National Academies Press: OpenBook

Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation (2011)

Chapter: Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms

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Page 35
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14590.
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Page 35
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14590.
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Page 36
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14590.
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Page 37

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

35 Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)—A primary FAA publication whose purpose is to instruct airmen about oper- ating in the National Airspace System of the United States. It provides basic flight information, air traffic control pro- cedures, and general instructional information concerning health, medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, acci- dent and hazard reporting, and types of aeronautical charts and their use. Air-cooled condenser—also referred to generically as dry cooling, an air-cooled condenser condenses exhaust steam from the steam turbine and returns condensate to the boiler without using cooling water. Two typical designs are mechanical draft and natural draft. In either case, air cools the exhaust steam causing hot air and condensate (which is reused in the plant). Air route surveillance radar (ARSR)—radar used primarily to detect and display an aircraft’s position while en route between terminal areas. The ARSR enables controllers to provide radar air traffic control service when aircraft are within the ARSR coverage. In some instances, ARSR may enable an air traffic control center to provide termi- nal radar services similar to but usually more limited than those provided by a radar approach control. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP)—An industry-driven, applied research program that develops near-term, practical solutions to problems faced by air- port operators. ACRP is managed by TRB for the FAA. The research is conducted by contractors who are selected on the basis of competitive proposals. Airport surveillance radar (ASR)—approach control radar used to detect and display an aircraft’s position in the terminal area. ASR provides range and azimuth infor- mation but does not provide elevation data. Coverage of the ASR can extend up to 60 miles. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)—Division of the U.S. Department of the Interior whose mission is to sus- tain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. Civilian Aviation Authority (CAA) of the United Kingdom— agency responsible for safety regulation of civil aviation in the United Kingdom under the Civil Aviation Act 1982. California Energy Commission (CEC)—state’s primary energy policy and planning agency established in 1974. Clutter—unwanted (false) returns picked up by the radar. Concentrating solar power plants—solar generation tech- nology that utilizes mirrors to focus and intensify the sun’s heat to boil water and drive a traditional steam turbine for the production of electricity. Cooling tower—see air-cooled condenser. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)—A written agreement between a private com- pany and a government agency to work together on a project. Created as a result of the Stevenson–Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, as amended by the Federal Tech- nology Transfer Act of 1986, a CRADA allows the federal government and non-federal partners to optimize their resources, share technical expertise in a protected environ- ment, share intellectual property emerging from the effort, and speed the commercialization of federally developed technology. Digital Airport Surveillance Radar (DASR)—a new terminal air traffic control radar system that replaces current analog systems with new digital technology. The U.S. Air Force Electronics Systems Center, the FAA, and the U.S. Navy are in the process of procuring DASR systems to upgrade exist- ing radar facilities for the DoD and civilian airfields. The DASR system detects aircraft position and weather condi- tions in the vicinity of civilian and military airfields. The civilian nomenclature for this radar is the ASR-11. ASR-11 will replace existing ASR-7, ASR-8, and ASR-9 models. The military nomenclature for the radar is AN/GPN-30. The older radars, some up to 20 years old, are being replaced to improve reliability, provide additional weather data, reduce maintenance cost, improve performance, and provide digi- tal data to new digital automation systems for presentation on air traffic controller displays. Dish engine—also referred to as a dish stirling, this is a type of concentrating solar power system that is a stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector’s focal point. Distributed energy—Distributed energy refers to a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with load management and energy storage systems to improve the quality and/or reliability of the elec- tricity supply. Department of Defense (DoD)—cabinet department of the U.S. federal government responsible for the country’s defense policy with authority over the military and civilian forces. Department of Energy (DOE)—cabinet department of the U.S. federal government responsible for the country’s energy policy. Department of Transportation (DOT)—cabinet department of the U.S. federal government responsible for the country’s transportation policy and infrastructure. GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS

Diffuse reflection—produces a less concentrated light and occurs from rough surfaces such as pavement, vegetation, and choppy water. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)—a document pre- pared by a federal agency to demonstrate that its actions are in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—the federal agency whose mission is to protect human health and the environ- ment through the enforcement of laws enacted by the fed- eral government. Farm (as in wind farm or solar farm)—a group of generator units that together produce significantly more electricity than any one unit alone. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)—the federal agency whose mission is to provide the safest and most efficient aerospace system in the world. Form 7460—Notice submitted to the FAA for structures that impinge on airspace as defined by 14 CFR Part 77. Glare—a continuous source of bright light. Glint—a momentary flash of bright light. Heat recovery system generator (HRSG)—extracts heat in the flue gas producing cooler exhaust temperatures and lower exit velocities Instrument flight rules (IFR)—A set of rules governing the con- duct of flight under instrument meteorological conditions. Instrument landing system (ILS)—A precision instrument approach system that normally consists of the following electronic components and visual aids: localizer, glideslope, outer marker, middle marker, and approach lights. Nacelle—A box that sits on top of the wind tower and encloses the turbine generator and other equipment necessary for gen- erating electricity. National Airspace System—The common network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facilities, equipment and services, airports or landing areas, aeronautical charts, information and services, rules, regulations and procedures, technical information, and manpower and material. Included are system components shared jointly with the military. Navigable airspace—Airspace at and above the minimum flight altitudes prescribed in the CFRs including airspace needed for safe takeoff and landing. Navigational Aids (NAVAIDS)—Any visual or electronic device airborne or on the surface that provides point- to-point guidance information or position data to aircraft in flight. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—A U.S. envi- ronmental law that established a U.S. national policy pro- moting the enhancement of the environment and also established the President’s Council on Environmental Quality. Office of Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA)—A particular office under FAA’s Air Traffic Organization whose responsibility is to coordinate FAA’s review of potential hazards to air navigation. Parabolic trough—continually track the sun and concen- trate the sun’s heat onto receiver tubes filled with a heat transfer fluid. 36 Peaker power plants—typically traditional fossil fuel-fired stations modified to start up and shut down quickly to respond to seasonal fluctuations in energy demand. Power tower—facility is comprised of individual heliostats (mirrors) arranged in a circular array that track with the sun. Each heliostat reflects sunlight onto the central receiver at the top of a tower. Primary surveillance radar (PSR)—uses a continually rotat- ing antenna mounted on a tower to transmit electromag- netic waves that reflect, or backscatter, from the surface of aircraft up to 60 miles from the radar. The radar system measures the time required for a radar echo to return and the direction of the signal. From this, the system can then measure the distance of the aircraft from the radar antenna and the azimuth, or direction, of the aircraft in relation to the antenna. The primary radar also provides data on six levels of rainfall intensity. The primary radar operates in the range of 2700 to 2900 MHz. The transmitter generates a peak effective power of 25 kW and an average power of 2.1 kW. The average power density of the ASR-11 signal decreases with distance from the antenna. At distances of more than 43 ft from the antenna, the power density of the ASR-11 signal falls below the maximum permissible exposure levels established by the Federal Communications Commission. Probability of detection (Pd)—measures the likelihood of detecting an event or object when the event does occur. Secondary surveillance radar (SSR)—uses a second radar antenna attached to the top of the primary radar antenna to transmit and receive area aircraft data for barometric altitude, identification code, and emergency conditions. Military, commercial, and some general aviation aircraft have transponders that automatically respond to a signal from the secondary radar by reporting an identification code and altitude. The air traffic control uses this system to verify the location of aircraft within a 60-mile radius of the radar site. The beacon radar also provides rapid identification of aircraft in distress. The secondary radar operates in the range of 1030 to 1090 MHz. Transmitting power ranges from 160 to 1,500 watts. Solar photovoltaic panels and farms—Solar photovoltaic (PV) generates electricity from sunlight on light-absorbing panels with many panels together representing a solar farm. Specular reflection—reflects a more concentrated type of light and occurs when the surface in question is smooth and polished Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS)—a system jointly procured by the FAA and DoD to replace capacity-constrained, older technology systems at FAA and DOD terminal radar approach con- trol facilities and associated towers. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS)—procedures for instrument approach and departure of aircraft to and from civil and military airports. Thermal plume—vapor clouds produced by large-scale emis- sions of heated water vapor either through a direct emission or from an air-cooling structure.

37 Transmission infrastructure—Transmission infrastructure including towers and electrical lines are a fundamental component of any energy project that generates electricity and delivers it to the electrical grid. Ultra-high frequency (UHF)—The frequency band between 300 and 3,000 MHz. The bank of radio frequencies used for military air/ground voice communications. In some instances this may go as low as 225 MHz and still be referred to as UHF. Very high frequency (VHF)—The frequency band between 30 and 300 MHz. Portions of this band, 108 to 118 MHz, are used for certain NAVAIDs; 118 to 136 MHz are used for civil air/ground voice communications. Other frequen- cies in this band are used for purposes not related to air traffic control. Visual flight rules (VFR)—Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions. The term “VFR” is also used in the United States to indicate weather conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements. In addition, it is used by pilots and con- trollers to indicate type of flight plan. Wind turbine generator (WTG)—A machine that converts wind energy into electricity. Utility-scale—refers to larger electricity generation units that typically transmit most if not all of the electricity gener- ated to the electric grid.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 28: Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation explores physical, visual, and communications systems interference impacts from energy technologies on airports and aviation safety.

The energy technologies that are the focus of this report include the following:

• solar photovoltaic panels and farms,

• concentrating solar power plants,

• wind turbine generators and farms, and

• traditional power plants.

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