C. Neil, G. Nondal, T. Johannessen, and K.R. Brown. 2007. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment. Biogeoscienes Discussions 4: 4631-4652.

Bentova S., C. Brownlee, and J. Erez. 2009. The role of seawater endocytosis in the biomineralization process in calcareous foraminifera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(51): 21500-21504. [doi10.1073pnas.0906636106]

Berner, R.A, and Z. Kothavala. 2001. GEOCARB III: A Revised Model of Atmospheric CO2 Over Phanerozoic Time. American Journal of Science 301: 182–204.

Bibby, R., P. Cleall-Harding, S. Rundle, S. Widdicombe, and J. Spicer. 2007. Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea. Biology Letters 3: 699-701.

Birdsey, R., N. Bates, M. Behrenfeld, K. Davis, S.C. Doney, R. Feely, D. Hansell, L. Heath, E. Kasischke, H. Kheshgi, B. Law, C. Lee, A.D. McGuire, P. Raymond, and C.J. Tucker. 2009. Carbon cycle observations: Gaps threaten climate mitigation policies. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 90(34). [doi:10.1029/2009EO340005]

Blackford, J., N. Jones, R. Proctor, J. Holt, S. Widdicombe, D. Lowe, and A. Rees. 2009. An initial assessment of the potential environmental impact of CO2 escape from marine carbon capture and storage systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 223(3): 269-280.

Boardman, A.E., D.H. Greenberg, A.R. Vining, and D.L. Weimer. 2006. Cost-benefit analysis: Concepts and practice. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Bockstael, N.E., A. M. Freeman, R.J. Kopp, P.R. Portney, and V.K. Smith. 2000. On measuring economic values for nature. Environmental Science & Technology 34(8):1384.

Booth, I.R. 1985. Regulation of cytoplasmic pH in bacteria. Microbiological Reviews 49(4): 359-378.

Borges, A.V. and N. Gypens. 2010. Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidification. Limnology and Oceanography 55(1): 346-353.

Borges, A.V., S.R. Alin, F.P. Chavez, P. Vlahos, K.S. Johnson, and J.T. Holt. 2009. A global sea surface carbon observing system: Inorganic and organic carbon dynamics in coastal oceans. Ocean Observations Conference 2009 Report. [Online]. Available: http://www.oceanobs09.net/blog/?p=624

Boyd, P.W. 2008. Ranking geo-engineering schemes. Nature Geoscience 1: 722-724.

Boyd, P.W. and S.C. Doney. 2003. The impact of climate change and feedback processes on the ocean carbon cycle. In Fasham, M.J.R. (Ed.). Ocean biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change. Global Change - The IGBP Series. Springer: Berlin. pp. 157-193.

Boyd, P.W., T. Jickells, C.S. Law, S. Blain, E.A. Boyle, K.O. Buesseler, K.H. Coale, J.J. Cullen, H.J.W. de Baar, M. Follows, M. Harvey, C. Lancelot, M. Levasseur, N.P.J. Owens, R. Pollard, R.B. Rivkin, J. Sarmiento, V. Schoemann, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, A. Tsuda, S. Turner, and A.J. Watson. 2007. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005: Synthesis and future directions. Science 315 (5812): 612.

Boyd, P.W., S.C. Doney, R. Strzepek, J. Dusenberry, K. Lindsay, and I. Fung. 2008. Climate-mediated changes to mixed-layer properties in the Southern Ocean: Assessing the phytoplankton response. Biogeosciences 5: 847-864.

Brander, L.M., P.J.H. van Beukering, and H.S.J. Cesar. 2007. The recreational value of coral reefs: A meta-analysis. Ecological Economics 63: 209-218.

Briske, D.D., S.D. Fuhlendorf, and F.E. Smeins. 2005. State-and-transition models, thresholds, and rangeland health: A synthesis of ecological concepts and perspectives. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58(1): 1-10.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Broecker, W.S. and T. Takahashi. 1966. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation on the Bahama Banks. Journal of Geophysical Research 71: 1575.

Broecker, W.S., C. Langdon, T. Takahashi, and T-H. Peng. 2001. Does carbon 13 track anthropogenic CO2 in the southern ocean? Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(3): 589-596. [doi:10.1029/2000GB001350].

Burkhardt, S., I. Zondervan, and U. Riebesell. 1999. Effect of CO2 concentration on the C:N:P ratio in marine phytoplankton: A species comparison. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 683-690.

Byrne, R.H., L.R Kump, and K.J Cantrell. 1988. The influence of temperature and pH on metal speciation in seawater. Marine Chemistry 25: 163–181.

Byrne, R.H., S. Mecking, R.A. Feely, and X. Liu. 2010a. Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L02601. [doi:10.1029/2009GL040999]

Byrne, R.H., M.D. DeGrandpre, R.T. Short, T.R. Martz, L. Merlivat, C. McNeil, F.L. Sayles, R. Bell, and P. Fietzek. 2010b. Sensors and systems for observations of marine CO2 system variables. In Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. & Stammer, D. (Eds.). ESA Publication WPP-306.

Cairns, S.D. 2007. Deep-water corals: An overview with special reference to diversity and distribution of deep-water scleractinian corals. Bulletin of Marine Science 81(3): 311-322.

Caldeira, K., R. Berner, E.T. Sundquist, P.N. Pearson, and M.R. Palmer. 1999. Seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science 286(5447): 2043.

Caldeira, K. and G.H. Rau. 2000. Accelerating carbonate dissolution to sequester carbon dioxide in the ocean: Geochemical implications. Geophysical Research Letters 27(2): 225-228.

Caldeira, K. and M.E. Wickett. 2003. Oceanography: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365.

Caldeira, K., and M.E. Wickett. 2005. Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: C09S04. [doi:10.1029/2004JC002671]

Carpenter, S.R., D. Ludwig, and W.A. Brock. 1999. Management of eutrophication for lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications 9: 751-771.

Carpenter, K.E., M. Abrar, G. Aeby, R.B. Aronson, S. Banks, A. Bruckner, A. Chiriboga, J. Cortés, J.C. Delbeek, L. DeVantier, G.J. Edgar, A.J. Edwards, D. Fenner, H.M. Guzmán, B.W. Hoeksema, G. Hodgson, O. Johan, W.Y. Licuanan, S.R. Livingstone, E.R. Lovell, J.A. Moore, D.O. Obura, D. Ochavillo, B.A. Polidoro, W.F. Precht, M.C. Quibilan, C. Reboton, Z.T. Richards, A.D. Rogers, J. Sanciangco, A. Sheppard, C. Sheppard, J. Smith, S. Stuart, E. Turak, J.E.N. Veron, C. Wallace, E. Weil, and E. Wood. 2008. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321(5888): 560-563.

Carpenter, S.R. and W.A. Brock. 2006. Rising variance: A leading indicator of ecological transition. Ecology Letters 9: 311-318.

Cesar, H., L. Burke, and L. Pet-Soede. 2003. The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. CEEC: Arhem, Netherlands.

Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V. and W.E. Phillips. 1970. Conservation of the California Tule Elk: A socioeconomic study of a survival problem. Biological Conservation 3(1): 23-32.

Clausen, C.D. and A.A. Roth. 1975. Effect of temperature and temperature adaptation on calcification rate in hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis. Marine Biology 33: 93-100.

Clark, P.U., D. Archer, D. Pollard, J.D. Blum, J.A. Rial, V. Brovkin, A.C. Mix, N.G. Pisias, and M. Roy. 2006. The middle Pleistocene transition: Characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric pCO2. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 3150–3184.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Clark, D., M. Lamare, and M. Barker. 2009. Response of sea urchin pluteus larvae (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) to reduced seawater pH: A comparison among a tropical, temperate, and a polar species. Marine Biology 156(6): 1125-1137.

Clay, P.M. and J. Olson. 2008. Defining “fishing communities”: Vulnerability and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. Human Ecology 15(2):143-160.

Cohen, A.L., D.C. McCorkle, S. de Putron, G.A. Gaetani, and K.A. Rose. 2009. Morphological and compositional changes in the skeletons of new coral recruits reared in acidified seawater: Insights into the biomineralization response to ocean acidification. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 10: Q07005.

Collier, R., J. Dymond, S. Honjo, S. Manganini, R. Francois, and R. Dunbar. 2000. The vertical flux of biogenic and lithogenic material in the Ross Sea: Moored sediment trap observations 1996–1998. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 47(15-16): 3491-3520.

Comeau, S., G. Gorsky, R. Jeffree, J-L. Teyssie, and J-P. Gattuso. 2009. Impact of ocean acidification on a key Arctic pelagic mollusc (Limacina helicina). Biogeosciences 6: 1877–1882.

Consortium for Ocean Leadership. 2009. Ocean observatories initiative. [Online]. Available: http://www.oceanleadership.org/programs-and-partnerships/ocean-observing/ooi/ [Accessed on December 2, 2009].

Cooley, S.R. and S.C. Doney. 2009. Anticipating ocean acidification’s economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters 4: 024007. [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024007]

Cooley, S., H.L. Kite-Powell, and S.C. Doney. 2009. Ocean acidification’s potential to alter global marine ecosystem services. Oceanography 22(4): 172-180.

Costello, C., S.D. Gaines, and J. Lynham. 2008. Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse?. Science 321(5896): 1678-1681. [DOI: 0.1126/science.1159478]

Coulthard, S. 2009. Adaptation and conflict within fisheries: Insights for living with climate change. In Adger, W.N., I. Lorenzoni, and K.L. O’Brien (Eds). Adapting to climate change thresholds, values, governance. Cambridge University Press. pp 255-268.

Crutzen, P.J. 2006. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?. Climatic Change 77(3-4): 211-220.

Czerny, J., J. Barcelos e Ramos, and U. Riebesell. 2009. Influence of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division and nitrogen fixation rates in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. Biogeosciences 6: 1865-1875.

Dahlhoff, E.P. 2004. Biochemical indicators of stress and metabolism: Applications for marine ecological studies. Annual Review of Physiology 66:183-207.

Dakos, V., M. Scheffer, E.H. van Nes, V. Brovkin, V. Petoukhov, and H. Held. 2008. Slowing down as an early warning signal for abrupt climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 14308-14312.

Dasgupta, P. 2003. Social capital and economic performance: Analytics. In Foundations of social capital. Ostrom, E. and T.K. Ahn (Eds.). 238–57. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, U.K.

Dayton, P.K., B.J. Mordida, and F. Bacon. 1994. Polar marine communities. American Zoologist 34: 90-99.

De’ath, G., J.M. Lough, and K.E. Fabricius. 2009. Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323: 116-119.

de Young, B., M. Barange, G. Beaugrand, R. Harris, R.I. Perry, M. Scheffer, and F. Werner. 2008. Regime shifts in marine ecosystems: Detection, prediction and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(7): 402-409.

D’Hondt, S. and G. Keller. 1991. Some patterns of planktoc foraminiferal assemblage turnover at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Marine Micropaleontology 17: 77-118.

D’Hondt, S., M.E.Q. Pilson, H. Sigurdsson, A. Hanson, and S. Carey. 1994. Surface-water acidification and extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Geology 22: 983-986.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Dickson, A.G., C.L. Sabine, and J.R. Christian. 2007. Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. PICES Special Publication 3: 191 pp.

Doney, S.C. and H.W. Ducklow. 2006. A decade of synthesis and modeling in the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53(5-7): 451-458.

Doney, S.C., R. Anderson, J. Bishop, K. Caldeira, C. Carlson, M.-E. Carr, R. Feely, M. Hood, C. Hopkinson, R. Jahnke, D. Karl, J. Kleypas, C. Lee, R. Letelier, C. McClain, C. Sabine, J. Sarmiento, B. Stephens, and R. Weller. 2004. Ocean carbon and climate change (OCCC): An implementation strategy for U.S. ocean carbon cycle science. University Center for Atmospheric Research: Boulder, CO. 108pp.

Doney, S.C., N. Mahowald, I. Lima, R.A. Feely, F.T. Mackenzie, J-F. Lamarque, and P.J. Rasch. 2007. Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification and the inorganic carbon system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(37): 14580-14585.

Doney, S.C., V.J. Fabry, R.A. Feely, and J.A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1: 169-192.

Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler, M.J. Church, and D.M. Karl. 2009. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(30): 12235–12240.

Douvere, F. 2008. The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Marine Policy 32(5): 762-771.

Ducklow, H.W., K. Baker, D.G. Martinson, L.B. Quetin, R.M. Ross, R.C. Smith, S.E. Stammerjohn, M. Vernet, and W. Fraser. 2007. Marine ecosystems: The West Antarctic Peninsula. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 362: 67-94.

Ducklow, H., S.C. Doney, and D.K. Steinberg. 2009. Contributions of long-term research and time-series observations to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Annual Review of Marine Science 1: 279-302.

Duda, T. F. 2009. Revisiting experimental methods for studies of acidity-dependent ocean sound absorption. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125(4): 1971-1981.

Dupont, S. and M.C. Thorndyke. 2009. Impact of CO2-driven ocean acidification on invertebrates early life-history—What we know, what we need to know and what we can do. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 3109-3131.

Edwards, W. and J.R. Newman. 1982. Multi-attribute evaluation. Sage Publications: London.

Egleston, E.S., C.L. Sabine, and F.M.M. Morel. 2010. Revelle revisited: Buffer factors that quantify the response of ocean chemistry to changes in DIC and alkalinity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB1002.

Engel, A. 2002. Direct relationship between CO2 uptake and transparent exopolymer particles production in natural phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 24(1): 49-53.

Engel A, S. Thoms, U. Riebesell, E. Rochelle-Newall, and I. Zondervan. 2004. Polysaccharide aggregation as a potential sink of marine dissolved organic carbon. Nature 428: 929-932.

Enriquez, S., E.R. Mendez, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and R. Iglesias-Prieto. 2004. The role of multiple scattering by coral skeleton in the amplification of the solar radiation absorbed by coral tissues. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium.

European Science Foundation. 2009. Impacts of ocean acidification. Science Policy Briefing 37, August 2009. [Online]. Available: www.esf.org. 12 pp.

Fabry, V.J., C. Langdon, W.M. Balch, A.G. Dickson, R.A. Feely, B. Hales, D.A. Hutchins, J.A. Kleypas, and C.L. Sabine. 2008a. Present and future impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Report of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Ocean Acidification Research held 9-11 October 2007, La Jolla, CA. 51 pp.

Fabry, V.J., B.A. Seibel, R.A. Feely, and J.C. Orr. 2008b. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65: 414–432.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Feary, D.A., G.R. Almany, M.I. McCormick, and G.P. Jones. 2007. Habitat choice, recruitment and the response of coral reef fishes to coral degradation. Oecologia 153: 727-737.

Feely, R.A. and C.T.A. Chen. 1982. The effect of excess CO2 on the calculated calcite and aragonite saturation horizons in the northeast Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 9(11): 1294-1297.

Feely, R.A., R.H. Byrne, P.R. Betzer, J.F. Gendron, and J.G. Acker. 1984. Factors influencing the degree of saturation of the surface and intermediate waters of the North Pacific Ocean with respect to aragonite. Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 89: 10631-10640.

Feely, R.A., R.H. Byrne, J.G. Acker, P.R. Betzer, C-T.A. Chen, J.F. Gendron, and M.F. Lamb. 1988. Winter-summer variations of calcite aragonite saturation in the northeast Pacific. Marine Chemistry 25: 227-241.

Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V.J. Fabry, and F.J. Millero. 2004. Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the Oceans. Science 305(5682): 362-366.

Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, J. Martin Hernandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320(5882):1490-1492.

Feely, R.A., V.J. Fabry, A. Dickson, J.-P. Gattuso, J. Bijma, U. Riebesell, S. Doney, C. Turley, T. Saino, K. Lee, K. Anthony, and J. Kleypas. 2010. An international observational network for ocean acidification. In Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. Hall, J., D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer (Eds.). ESA Publication WPP-306.

Fine, M. and D. Tchernov. 2007. Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification. Science 315: 1811.

Fleeger, J.W., K.R. Carman, P.B. Weisenhorn, H. Sofranko, T. Marshall, D. Thistle, and J.P. Barry. 2006. Simulated sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide at a deep-sea site: Effects on nematode abundance and biovolume. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 53:1135-1147.

Folke, C., S. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, and C.S. Holling. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35: 557-581.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2008. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2008. Rome 2009.

Frank, K.T., B. Petrie, N.L. Shackell, and J.S. Choi. 2006. Reconciling differences in trophic control in mid-latitude marine ecosystems. Ecology Letters 9: 1096-105.

Frank, K.T., B. Petriea, and N.L. Shackell. 2007. The ups and downs of trophic control in continental shelf ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(5): 236-242.

Freedman, A. 2008. Ocean acidification - The sleeper issue. The Washington Post July 7, 2008.

Friedlingstein, P., P.M. Cox, R.A. Betts, L. Bopp, W. Von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala, J. John, S.D. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H.D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P. Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K-G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A.J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng. 2006. Climate–carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. Journal of Climate 19(14): 3337-3353.

Freiwald, A. 2002. Reef-forming cold-water corals. In Ocean Margin Systems. Wefer, G., D. Billett, D. Hebbeln, B.B. Jorgensen, M. Schluter, T. Van Weering (Eds.). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 365–385.

Freiwald, A., J.H. Fosså, A. Grehan, T. Koslow, and J.M. Roberts. 2004. Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC: Cambridge, UK.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Fu, F-X., M.E. Warner, Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, and D.A. Hutchins. 2007. Effects of increased temperature and CO2 on photosynthesis, growth, and elemental ratios in marine synechococcus and prochlorococcus (cyanobacteria). Journal of Phycology 43(3): 485-496.

Fu, F-X., M.R. Mulholland, N.S. Garcia, A. Beck, P.W. Bernhardt, M.E. Warner, S.A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy, and D.A. Hutchins. 2008. Interactions between changing pCO2, N2 fixation, and Fe limitation in the marine unicellular cyanobacterium Crocosphaera. Limnology and Oceanography 53(6): 2472-2484.

Furla, P., S. Bénazet-Tambutté, J. Jaubert, and D. Allemand. 1998. Functional polarity of the tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: Role in inorganic carbon acquisition. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 274: R303–R310.

Gage, J.D. and P.A. Tyler. 1991. Deep-sea biology: A natural history of organisms at the deep-sea floor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 504 pp.

Gao, K. and Y. Zheng. 2009. Combined effects of ocean acidification and solar UV radiation on photosynthesis, growth, pigmentation and calcification of the coralline alga Corallina sessilis (Rhodophyta). Global Change Biology [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02113.x].

Gardner, W.D., M.J. Richardson, and W.O. Smith, Jr. 2000. Seasonal patterns of water column particulate organic carbon and fluxes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 47(15-16): 3423-3449.

Gattuso, J-P., M. Frankignoulle, I. Bourge, S. Romaine, and R.W. Buddemeier. 1998. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Global and Planetary Change 18(1-2): 37-46.

Gattuso, J-P., L. Hansson, and the EPOCA Consortium. 2009. European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA): Objectives, products, and scientific highlights. Oceanography 22(4):190-201.

Gazeau, F., C. Quiblier, J.M. Jansen, J. Gattuso, J.J. Middelberg, and C.H.R. Heip. 2007. Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification. Geophysical Research Letters L07603. [doi:10.1029/2006GL028554]

Gehlen, M., R. Gangstø, B. Schneider, L. Bopp, O. Aumont, and C. Ethe. 2007. The fate of pelagic CaCO3 production in a high CO2 ocean: A model study. Biogeosciences 4: 505–519.

Gledhill, D.K., R. Wanninkhof, F.J. Millero, and M. Eakin. 2008. Ocean acidification of the Greater Caribbean Region 1996-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research 113C10031. [doi:10.1029/2007JC004629]

Glover, D.M., C.L. Chandler, S.C. Doney, K.O. Buesseler, G. Heimerdinger, J.K.B. Bishop, and G.R. Flierl. 2006. The U.S. JGOFS data management experience. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53(5-7): 793-802.

Glynn, P.W. 1996. Coral reef bleaching: Facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology 2(6): 495-509.

Goffredi, S.K. and J.J. Childress. 2001. Activity and inhibitor sensitivity of ATPases in the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila: A comparative approach. Marine Biology 138(2): 259-265.

Golomb, D., S. Pennell, D. Ryan, E. Barry, and P. Swett. 2007. Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide: Modeling the deep ocean release of a dense emulsion of liquid CO2-in-water stabilized by pulverized limestone particles. Environmental Science and Technology 41(13): 4698–4704.

Grabowski, J.H. and C.H. Peterson. 2007. Restoring oyster reefs to recover ecosystem services. In Ecosystem engineers: Concepts, theory and applications. Cuddington, K., J.E. Byers, W.G. Wilson, and A. Hastings (Eds.) Elsevier/Academic Press, Netherlands. pp. 281-298.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Graham, N.A.J., S.K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N.V.C. Polunin, J. Robinson, J.P. Bijoux, and T.M. Daw. 2007. Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology 21(5): 1291–1300.

Grassle, J.F. 1986. The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Advances in Marine Biology 23: 301-362.

Gratwicke, B. and M.R. Speight. 2005. The relationship between fish species richness, abundance and habitat complexity in a range of shallow tropical marine habitats. Journal of Fish Biology 66: 650-667.

Grebmeier, J.M., J.E. Overland, S.E. Moore, E.V. Farley, E.C. Carmack, L.W. Cooper, K.E. Frey, J.H. Helle, F.A. McLaughlin, and S.L. McNutt. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the Northern Bering Sea. Science 311(5766): 1461-1464.

Green, M.A., M.E. Jones, C.L. Boudreau, R.L. Moore, and B.A. Westman. 2004. Dissolution mortality of juvenile bivalves in coastal marine deposits. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 727-734.

Green, M., G. Waldbusser, S. Reilly, K. Emerson, and S. O’Donnel. 2009. Death by dissolution: Sediment saturation state as a mortality factor for juvenile bivalves. Limnology and Oceanography 54(4):1037–1047.

Griffiths, C. and W. Wheeler. 2005. Benefit-cost analysis of regulations affecting surface water quality in the United States. In Cost benefit analysis and water resources management. Brouwer, R. and D. Pearce (Eds.) Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Guinotte, J. and V.J. Fabry. 2009. The threat of ocean acidification to ocean ecosystems. Journal of Marine Education 25(1): 2-7.

Guinotte, J.M., J. Orr, S. Cairns, A. Freiwald, L. Morgan, and R. George. 2006. Will human-induced changes in seawater chemistry alter the distribution of deep-sea scleractinian corals?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(3): 141-146.

Guttal, V. and C. Jayaprakash. 2008. Changing skewness: An early warning signal of regime shifts in ecological systems. Ecology Letters 11: 450-460.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., R. Rodolfo-Metalpa, S. Martin, E. Ransome, M. Fine, S.M. Turner, S.J. Rowley, D. Tedesco, and M.C. Buia. 2008. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454: 96-99.

Harvey, L.D.D. 2008. Mitigating the atmospheric CO2 increase and ocean acidification by adding limestone powder to upwelling regions. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: C04028.

Havenhand, J.N., F. Buttler, M.C. Thorndyke, and J.E. Williamson. 2008. Near-future levels of ocean acidification reduce fertilization success in a sea urchin. Current Biology 18(15): 651-652.

Heinze, C. 2004. Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse. Geophysical Research Letters 31.

Henderson, J. and L.J. O’Neil. 2003. Economic values associated with construction of oyster reefs by the Corps of Engineers. EMRRP Technical Notes Collection (ERDC-TN-EMRRP-ER-01). Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. [Online]. Available: http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/pdf/er01.pdf

Hester, K.C., E.T. Peltzer, W.J. Kirkwood, and P.G. Brewer. 2008. Unanticipated consequences of ocean acidification: A noisier ocean at lower pH. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L19601.

Heyward, A.J. and A.P. Negri. 1999. Natural inducers for coral larval metamorphosis. Coral Reefs 18: 273-279.

Hochachka, P.W. and G.N. Somero. 2002. Biochemical adaptation: Mechanism and process in physiological evolution. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Holland, D., J.N. Sanchirico, R. Johnston and D. Kopklar. 2010. Economic analysis for ecosystem based management: Applications to marine and coastal environments. Resources for the Future Press. Approx. 250 pages. [Online]. Available: http://www.earthscan.co.uk/?tabid=102257

Hönisch, B. 2005. Surface ocean pH response to variations in pCO2 through two full glacial cycles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236(1-2): 305-314.

Hönisch, B., N.G. Hemming, D. Archer, M. Siddall, and J.F. McManus. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration across the mid-pleistocene transition. Science. 324(5934): 1551-1554.

Honjo, S., R. Francois, S. Manganini, J. Dymond, and R. Collier. 2000. Particle fluxes to the interior of the Southern Ocean in the Western Pacific sector along 170°W. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 47(15-16): 3521-3548.

Hopkins F.E., S.M. Turner, P.D. Nightingale, M. Steinke, D. Bakker, and P.S. Liss. 2010. Ocean acidification and marine trace gas emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 760-765.

Hossain, M.M.M. and S. Ohde. 2006. Calcification of cultured Porites and Fungia under different aragonite saturation states of seawater. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium. Japan Coral Reef Society 597–606.

House, K.Z., D.P. Schrag, C.F. Harvey, and K.S. Lackner. 2006. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(33): 12291-12295.

House, K.Z., C.H. House, D.P. Schrag, and M.J. Aziz. 2007. Electrochemical acceleration of chemical weathering as an energetically feasible approach to mitigating anthropogenic climate change. Environmental Science & Technology 41: 8464-8470.

Hutchins, D.A., F.X. Fu, Y. Zhang, M.E. Warner, Y. Feng, K. Portune, P.W. Bernhardt, and M.R. Mulholland. 2007. CO2 control of Trichodesmium N2 fixation, photosynthesis, growth rates, and elemental ratios: Implications for past, present, and future ocean biogeochemistry. Limnology and Oceanography 52(4): 1293-1304.

Hutchins, D.A., M.R. Mulholland, and F. Fu. 2009. Nutrient cycles and marine microbes in a CO2-enriched ocean. Oceanography 22(4): 128-145.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, D.M., P.R. Halloran, R.E.M. Rickaby, I.R. Hall, E. Colmenero-Hidalgo, J.R. Gittins, D.R.H. Green, T. Tyrrell, S.J. Gibbs, P. von Dassow, E. Rehm, E.V. Armbrust, and K.P. Boessenkool. 2008. Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world. Science 320: 336-340.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA.

Integrated Ocean Observing System. 2009. U.S. IOOS®: Our eyes on our oceans, coasts, and Great Lakes. [Online]. Available: http://ioos.gov/ [Accessed on December 2, 2009]

Johnson, J.E. and P.A. Marshall (Eds). 2007. Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australian Greenhouse Office. Townsville, Australia.

Joint, I., D.M. Karl, S.C. Doney, E.V. Armbrust, W. Balch, M. Berman, C. Bowler, M. Church, A. Dickson, J. Heidelberg, D. Iglesias-Rodriguez, D. Kirchman, Z. Kolber, R. Letelier, C. Lupp, S. Maberly, S. Park, J. Raven, D.J. Repeta, U. Riebesell, G. Steward, P. Tortell, R.E. Zeebe, and J.P. Zehr. 2009. Consequences of high CO2 and ocean acidification for microbes in the global ocean. Report of expert meeting at the University of Hawaii, 24-26 February 2009 organized by Plymouth Marine Laboratory and Center for Microbial Oceanography Research and Education. 23pp.

Jokiel, P.L. and S.L. Coles. 1977. Effects of temperature on mortality and growth of Hawaiian reef corals. Marine Biology 43: 201-208.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Jokiel, P.L., K.S. Rodgers, I.B. Kuffner, A.J. Andersson, E.F. Cox, and F.T. Mackenzie. 2008. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: A mesocosm investigation. Coral Reefs 27: 473-483.

Keeney, R. 1992. Value-focused thinking: A path to creative decisionmaking. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.

Keller, B.D., S. Airamé, B. Causey, A. Friedlander, D.F. Gleason, R. Grober-Dunsmore, J. Johnson, E. McLeod, S.L. Miller, R.S. Steneck, and C. Woodley. 2008. Marine protected areas. In: Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [Julius, S.H., J.M. West (Eds.), J.S. Baron, B. Griffith, L.A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B.D. Keller, M.A. Palmer, C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Scott (Authors)]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Online]. Available: http://downloads.climate-science.gov/sap/sap4-4/sap4-4-final-report-Ch8-mpa.pdf [Accessed October 4, 2009]

Kelly, P.M. and W.N. Adger. 2000. Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Climate Change 47: 325-252.

Kennett, J.P. and L.D. Stott. 1991. Abrupt deep sea warming, paleoceanographic changes and benthic extinctions at the end of the Paleocene. Nature 353: 319-322.

Key, R.M., A. Kozyr, C.L. Sabine, K. Lee, R. Wanninkhof, J.L. Bullister, R.A. Feely, F.J. Millero, C. Mordy, and T-H. Peng. 2004. A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18: GB4031.

Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the ocean. Nature 462: 346-349.

Kiessling, W., C. Simpson, and M. Foote. 2010. Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Science 327(5962): 196-198.

Kim, T.Y., S. Kwak, and S. Yoo. 1998. Applying multi-attribute utility theory to decision making in environmental planning: A case study of the electric utility in Korea. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 41(5): 597-609.

Kim, J-M., K. Lee, K. Shin, J-H. Kang, H-W. Lee, M. Kim, P-G. Jang, and M-C. Jang. 2006. The effect of seawater CO2 concentration on growth of a natural phytoplankton assemblage in a controlled mesocosm experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 51(4): 1629-1636.

Kim, J-M., K. Shin, K. Lee, and B-K. Park. 2008. In situ ecosystem-based carbon dioxide perturbation experiments: Design and performance evaluation of a mesocosm facility. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6: 208–217.

Kitchingman, A. and S. Lai. 2004. Inferences of potential seamount locations from mid-resolution bathymetric data. In Morato and Pauly (Eds.). Seamounts: Biodiversity and fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(5): 7-12.

Klaas, C. and D.E. Archer. 2002. Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: Implications for the rain ratio. Global Biogeochemistry Cycles 16(4): 1116.

Kleinen, T., H. Held, and G. Petschel-Held. 2003. The potential role of spectral properties in detecting thresholds in the earth system: Application to the thermohaline circulation. Ocean Dynamics 53: 53-63.

Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins. 2006. Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other marine calcifiers: A guide for future research. Report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Peteresburg, FL. 88 pp.

Kleypas, J.A. and C. Langdon. 2006. Coral reefs and changing seawater carbonate chemistry. Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management Coastal and Estuarine Studies, American Geophysical Union 61: 73-100.

Kling, D. and J.N. Sanchirico. 2009. An adaptation portfolio for the United States coastal and marine environments. Resources for the Future Report. [Online]. Available: www.rff.org

Knoll, A.H., R.K. Bambach, D.E. Canfield, and J.P. Grotzinger. 1996. Comparative Earth history and late Permian mass extinction. Science 273: 452-457.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Kranz, S.A., D. Sultemeyer, K.U. Richter, and B. Rost. 2009. Carbon acquisition by Trichodesmium: The effect of pCO2 and diurnal changes. Limnology and Oceanography 54(2): 548-559.

Kuffner, I.B., A.J. Andersson, P.L. Jokiel, K.S. Rodgers, and F.T. Mackenzie. 2008. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification. Nature Geoscience 1: 77-140.

Kurihara, H. 2008. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on the early developmental stages of invertebrates. Marine Ecological Progress Series 373: 275–284.

Kurihara, H. and Y. Shirayama. 2004. Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on sea urchin early development. Marine Ecology Progress Series 274: 161–169.

Kurihara, H., S. Kato, and A. Ishimatsu. 2007. Effects of increased seawater pCO2 on early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Aquatic Biology 1: 91-98.

Kurihara, H., T. Asai, S. Kato, and A. Ishimatsu. 2008a. Effects of elevated pCO2 on early development in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquatic Biology 4: 225–233.

Kurihara, H., M. Matsui, H. Furukawa, M. Hayashi, and A. Ishimatsu. 2008b. Long-term effects of predicted future seawater CO2 conditions on the survival and growth of the marine shrimp Palaemon pacificus. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 367: 41-46.

Langdon, C. and M.J. Atkinson. 2005. Effect of elevated pCO2 on photosynthesis and calcification of corals and interactions with seasonal change in temperature/irradiance and nutrient enrichment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 110: C09S07. [doi:10.1029/2004JC002576]

Langdon, C., T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, D. Chipman, J. Goddard, F. Marubini, H. Aceves, H. Barnett, and M.J. Atkinson. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 639-654.

Langdon, C., W.S. Broecker, D.E. Hammond, E. Glenn, K. Fitzsimmons, S.G. Nelson, T.H. Peng, I. Hajdas, and G. Bonani. 2003. Effect of elevated CO2 on the community metabolism of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17: 1011. [doi:10.1029/2002GB001941]

Langer G., M. Geisen, K. Baumann, J. Kläs, U. Riebesell, S. Thoms, and J.R. Young. 2006. Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7: Q09006. [doi:10.1029/2005GC001227]

Langer, G., G. Nehrke, I. Probert, J. Ly, and P. Ziveri. 2009. Strain-specific responses of Emiliania huxleyi to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 4361–4383.

Leclercq N., J.-P. Gattuso, and J. Jaubert. 2000. CO2 partial pressure controls the calcification rate of a coral community. Global Change Biology 6: 329-334.

Leclercq, N., J-P. Gattuso, and J. Jaubert. 2002. Primary production, respiration, and calcification of a coral reef mesocosm under increased CO2 partial pressure. Limnology and Oceanography 47(2): 558-564.

Lee, K., L.T. Tong, F.J. Millero, C.L. Sabine, A.G. Dickson, C. Goyet, G-H. Park, R. Wanninkhof, R.A. Feely, and R.M. Key. 2006. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world’s oceans. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L19605. [doi:10.1029/2005GL027207]

Levitan, O., G. Rosenberg, I. Setlik, E. Setlikova, J. Grigel, J. Klepetar, O. Prasil, and I. Berman-Frank. 2007. Elevated CO2 enhances nitrogen fixation and growth in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Global Change Biology 13: 531-538.

Lewis, E. and D.W.R. Wallace. 1998. Program developed for CO2 system calculations. ORNL/CDIAC-105. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy: Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Liu, Y. 2009. Instability of seawater pH in the South China Sea during the mid-late Holocene: Evidence from boron isotopic composition of corals. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 73(5): 1264-1272.

Lourens, L.J., A. Sluijs, D. Kroon, J.C. Zachos, E. Thomas, U. Rohl, J. Bowles, and I. Raffi. 2005. Astronomical pacing of late Palaeocene to early Eocene global warming events. Nature 435: 1083-1087.

Lueker, T.J., A.G. Dickson, and C.D. Keeling. 2000. Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: Validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70(1-3): 105-119.

Maier, C., J. Hegeman, M.G. Weinbauer, and J.P. Gattuso. 2009. Calcification of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa under ambient and reduced pH. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 1875-1901.

Manzello, D.P., J.A. Kleypas, D.A. Budd, C.M. Eakin, P.W. Glynn, and C. Langdon. 2008. Poorly cemented coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific: Possible insights into reef development in a high-CO2 world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(30): 10450-10455.

Marshall, A.T. and P.L. Clode. 2002. Effect of increased calcium concentration in sea water on calcification and photosynthesis in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 2107–2113.

Martin, S. and J-P. Gattuso. 2009. Response of Mediterranean coralline algae to ocean acidification and elevated temperature. Global Change Biology 15(8): 2089-2100. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01874.x]

Martin, S., R. Rodolfo-Metalpa, E. Ransome, S. Rowley, M.C. Buia, J.P. Gattuso, and J. Hall-Spencer. 2008. Effects of naturally acidified seawater on seagrass calcareous epibionts. Biology Letters 4: 689-692.

Martz, T.R., K.S. Johnson, H. Jannasch, L. Coletti, J. Barry, and C. Lovera. 2008. ISFET sensor evaluation and modification for seawater pH measurement. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. abstract #OS33E-02.

Marubini, F. and M.J. Atkinson. 1999. Effects of lowered pH and elevated nitrate on coral calcification. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188: 117-121.

Marubini, F., H. Barnett, C. Langdon, and M.J. Atkinson. 2001. Dependence of calcification on light and carbonate ion concentration for the hermatypic coral Porites compressa. Marine Ecology Progress Series 220: 153-162.

Marubini, F., C. Ferrier-Pages, and J-P. Cuif. 2003. Suppression of skeletal growth in scleractinian corals by decreasing ambient carbonate-ion concentration: A cross-family comparison. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270: 179-184.

Marubini, F., C. Ferrier-Pages, P. Furla, and D. Allemand. 2008. Coral calcification responds to seawater acidification: A working hypothesis towards a physiological mechanism. Coral Reefs 27: 491-499.

McDonald, M.R., J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler, D. Rittschof, R.A. Angus, B. Orihuela, and K. Lutostanski. 2009. Effects of ocean acidification over the life history of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 385: 179-187.

McLeod, K. and H. Leslie. (Eds.). 2009. Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans. Island Press: Washington, D.C. 392 pp.

McGinn, P.J. and F.M.M. Morel. 2008. Expression and inhibition of the carboxylating and decarboxylating enzymes in the photosynthetic C4 pathway of marine diatoms. Plant Physiology 146: 1-10.

Melzner, F., M.A. Gutowska, M. Langenbuch, S. Dupont, M. Lucassen, M.C. Thorndyke, M. Bleich, and H-O. Pörtner. 2009. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: Pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?. Biogeosciences Discussions 6(3): 4693-4738.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Meseck, S.L., B.C. Smith, G.H. Wikfors, J.H. Alix, and D. Kapareiko. 2007. Nutrient interactions between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton under different carbon dioxide regimes. Journal of Applied Phycology 19(3): 229-237.

Meyer, D.L., E.C. Townsend, and G.W. Thayer. 1997. Stabilization and erosion control value of oyster clutch for intertidal marsh. Restoration Ecology 5: 93-99.

Miles, E.L. 2009. On the increasing vulnerability of the world ocean to multiple stresses. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34: 17-41.

Miller, A.W., A.C. Reynolds, C. Sobrino, and G.F. Riedel. 2009. Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO2 world: Influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5661. [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005661]

Millero, F.J. 2006. Chemical oceanography. 3rd Edition. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 496 p.

Millero, F.J., R. Woosley, B. DiTrolio, and J. Waters. 2009. The effect of ocean acidification on the speciation of metals in seawater. Oceanography 22(4): 72-85.

Morel, F.M.M. and J.G. Hering. 1993. Principles and applications of aquatic chemistry. John Wiley: New York, NY.

Morel, F.M.M., A.J. Milligan, and M.A. Saito. 2003. Marine bioinorganic chemistry: The role of trace metals in the oceanic cycles of major nutrients. In Treatise on Geochemistry. K.K. Turekian, H.D. Holland, (Eds.). Elsevier Science Ltd.: Cambridge, U.K. 6: 113-143.

Morse, J.W., A.J. Andersson, and F.T. Mackenzie. 2006. Initial responses of carbonate-rich shelf sediments to rising atmospheric pCO2 and “ocean acidification”: Role of high Mg-calcites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5814-5830.

Morse, J.W. and F.T. Mackenzie. 1990. Geochemistry of sedimentary carbonates. Elsevier: Amsterdam. 707 pp.

Mortensen, P.B. and L. Buhl-Mortensen. 2005. Morphology and growth of the deep-water gorgonians Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. Marine Biology 147: 775-788.

Moy, A.D., W.R. Howard, S.G. Bray, and T.W. Trull. 2009. Reduced calcification in modern Southern Ocean planktonic foraminifera. Nature Geoscience 2: 276-280. [doi:10.1029/NGEO460]

Munday, P.L., D.L. Dixson, J.M. Donelson, G.P. Jones, M.S. Pratchett, G.V. Devitsina, and K.B. Doving. 2009. Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 1848-1852.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2008. Fisheries of the United States 2007. Current Fishery Statistics No. 2007. National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Science and Technology. Silver Spring, MD.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009a. Marine invertebrates and plants. Office of Protected Resources, NOAA Fisheries. [Online]. Available: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/invertebrates/#corals [Accessed October 4, 2009]

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009b. A vision for climate services in NOAA. [Online]. Available: http://www.climate.noaa.gov/pdf/GandPdocumentOct21.pdf [Accessed on December 29, 2009]

National Research Council. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 1999. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2005a. Decision Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2005b. Thinking Strategically: The Appropriate Use of Metrics for the Climate Change Science Program. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2007a. Analysis of Global Change Assessments: Lessons Learned. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2007b. Evaluating Progress of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program: Methods and Preliminary Results. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

National Research Council. 2007c. Research and Networks for Decision Support in the NOAA Sectoral Applications Research Program. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2008. Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2009a. Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 2009b. Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

National Science Foundation. 2009. National Science Foundation Award Search. [Online]. Available: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/ [Accessed on December 29, 2009]

Negri, A.P., N.S. Webster, R.T. Hill, and A.J. Heyward. 2001. Metamorphosis of broadcast spawning corals in response to bacteria isolated from crustose algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 223: 121-131.

Newell, R.I.E. 1988. Ecological changes in Chesapeake Bay: Are they the result of overharvesting the American Oyster Crassostrea virginica? In Understanding the estuary: Advances in Chesapeake Bay research. (Eds.) Lynch, M. P. and E.C. Krome. Publication 129. Chesapeake Research Consortium: Baltimore, MD.

Newell, R.I.E. and E.W. Koch. 2004. Modeling seagrass density and distribution in response to change in tubidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass sediment stabilization. Estuaries 27: 793-806.

Nordhaus, W.D. 2007. A review of the stern review on the economics of climate change. Journal of Economic Literature 45(3): 686-702.

Norström, A.V., M. Nyström, J. Lokrantz, and C. Folke. 2009. Alternative states on coral reefs: Beyond coral-macroalgal phase shifts. Marine Ecology Progress Series 376: 295-306.

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program. 2009a. Ocean acidification–recommended strategy for a U.S. national research program. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program. 14 pp. [Online]. Available: http://us-ocb.org/.

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program. 2009b. Ocean carbon and biogeochemistry program response to EPA notice of data availability: Ocean acidification and marine pH water quality criteria. Public Submission EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0224-0163, 33pp. [Online]. Available: http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/component/main?main=DocumentDetail&o=09000064809d0189, http://us-ocb.org/.

Ohde, S. and M.M.M. Hossain. 2004. Effect of CaCO3 (aragonite) saturation state of seawater on calcification of Porites coral. Geochemical Journal 38: 613-621.

Olafsson J., S.R. Olafsdottir, A. Benoit-Cattin, M. Danielsen, T.S. Arnarson, and T. Takahashi. 2009. Rate of Iceland Sea acidification from time series measurements. Biogeosciences 6: 2661-2668.

Orr, J.C., V.J. Fabry, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, R.A. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, R.M. Key, K. Lindsay, E. Maier-Reimer, R. Matear, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet, R.G. Najjar, G-K. Plattner, K.B. Rodgers, C.L. Sabine, J.L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R.D. Slater, I.J. Totterdell, M-F. Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437: 681-686.

Orr, J.C., K. Caldeira, V. Fabry, J-P. Gattuso, P. Haugan, P. Lehodey, S. Pantoja, H-O. Pörtner, U. Riebesell, T. Trull, E. Urban, M. Hood, and W. Broadgate. 2009. Research priorities for understanding ocean acidification. Oceanography 22: 182-189.

Oschlies, A., K.G. Schulz, U. Riebesell, and A. Schmittner. 2008. Simulated 21st century’s increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22: GB4008. [doi:10.1029/2007GB003147]

Overland, J., S. Rodionov, S. Minobe, and N. Bond. 2008. North Pacific regime shifts: Definitions, issues and recent transitions. Progress in Oceanography 77: 92-102.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Pacala, S. and R. Socolow. 2004. Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science 305(5686): 968-972.

Padan, E., E. Bibi, M. Ito, and T.A. Krulwich. 2005. Alkaline pH homeostasis in bacteria: New insights. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1717(2): 67-88.

Paddack, M., J. Reynolds, C. Aguilar, R. Appeldoorn, J. Beets, E. Burkett, P. Chittaro, K. Clarke, R. Esteves, and A. Fonseca. 2009. Recent region-wide declines in Caribbean reef fish abundance. Current Biology 19(7): 590-595.

Pagani, M., K. Caldeira, D. Archer, and J.C. Zachos. 2006. An ancient carbon mystery. Science 314 (5805): 1556-1557.

Pala, C. 2009. The Pacific Ocean’s acidification laboratory. Environmental Science and Technology 43: 6451-6452.

Palacios, S.L., and R.C. Zimmerman. 2007. Response of eelgrass Zostera marina to CO2 enrichment: Possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344: 1-13.

Palenik, B. and F.M.M. Morel. 1991a. Comparison of cell-surface L-amino acid oxidases from several marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 59: 195-201.

Palenik, B. and F.M.M. Morel. 1991b. Amine oxidases of marine phytoplankton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57: 2440-2443.

Palenik, B. and F.M.M. Morel. 1990. Amino acid utilization by marine phytoplankton: A novel mechanism. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 260-269.

Palumbi, S.R., P.A. Sandifer, J.D. Allan, M.W. Beck, D.G. Fautin, M.J. Fogarty, B.S. Halpern, L.S. Incze, J. Leong, E. Norse, J.J. Stachowicz, and D.H. Wall. 2009. Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(4): 204-211.

Pane, E.F. and J.P. Barry. 2007. Extracellular acid–base regulation during short-term hypercapnia is effective in a shallow-water crab, but ineffective in a deep-sea crab. Marine Ecology Progress Series 334: 1-9.

Parker, L.M., P.M. Ross, and W.A. O’Connor. 2009. The effect of ocean acidification and temperature on the fertilization and embryonic development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (Gould 1850). Global Change Biology 15(9): 2123-2136. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01895.x]

Pearse, V., J. Pearse, M. Buchsbaum, and R. Buchsbaum. 1987. Living Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Pub.: Boston, MA.

Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429-436.

Pew Center for Global Climate Change. 2009. The science and consequences of ocean acidification. Science Brief 3. 8pp. [Online]. Available: http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/ocean-acidification-Aug2009.pdf

Politi, Y., T. Arad, E. Klein, S. Weiner, and L. Addadi. 2004. Sea urchin spine calcite forms via a transient amorphous calcium carbonate phase. Science 306(5699): 1161-1164.

Pörtner, H.O. and A.P. Farell. 2008. Physiology and climate change. Science 322(5902): 690-692. [doi:10.1126/science.1163156]

Pörtner, H.O., C. Bock, and A. Reipschläger. 2000. Modulation of the cost of pHi regulation during metabolic depression: A 31P-NMR study in invertebrate (Sipunculus nudus) isolated muscle. The Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 2417-2428.

Pörtner, H.O., M. Langenbuch, and A. Reipschläger. 2004. Biological impact of elevated ocean CO2 concentrations: Lessons from animal physiology and Earth history. Journal of Oceanography 60: 705-718.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Pratchett, M.S., P.L. Munday, S.K. Wilson, N.A.J. Graham, J.E. Cinner, D.R. Bellwood, G.P. Jones, N.V.C. Polunin, and T.R. McClanahan. 2008. Effects of climate-induced coral bleaching on coral-reef fishes- Ecological and economic consequences. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 46: 251-296.

Ramsey, F.P. 1928. A mathematical theory of saving. Economic Journal 38(152): 543–59.

Rau, G.H. 2008. Electrochemical splitting of calcium carbonate to increase solution alkalinity: Implications for mitigation of carbon dioxide and ocean acidity. Environmental Science and Technology 42(23):8935-8940.

Rau, G.H. and K. Caldeira. 1999. Enhanced carbonate dissolution: A means of sequestering waste CO2 as ocean bicarbonate. Energy Conversion And Management 40: 1803-1813.

Raven, J., K. Caldeira, H. Elderfield, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, P.S. Liss, U. Reisbell, J. Shepard, C. Turley, and A.J. Watson. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy Document. The Royal Society, London.

Reinfelder, J.R., A.M.L. Kraepiel, and F.M.M. Morel. 2000. Unicellular C4 photosynthesis in a marine diatom. Nature 407: 996-999.

Reinfelder, J.R., A.J. Milligan, and F.M.M. Morel. 2004. The role of the C4 pathway in carbon accumulation and fixation in a marine diatom. Plant Physiology 135: 2106-2111.

Renegar, D.A. and B.M. Riegl. 2005. Effect of nutrient enrichment and elevated CO2 partial pressure on growth rate of Atlantic scleractinian coral Acropora cervicornis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 293: 69-76.

Reynaud, S., N. Leclercq, S. Romaine-Lioud, C. Ferrier-Pages, J. Jaubert, and J.P. Gattuso. 2003. Interacting effects of CO2 partial pressure and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification in a scleractinian coral. Global Change Biology 9: 1660-1668.

Ridgwell, A. and R.E. Zeebe. 2005. The role of the global carbonate cycle in the regulation and evolution of the Earth system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 234(3-4): 299-315.

Ridgwell, A., D.N. Schmidt, C. Turley, C. Brownlee, M.T. Maldonado, P. Tortell, and J.R. Young. 2009. From laboratory manipulations to earth system models: Predicting pelagic calcification and its consequences. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 3455–3480.

Riebesell, U. 2008. Climate change: Acid test for marine biodiversity. Nature 454: 46-47.

Riebesell, U., I. Zondervan, B. Rost, P.D. Tortell, R.E. Zeebe, and F.M.M. Morel. 2000. Reduced calcification in marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407: 634-637.

Riebesell, U., K.G. Schulz, R.G.J. Bellerby, M. Botros, P. Fritsche, M. Meyerhöfer, C. Neill, G. Nondal, A. Oschlies, J. Wohlers, and E. Zöllner. 2007. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean. Nature 450: 545-548.

Riebesell, U., R.G.J. Bellerby, A. Engel, V.J. Fabry, D.A. Hutchins, T.B.H. Reusch, K.G. Schulz, and F.M.M. Morel. 2008. Comment on “Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world”. Science 322: 1466b.

Riebesell, U., A. Körtzinger, and A. Oschlies. 2009. Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 20602-20609.

Riebesell, U., V.J. Fabry, L. Hansson, and J-P. Gattuso (Eds). 2010. Guide to best practices in ocean acidification research and data reporting. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Luxembourg: 264 pp.

Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, and D.C. McCorkle. 2009. Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Geology 37(12): 1131-1134.

Rietkerk, M., S.C. Dekker, P.C. de Ruiter, and J. van de Koppel. 2004. Self-organized patchiness and catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Science 305: 1926-1929.

Roark, E.B., T.P. Guilderson, R.B. Dunbar, S.J. Fallon, and D.A. Mucciarone. 2009. Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(13): 5204-5208.

Roberts, J.M., A.J. Wheeler, and A. Freiwald. 2006. Reefs of the deep: The biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 312: 543-547.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Rosenzweig, C., D. Karoly, M. Vicarelli, P. Neofotis, Q. Wu, G. Casassa, A. Menzel, T.L. Root, N. Estrella, B. Seguin, P. Tryjanowski, C. Liu, S. Rawlins, and A. Imeson. 2008. Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453(7193): 353-358.

Rost, B. and U. Riebesell. 2004. Coccolithophores and the biological pump: Responses to environmental changes. In: Coccolithophores – From Molecular Processes to Global Impact. H.R. Thierstein, J.R. Young (Eds.). Springer: New York, NY. 76-99.

Rost, B., I. Zondervan, and D. Wolf-Gladrow. 2008. Sensitivity of phytoplankton to future changes in ocean carbonate chemistry: Current knowledge, contradictions and research directions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373: 227-237.

Russell, B.D., J.I. Thompson, L.J. Falkenberg, and S.D. Connell. 2009. Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient-driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. Global Change Biology 15: 2153-2162.

Sabine, C.L., R.A. Feely, N. Gruber, R.M. Key, K. Lee, J.L. Bullister, R. Wanninkhof, C.S. Wong, D.W.R. Wallace, B. Tilbrook, F.J. Millero, T-H. Peng, A. Kozyr, T. Ono, and A.F. Rios. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305(5682): 367-371.

Salisbury, J., M. Green, C. Hunt, and J. Campbell. 2008. Coastal acidification by rivers: A threat to shellfish?. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 89(50): 513-528.

Sanyal, A., N.G. Hemming, G.N. Hanson, and W.S. Broecker. 1995. Evidence for a higher pH in the glacial ocean from boron isotopes in foraminifera. Nature 373: 234-236.

Sarmiento, J.L. and N. Gruber. 2006. Ocean biogeochemical dynamics. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ. 503 pp.

Schartau, A.K., S.J. Moe, L. Sandin, B. McFarland, and G.G. Raddum. 2008. Macroinvertebrate indicators of lake acidification: Analysis of monitoring data from UK, Norway and Sweden. Aquatic Ecology 42(2): 293-305.

Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413(6856): 591-596.

Scheffer, M., J. Bascompte, W.A. Brock, V. Brovkin, S.R. Carpenter, V. Dakos, H. Held, E.H. van Nes, M. Rietkerk, and G. Sugihara. 2009. Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 461: 53-59.

Scheraga, J.D. and A.E. Grambsch. 1998. Risks, opportunities and adaptation to climate change. Climate Research 10: 85-95.

Schiebel, R. 2002. Planktic foraminiferal sedimentation and the marine calcite budget. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4): 1065.

Schneider, K. and J. Erez. 2006, The effect of carbonate chemistry on calcification and photosynthesis in the hermatypic coral Acropora eurystoma. Limnology and Oceanography 51(3): 1284-1293.

Seibel, B.L. and J.C. Drazen. 2007. The rate of metabolism in marine animals: Environmental constraints, ecological demands and energetic opportunities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362(1487): 2061-2078.

Seibel, B.A. and P.J. Walsh. 2001. Carbon cycle: Enhanced: Potential impacts of CO2 injection on deep-sea biota. Science 294(5541): 319-320.

Seibel, B.A. and P.J. Walsh. 2003. Biological impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide injection inferred from indices of physiological performance. The Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 641-650.

Seibel, B.A., E.V. Thuesen, J.J. Childress, and L.A. Gorodezky. 1997. Decline in pelagic cephalopod metabolism with habitat depth reflects differenes in locomotory efficiency. The Biological Bulletin 192: 262-278.

Seidel, M.P., DeGrandpre, M.D., and A.G. Dickson. 2008. A sensor for in situ indicator-based measurements of seawater pH. Marine Chemistry 109: 18-28.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Semesi, I.S., S. Beer, and M. Björk. 2009a. Seagrass photosynthesis controls rates of calcification and photosynthesis of calcareous macroalgae in a tropical seagrass meadow. Marine Ecology Progress Series 382: 41-47.

Semesi, I.S., J. Kangwe, and M. Björk. 2009b. Alterations in seawater pH and CO2 affect calcification and photosynthesis in the tropical coralline alga, Hydrolithon sp. (Rhodophyta). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.

Send, U., R. Davis, J. Fischer, S. Imawaki, W. Kessler, C. Meinen, B. Owens, D. Roemmich, T. Rossby, D. Rudnick, J. Toole, S. Wijffels, and L. Beal. 2009. A global boundary current circulation observing network. Abstract. OceanObs 09 Conference. 21-25 September 2009. Venice, Italy.

Shi, D., Y. Xu, and F.M.M. Morel. 2009. Effects of the pH/pCO2 control method in the growth medium of phytoplankton. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 2415–2439.

Shi, D., Y. Xu, B.M. Hopkinson, and F.M.M. Morel. 2010. Effect of ocean acidification on iron availability to marine phytoplankton. Science. 327(5966): 676-679.

Sibuet, M. and K. Olu. 1998. Biogeography, biodiversity and fluid dependence of deep-sea cold-seep communities at active and passive margins. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 45(1-3): 517-567.

Silverman, J., B. Lazar, and J. Erez. 2007. Effect of aragonite saturation, temperature, and nutrients on the community calcification rate of a coral reef. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: C05004. [doi:10.1029/2006JC003770].

Silverman, J., B. Lazar, L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and J. Erez. 2009. Coral reefs may start dissolving when atmospheric CO2 doubles. Geophysical Research Letters 36.

Spivack, A.J., C-F. You, and H.J. Smith. 1993. Foraminiferal boron isotope ratios as a proxy for surface ocean pH over the past 21 Myr. Nature 363: 149-151.

Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T.L. Frölicher, G.-K. Plattner, and S.C. Doney. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6: 515-533.

Stephens, J.C. and D.W. Keith. 2008. Assessing geochemical carbon management. Climate Change 90(3): 217-242.

Stern, N., 2006. Stern review on the economics of climate change. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Stern, N. 2007. The economics of climate change: The stern review. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, MA and New York, NY.

Sterner R.W. and J.J. Elser. (Eds.). 2002. Ecological stoichiometry. Princeton University Press: Oxford. U.K.

Talmage, S.C. and C.J. Gobler. 2009. The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Limnology and Oceanography 54: 2072-2080.

Thatje, S., K. Anger, J.A. Calcagno, G.A. Lovrich, H-O. Pörtner, and W.E. Arntz. 2005. Challenging the cold: Crabs reconquer the Antarctic. Ecology 86(3): 619-625.

Thibault, D. S. Roy, C.S. Wong, and J.K. Bishop. 1999. The downward flux of biogenic material in the NE subarctic Pacific: Importance of algal sinking and mesozooplankton herbivory. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 46(11-12): 2669-2697.

Thistle, D., K.R. Carman, L. Sedlacek, P.G. Brewer, J.W. Fleeger, and J.P. Barry. 2005. Deep-ocean, sediment-dwelling animals are sensitive to sequestered carbon dioxide. Marine Ecology Progress Series 289: 1-4.

Thomas, D.J., J.C. Zachos, T.J. Bralower, E. Thomas, and S. Bohaty. 2002. Warming the fuel for the fire: Evidence for the thermal dissociation of methane hydrate during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Geology 30(12): 1067–1070.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Thomas, H., L.S. Schiettecatte, K. Suykens, Y.J.M. Kone, E.H. Shadwick, A.E.F. Prowe, Y. Bozec, H.J.W. de Baar, and A.V. Borges. 2009. Enhanced ocean carbon storage from anaerobic alkalinity generation in coastal sediments. Biogeosciences 6(2): 267-274.

Tortell, P.D., G.R. DiTullio, D.M. Sigman, and F.M.M. Morel. 2002. CO2 effects on taxonomic composition and nutrient utilization in an Equatorial Pacific phytoplankton assemblage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 236: 37-43.

Tsurumi, M., D.L. Mackas, F.A. Whitney, C. DiBacco, M.D. Galbraith, and C.S. Wong. 2005. Pteropods, eddies, carbon flux, and climate variability in the Alaska Gyre. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 52(7-8): 1037-1053.

Tuler, S., J. Agyeman, P. Pinto da Silva, K.R. LoRusso, and R. Kay. 2008. Assessing vulnerabilities: Integrating information about driving forces that affect risks and resilience in fishing communities. Human Ecology 15(2):171-184.

Tunnicliffe, V., K.T.A. Davies, D.A. Butterfield, R.W. Embley, J.M. Rose, and W.W. Chadwick, Jr. 2009. Survival of mussels in extremely acidic waters on a submarine volcano. Nature Geosciences 2: 344-348.

Turley, C. 2005. The other CO2 problem. In openDemocracy. [Online]. Available: http://www.acamedia.info/sciences/sciliterature/globalw/reference/carol_turley.html

Urcuyo, I.A., D.C. Bergquist, I.R. MacDonald, M. VanHorn, and C.R. Fisher. 2007. Growth and longevity of the tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae in the variable diffuse flow habitats of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344: 143-157.

U.S. Congressional Research Service (CRS). 2009. Ocean acidification (R40143; July 2, 2009). By E.H. Buck and P. Folger. [Online]. Available: http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R40143_20090702.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). 2002. A framework for the economic assessment of ecological benefits. Prepared for Ecological Benefit Assessment Workgroup Social Sciences Discussion Group Science Policy Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Van Dover, C.L. 2000. The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

van Nes, E.H. and M. Scheffer. 2004. Large species shifts triggered by small forces. The American Naturalist 164: 255–266.

Vogt, M., M. Steinke, S. Turner, A. Paulino, M. Meyerhöfer, U. Riebesell, C. LeQuéré, and P. Liss. 2008. Dynamics of dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2 concentrations during a mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences 5: 407-419.

von Winterfeldt, D. and W. Edwards. 1986. Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, MA.

Walter, L.M. and J.W. Morse. 1984. Reactive surface area of skeletal carbonates during dissolution: Effect of grain size. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 54: 1081-1090.

Watson, S.A., P.C. Southgate, P.A. Tyler, and L.S. Peck. 2009. Early Larval Development of the Sydney Rock Oyster Saccostrea glomerata Under Near-Future Predictions of CO2-Driven Ocean Acidification. Journal of Shellfish Research 28(3):431-437.

Webster, N.S., L.D. Smith, A.J. Heyward, J.E.M. Watts, R.I. Webb, L.L. Blackall, and A.P. Negri. 2004. Metamorphosis of a scleractinian coral in response to microbial biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 1213-1221.

Weitzman, M.L. 2007. A review of the stern review on the economics of climate change. Journal of Economic Literature 45(3): 703-724.

Welch, C. 2009. Oysters in deep trouble: Is Pacific Ocean’s chemistry killing sea life? The Seattle Times, June 14, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2009336458_oysters14m.html [Accessed December 2, 2009]

West, J.M., S.H. Julius, P. Kareiva, C. Enquist, J.J. Lawler, B. Petersen, A.E. Johnson, and M.R. Shaw. 2009. U.S. natural resources and climate change: Concepts and approaches for management adaptation. Environmental Management 44(6): 1001-1021.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

Wigley, T.M.L. 2006. A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization. Science 314(5798): 452-454.

Williams, E.A., A. Craigie, A. Yeates, and S.M. Degnan. 2008. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone. Haliotis asinina Biological Bulletin 215: 98-107.

Wingenter, O.W., K.B. Haase, M. Zeigler, D.R. Blake, F.S. Rowland, B.C. Sive, A. Paulino, R. Thyrhaug, A. Larsen, K. Schulz, M. Meyerhöfer, and U. Riebesell. 2007. Unexpected consequences of increasing CO2 and ocean acidity on marine production of DMS and CH2ClI: Potential climate impacts. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L05710. [doi: 10.1029/2006GL028139]

Wolf-Gladrow, D.A., U. Riebesell, S. Burkhardt, and J. Bijma. 1999. Direct effects of CO2 concentration on growth and isotopic composition of marine plankton. T ellus 51B: 461–476.

Wood, H.L., J.I. Spicer, and S. Widdicombe. 2008. Ocean acidification may increase calcification rates, but at a cost. Proceedings of Biological Sciences/ The Royal Society 275: 1767-1773.

Worm, B., R. Hilborn, J.K. Baum, T.A. Branch, J.S. Collie, C. Costello, M.J. Fogarty, E.A. Fulton, J.A. Hutchings, S. Jennings, O.P. Jensen, H.K. Lotze, P.M. Mace, T.R. McClanahan, C. Minto, S.R. Palumbi, A.M. Parma, D. Ricard, A.A. Rosenberg, R. Watson, and D. Zeller. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325: 578-585. [DOI: 10.1126/science.1173146]

Wynne, S.P. and I.M. Côté. 2007. Effects of habitat quality and fishing on Caribbean spotted spiny lobster populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 44(3): 488-494.

Xu, Y., T.M. Wahlund, L. Feng, Y. Shaked, and F.M.M. Morel. 2006. A novel alkaline phosphatase in the coccolithophore emiliania huxleyi (prymnesiophyceae) and its regulation by phosphorus. Journal of Phycology 42(4): 835-844.

Yamamoto-Kawai, M, F.A. McLaughlin, E.C. Carmack, S. Nishino, and K. Shimada. 2009. Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt. Science. 326: 1098-1100.

Yates, K.K. and R.B. Halley. 2006. CO32– concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii. Biogeosciences Discussions 3:123–154.

Zachos, J.C., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and abberations in global climate 65 Ma to Present. Science 292: 686-693.

Zachos, J.C., U. Rohl, S.A. Schellenberg, A. Sluijs, D.A. Hodell, D.C. Kelly, E. Thomas, M. Nicolo, I. Raffi, L.J. Lourens, H. McCarren, D. Kroon. 2005. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Science 308: 1611-1615.

Zeebe, R.E. and D. Wolf-Gladrow. 2001. CO2 in seawater: Equlibrium, kinetics, isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series 65: Elsevier Science, B.V.: Amsterdam. 346 p.

Zeebe, R.E. and J.C. Zachos. 2007. Reversed deep-sea carbonate ion basin gradient during Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Paleoceanography 22: PA3201.

Zimmerman, R.C., D.C. Kohrs, D.L. Steller, and R.S. Alberte. 1997. Impacts of CO2 enrichment on productivity and light requirements of eelgrass. Plant Physiology 115: 599-607.

Zondervan, I., B. Rost, and U. Riebesell. 2002. Effect of CO2 concentration on the PIC/POC ratio in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under light-limiting conditions and different daylengths. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 272: 55-70.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page137
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page138
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page139
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page140
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page141
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page142
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page143
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page144
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page145
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page146
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page147
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page148
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page149
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page150
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page152
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page153
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page154
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page155
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page156
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page157
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page158
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page159
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12904.
×
Page160
Next: Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies »
Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $60.00 Buy Ebook | $47.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings.

Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!