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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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B

Biographical Sketches of Workshop
Participants

William F. Raub, Ph.D. (Chair), retired in January 2009 after more than 42 years in the employ of the federal government, primarily the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Current activities include advising the U.S. Postal Service on public health emergency preparedness, advising HHS on vaccine safety infrastructure, serving as adjunct staff for the RAND Corporation, serving on the science advisory board of George Mason University, and performing volunteer work for St. John’s Church, Chevy Chase, Maryland. Dr. Raub held a wide variety of positions within the federal government, including science advisor to the secretary of HHS (1995–2009); science advisor to the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (1992–1995); special assistant within the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President of the United States (1991–1992); acting director, National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1989–1991); and deputy director, NIH (1986–1991). Dr. Raub received numerous awards, including the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award, the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award, the HHS Distinguished Service Award, the American Medical Association’s Nathan Davis Award, and the Society of Research Administrators’ Award for Distinguished Contribution to Research Administration.

Amy Altman, Ph.D., joined Luminex Corporation in March 2007 and is currently the vice president of biodefense and food safety. As vice president, she is responsible for building and managing the Luminex biodefense business segment. This involves programs that encompass environmental monitoring for biological threat agents, both autonomous and lab based, as well as applications in the medical diagnostic area, such as

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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for first responders and for syndromic surveillance applications. Prior to being appointed vice president, Dr. Altman served as director of the Extramural Research Office and most recently as senior director of research and development for the Luminex Bioscience Group, where she was responsible for directing the development of multiplexed assays on proprietary xMAP technology for both the research and clinical diagnostic market. Prior to joining Luminex, Dr. Altman was an associate with Booz Allen Hamilton, a global strategy and technology consulting firm. As an associate with Booz Allen, Dr. Altman provided science and technology support to clients within the Department of Defense (DoD), generally focused in the areas of bioterrorism (threat assessment, sensing, defeat, and decontamination of weapons of mass destruction), enhancing soldier performance and survivability, and applications of biotechnology to DoD. She also served as a subject-matter expert in the area of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives. Dr. Altman received her B.A. and M.S. degrees in microbiology from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. She received her Ph.D. in molecular biology from Vanderbilt University in 2000 and completed a 3-year postdoctoral fellowship in the area of eukaryotic DNA replication and cancer biology. Dr. Altman also received a certificate in business for growing and managing the biotech enterprise from the Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management in 2003.

Andrew P. Bartko, Ph.D., received a B.S. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1997 and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 2002. His graduate work consisted of deciphering spatially heterogeneous relaxation dynamics of glass-forming systems using novel rotational single-molecule microscopy techniques. In 2002 Dr. Bartko joined the soft-matter nanotechnology and advanced spectroscopy team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he studied the ultrafast photophysics of semiconducting quantum dots. Dr. Bartko is a senior scientist in Battelle’s Technology Development Group, where he contributes to several applied spectroscopy efforts that focus on biological and chemical sensing. Dr. Bartko is the manager and technical leader of an interdisciplinary team that is developing Battelle’s Resource Effective Bio-Identification System (REBS). The rapid microbial sensing capabilities of REBS have been shown to have practical and strategic importance where rapid, accurate, and precise microbial contamination control is required. Dr. Bartko has developed several rapid microbial control applications for the defense, security, and industrial markets.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Thomas A. Cebula, Ph.D., earned his B.S. in chemistry from Wilkes College (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) and his Ph.D. in biology (biochemical genetics) from Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Maryland). After postdoctoral work in cellular microbiology at the McCollum-Pratt Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dr. Cebula was recruited to initiate a research program at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dr. Cebula built a successful program, serving as chief of the Molecular Biology Branch, director of the Division of Molecular Biology, and director for the Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment. His research and leadership skills were recognized with 35 U.S. government awards, including FDA’s Commendable Service Award, Award of Merit, and Outstanding Science Achievement Award, and the Department of Health and Human Services Distinguished Service Award. Dr. Cebula is a former member of the U.S. Senior Biomedical Research Service and the Senior Executive Service. His laboratory was designated a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence for Microbial Forensics of Enteric Pathogens. Dr. Cebula is a visiting professor of biology at Johns Hopkins University, an adjunct professor of microbiology at the University of Maryland, and the chief technical officer at CosmosID®, Inc., a bioinformatics and genomic data mining company. He is a member of Johns Hopkins’ Society of Scholars and a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. He serves on the advisory board of the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center at the National Institutes of Health and served previously on National Research Council and Federal Bureau of Investigation committees that addressed conduct and funding of counter-bioterrorism research. He is a former chair of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Working Group on Bacterial Genomics and member of the Office of the President’s National Science and Technology Council’s Microbial Forensic Task Force. Dr. Cebula has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed articles and a like number of published abstracts.

Rita Colwell, Ph.D., is chairman of Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc., distinguished university professor both at the University of Maryland, College Park, and Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, and president and founder of CosmosID, Inc. Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she is currently developing an international network to address emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Dr. Colwell served as the 11th director

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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of the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1998 to 2004. In her capacity as NSF director, she served as cochair of the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council. Her major interests include K–12 science and mathematics education, graduate science and engineering education, and the increased participation of women and minorities in science and engineering. Dr. Colwell has held many advisory positions in the U.S. government, nonprofit science policy organizations, and private foundations as well as in the international scientific research community. She is a nationally respected scientist and educator and has authored or coauthored 16 books and more than 700 scientific publications. She produced the award-winning film Invisible Seas and has served on editorial boards of numerous scientific journals. Before joining NSF, Dr. Colwell was president of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and professor of microbiology and biotechnology at the University of Maryland. She was also a member of the National Science Board from 1984 to 1990. Dr. Colwell has previously served as chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Academy of Microbiology and also as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Society for Microbiology, the Sigma Xi National Science Honorary Society, and the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Dr. Colwell is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.

Chris Detter, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in molecular genetics and microbiology from the University of Florida and has 18 years of relevant hands-on experience in the field of high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Dr. Detter has supported the scientific and program development as well as implementation of new capabilities and strategic directions for biothreat and biodefense mission areas. This includes, but is not limited to, areas such as biosurveillance, data to decision, and high-throughput genomics (sequencing, metagenomics, and genome analysis technologies). He has authored or coauthored more than 100 peer-reviewed publications in the field of high-throughput genomics and DNA sequencing. Dr. Detter and his teams have shotgun sequenced more than 2,000 prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and viral genomes; have made subclone libraries from more than 10,000 BioWatch Advisory Committees as part of the Human Genome Project; have finished the sequencing of more than 800 microbial genomes for the Department of Energy (DOE), De-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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partment of Defense (DoD), and Department of Homeland Security (DHS); and have helped introduce next-generation sequencing and analysis capabilities to international government labs in Georgia, Jordan, Kenya, and Thailand. Dr. Detter has led genomics and technology development groups while stationed at the DOE–Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Dr. Detter is currently the biothreat/biodefense program director for bio-related DoD, DHS, and intelligence programs at LANL.

Eric Eisenstadt, Ph.D., has been an independent technical consultant since March 2010. He provides scientific and technical advice to the Air Force Research Laboratory, the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the Department of Homeland Security. Prior to becoming a consultant, Dr. Eisenstadt was the vice president for research at the J. Craig Venter Institute and the Institute for Genomic Research (2005–2010). He also served as a program manager at DARPA (1999–2005), where he developed and managed basic and applied interdisciplinary research programs in various biotechnology areas, such as genomic sequencing of pathogens, neurobiology, synthetic biology, and protein design. Before joining DARPA, Dr. Eisenstadt was a program officer at the Office of Naval Research (ONR) from 1988 to 1999, where he developed and managed basic research programs in marine biotechnology (including a focus on life at high temperature and pressure), systems biology (with a focus on developing novel computational approaches to modeling biological systems), anaerobic bioremediation processes, and biomineralization. While at ONR, Dr. Eisenstadt was the Navy representative to the Joint Service Technical Panel for Chemical and Biological Warfare Defense and served on ONR’s Historically Black Colleges Committee. Before his government service, Dr. Eisenstadt was a member of the faculty at the Harvard University School of Public Health in the Department of Microbiology and the Laboratory of Toxicology, where he taught and investigated mechanisms of mutagenesis and DNA repair in bacteria and yeast. Dr. Eisenstadt received his A.B. and Ph.D. in biology from Washington University, St. Louis, and did postdoctoral work at the Université de Paris, Orsay (as an National Science Foundation/North Atlantic Treaty Organization postdoctoral fellow), at the Universität zu Köln as a Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft postdoctoral fellow, and at the Labor-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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atory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, as a National Institutes of Health staff fellow.

Eric Gard, Ph.D., leads the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Defense Biology Division. His areas of expertise include mass spectrometry, aerosol science, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biology, and chemistry. Dr. Gard has designed, built, and field-tested a series of innovative mass spectrometers for the chemical and biological analysis of proteins, saccharides, and many other complex biological molecules. The equipment has ranged from dedicated lab-based equipment for more traditional biological analysis applications to transportable systems for real-time aerosol analysis. Dr. Gard’s most recent work includes building systems for real-time detection and identification of aerosolized biological and chemical agent–containing particles using mass spectrometry. These efforts have spanned the past 25 years and have included leading projects for the Department of Energy, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and other Department of Defense organizations. Dr. Gard received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis.

David Hanlon, Ph.D., joined Quanterix in 2008 to identify unmet market opportunities that would benefit from the company’s technology platform. Prior to joining Quanterix, Dr. Hanlon led several external research collaborations at Cytyc to discover novel biomarkers of cervical neoplasia as well as an internal team focused on marker validation and the development of diagnostic assays. Dr. Hanlon was the director of research and development at VisEn Medical and project manager at Proteome, where he led a team of scientists developing protein-centric databases for comparative and functional genomic applications. He also served as director of neuroscience at Oncogene Research Products, where he developed a life science portfolio consisting of neurochemical and immunological products. Dr. Hanlon received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Harvard University and the University of California, San Diego. He obtained a B.S. degree in biochemistry from Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

Rabih E. Jabbour, Ph.D., holds a Ph.D. in bioanalytical chemistry with more than 10 years of research experience in academia and industry in the field of the chemistry and biology of microorganisms that are of vital interest to the Department of Defense (DoD). He is leading the develop-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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ment of the automated sample-processing system for the extraction and preconcentration of biological biomarkers for the detection and identification of microbes down to the strain level using mass spectrometry proteomics technology. He has contributed to various DoD projects, such as water monitoring and microbial fate using Raman imaging for the Joint Service Agent Water Monitor, toxin fate by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and microbial mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for Environmental Protection Agency projects. He has collaborated with government national laboratories and academic institutions, including the Naval Medical Research Center, Institute of Medicine, the wound infections division at Walter Reed National Medical Military Center, Johns Hopkins University, Duke University, the University of Southern California, and the University of San Francisco. He was awarded the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Best Basic Research Award and Science Applications International Corporation’s Excellence in Science Award. He serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Integrated OMICS, is a reviewer for the Journal of Analytical Chemistry, the Journal of Proteome Research, and PLoS ONE in the areas of microbial proteomics and genomics. He has published more than 25 peer-reviewed articles and proceedings in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, spectroscopy, molecular biology, bacteriology, and protein chemistry.

Rudolph Johnson, Ph.D., is the acting manager of the Emergency Response Branch (ERB) at the Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Johnson oversees the development of diagnostic methods for quantifying human exposure to chemical agents. Common chemical agents measured include traditional chemical warfare agents, such as mustard gases and nerve agents, as well as selected plant and marine toxins. Dr. Johnson also supervises emergency laboratory support for human exposures to chemical agents. ERB provides laboratory support to identify the causative chemical agent following a suspected human exposure, and it conducts the Division of Laboratory Science’s rapid toxic screen. ERB maintains readiness through routine exercises, proficiency testing, and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act audits. Dr. Johnson received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue University under Dr. Graham Cooks, an award-winning professor and researcher in mass spectrometry. His thesis was on the development of online mass spectrometry using membrane-introduction mass spectrometry. Dr. Johnson

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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received his undergraduate degree in laboratory robotics from Virginia Military Institute. Prior to working at CDC, Dr. Johnson worked at BASF Corporation, focusing on multidisciplinary projects involving small-molecule synthesis and product development, specifically, dispersions, coatings, and pharmaceutical products.

Stevan Jovanovich, Ph.D., is the chief technology officer of IntegenX Inc., a company he cofounded in 2003 to develop integrated sample preparation systems and sample-to-answer systems for the life sciences. At IntegenX he has raised more than $100 million in equity funding and $30 million in grants and contracts focused on advanced genomic systems for rapid human identification, DNA sequencing, and biodefense. Before co-founding IntegenX, Dr. Jovanovich was vice president of global research at Amersham Biosciences, where he led a team of 120 scientists and engineers and drove multiple business projects across seven international sites. Prior positions include science director at Amersham Biosciences Sunnyvale, manager of advanced research at Molecular Dynamics, staff scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, director of microbiology at AbTox Inc., founder of Molecular Solutions, and applications programmer at the Institute for Defense Analyses. He is the author of more than 20 papers and reviews, and an inventor on more than 70 patents, and has automated life science workflows since 1987. He holds bachelor of science degrees in physics and life sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a Ph.D. in microbiology with a minor in molecular biology from University of California, Davis, and a certificate in object-oriented programming from the University of California, Santa Cruz, extension.

Robert Kadlec, M.D., M.T.M.&H., M.A., is a consultant at RPK Consulting LLC. Previously he was vice president, global public sector, at PRTM Management Consultants. He formerly served as special assistant to the President for homeland security and senior director for biological defense policy in the White House Homeland Security Council. Previously he served as staff director for the Senate Subcommittee on Bioterrorism and Public Health, where he oversaw the drafting of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (P.L. 109-417). The law, signed by President George W. Bush on December 19, 2006, improved the functioning of Project BioShield of 2004 and reauthorized the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act of 2002. Before that, from February 2002 until March 2005, he served as director for biodefense preparedness and response at

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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the White House Homeland Security Council, where he was responsible for coordinating medical issues pertaining to the threat of bioterrorism with the National Security Council and the Federal Interagency. He conducted the BioDefense End-to-End Assessment and was instrumental in drafting Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10, the National Bio-Defense Policy for the 21st Century. In his military career, he was assigned to the Joint Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and the 16th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field, Florida. He also served in senior advisory roles in the Office of the Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Central Intelligence Agency. Dr. Kadlec holds an M.D. and an M.T.M.&H. (masters in tropical medicine and hygiene) from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; an M.A. in national security studies from Georgetown University; and a B.S. from the U.S. Air Force Academy. He is board certified in aerospace and preventive medicine. He is a graduate of the Air War College.

Ivor Knight, Ph.D., is senior vice president, chief technology officer, and board member at Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc., where he is developing genetic diagnostic systems for Canon’s entry into the health care business. Previously, Dr. Knight was a professor of biology at James Madison University, where he conducted an externally funded research program on genetic detection technologies, taught in multiple departments, and led curriculum development initiatives in molecular biology and biotechnology. He has more than two decades of experience in molecular genetic research and the development of nucleic acid–based diagnostic systems. Dr. Knight has also served as a food safety advisor to the U.S. Agency for International Development and worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agriculture Service, delivering programs and advising governments on food safety in 20 countries. Dr. Knight is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and he received his B.S. from West Virginia University and his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park.

Charles E. Kolb, Ph.D., is the president and chief executive officer of Aerodyne Research, Inc. He joined Aerodyne as a Senior Research Scientist in 1971. At Aerodyne his personal areas of research have included atmospheric and environmental chemistry, combustion chemistry, chemical lasers, and the chemical physics of rocket and aircraft exhaust plumes. He is the author or coauthor of more than 200 archival publications in these fields. In the area of atmospheric and environmental chem-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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istry, Dr. Kolb initiated Aerodyne’s programs for the identification and quantification of sources and sinks of trace atmospheric gases and aerosols involved in regional and global pollution problems as well as the development of spectral sensing techniques to quantify soil pollutants. Specific atmospheric instrumentation developments include innovative tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometers for both remote, open path and in situ trace gas measurements and aerosol mass spectrometers for real-time analysis of airborne particle concentrations and chemical compositions as a function of particle size. These instruments have been deployed worldwide on numerous research aircraft, ships, and mobile vans and at fixed field measurements sites during atmospheric field measurement campaigns addressing air pollution and climate change issues. He has also motivated and designed chemical kinetic and molecular spectroscopy laboratory programs that provide the gas phase and gas/surface kinetic rate parameters required for atmospheric modeling as well as the quantitative spectroscopic parameters needed to design in situ measurements of trace species important in tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric photochemistry. He has developed and applied models of aircraft and rocket exhaust plume/wake chemical kinetics, condensation physics, and dispersion processes critical to the systematic assessment of the impact of aerospace systems on the chemical structure of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Dr. Kolb has been a member of numerous government and National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council boards and committees dealing with atmospheric and environmental science issues and was recognized as a national associate of the National Academies in 2003 and elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2013. He has served as chair of the Heterogeneous Processes Subpanel of the National Aeronautics and space Administration’s Panel for Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data Evaluation since 1991. He also received the 1997 Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology from the American Chemical Society. He has been elected a fellow of the American Chemical Society, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has served as the atmospheric sciences editor of the journal Geophysics Research Letters (1995–1999) and on the editorial advisory board of Environmental Science & Technology (2011–present). Dr. Kolb received his Ph.D. and M.S. degree in physical chemistry from Princeton University and a B.S. degree in chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
×

Beth Maldin Morgenthau, M.P.H., is the assistant commissioner for the Bureau of Policy, Community Resilience and Response within the Office of Emergency Preparedness and Response (OEPR) at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. In this capacity she is responsible for policy, strategic initiatives, community resilience and vulnerable population planning, interagency coordination, mass prophylaxis planning, Biowatch coordination, and the New York City Medical Reserve Corps. Ms. Maldin also plays a critical role in the agency’s 24/7 response to public health emergencies. Her previous experiences include serving as executive director of policy, evaluation, and special projects within OEPR and deputy director of the Bureau of Emergency Management within Disease Control. Between October 2004 and August 2007, Ms. Maldin was an associate at the Center for Health Security of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, where she researched, evaluated, and analyzed national, state, and local policies and practices in the area of biosecurity. She has direct operational experience in emergency preparedness and response. She played a key role in the New York City Health Department’s responses to hurricanes Irene and Sandy in 2011 and 2012, as well as its response to H1N1 in the spring and fall of 2009. She also participated in the agency’s response to the 1999 West Nile virus outbreak, the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center, and the anthrax letter attacks in fall 2001. Ms. Maldin earned an M.P.H. in policy and management from the Columbia University School of Public Health and a B.S. in anthropology and human biology from Emory University. She is also a certified project management professional.

Raymond Mariella, Jr., Ph.D., received his B.A. from Rice University, where he graduated magna cum laude with a triple major in mathematics, chemistry, and chemical engineering, with research under Robert F. Curl, Jr. He received his A.M. and Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Harvard University under Dudley Herschbach and William Klemperer. He taught physical chemistry at Harvard and was a visiting scientist in the physics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He spent 10 years at the Allied-Signal Corporate Research Center, in Morris Township, New Jersey. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), he has served as the project leader for III-V semiconductor devices, team leader for bioinstrumentation, and the director of the Center for Micro and Nano Technology. He currently supports all LLNL missions as a senior scientist. Dr. Mariella is also the co-inventor on a patent of a sleeve-based thermal cycler, licensed by Cepheid, Northrop Grumman,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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and MFSI (expiration in 2016). He has served as the chairman of the Science and Technology Working Group for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program and has chaired NASA solicitation review panels, and he has served on National Science Foundation (NSF) review panels on nanoscience and nanotechnology and the external advisory committee for the NSF Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education. Dr. Mariella has also served on the National Academies/National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Materials and Manufacturing Processes and the NRC committee to review NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Programs.

Suzet M. McKinney, Dr.P.H., currently serves as deputy commissioner of the Bureau of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Response at the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH), where she oversees the emergency preparedness efforts for the department, coordinating those efforts within the larger spectrum of the City of Chicago’s public safety activities. Dr. McKinney also oversees the CDPH Division of Women and Children’s Health and is the former senior advisor for public health and preparedness at the Tauri Group, where she provided strategic and analytical consulting services to the Department of Homeland Security’s BioWatch Program, including creative, responsive, and operationally based problem solving for public health, emergency preparedness, and homeland security issues, specifically chemical and biological early detection systems and the implementation of those systems at the state and local level. She serves as incident commander for CDPH and is a member of Chicago’s incident management team. In academia, Dr. McKinney serves as adjunct assistant professor of community health sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health and as the coordinator of the school’s online emergency preparedness certificate program. She also serves as a mentor for the Biomedical Sciences Careers Project at Harvard University as well as for the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative Executive Education Program at Harvard University. Dr. McKinney holds a doctorate degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, a master of public health degree from Benedictine University in Lisle, Illinois, and a bachelor of arts in biology from Brandeis University.

M. Allen Northrup, Ph.D., is the founder of Microfluidic Systems, Inc. (MFSI) and a cofounder of Cepheid. He is currently the science advisor

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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to three startup companies in the United States and Europe. Dr. Northrup received his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from the University of California, Davis (UCD), in 1991. During his early years at UCD, Dr. Northrup worked for Finnigan Corporation, a manufacturer of gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers. As a postdoctoral fellow and engineer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and as a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley, he was the first to demonstrate the polymerase chain reaction in a micromachined silicon chip. He also invented and co-developed microactuators and microactuator materials at LLNL. As chief technology officer at Cepheid, he was on the initial public offering team in 2000, and as chief executive officer of MFSI, Dr. Northrup sold MFSI to Positive ID Corporation in 2011. One of his inventions at Cepheid is the basis for detection in the U.S. Postal Service’s Biological Detection System. Dr. Northrup has 51 patents, 40 publications, and several engineering and entrepreneurial business awards. Dr. Northrup has been the principal investigator on more than $85 million of funding from U.S. government agencies, such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD). He co-invented numerous bioanalytical systems, including the commercial Cepheid systems SmartCycler and GenXpert. Dr. Northrup has delivered numerous bio-analytical systems to DHS, DoD, and the United Kingdom. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Institute of Biological and Medical Engineers.

Ted Olsen is president and chief executive officer of PathSensors, Inc., a biotechnology company based in Baltimore, Maryland. Mr. Olsen is an operations executive with a broad set of experiences in new product development and manufacturing. He has been instrumental in building and expanding high-technology manufacturing companies around the world. Among those are: Innovative Biosensors, Inc.; Corvis Corporation; Optical Fibres; Seicor GmbH; Optical Waveguides Australia; Corning Asahi Video Products; and Corning, Incorporated’s Photonic Technology Division. He is a member of the State of Maryland Life Science Advisory Board and a graduate from the Catholic University of America.

William O’Neill, Ph.D., is the development program manager and project engineer for the U.S. Postal Service Biohazard Detection System a fully autonomous biothreat screening system. The system was the first Safety Act certified system and is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a public health actionable system. The system

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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has been operational for a decade with no false-positive results in more than 11.5 million polymerase chain reaction tests.

Zheng Ouyang, Ph.D., obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electric engineering from Tsinghua University, his second master’s degree in physical chemistry from West Virginia University, and his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from Purdue University. He currently is an associate professor in the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering at Purdue University. His research interests include the mass spectrometry instrumentation and application in biomedical diagnosis. His research is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Defense. He also receives funding from bioMérieux, which produces automated mass spectrometry systems for use in clinical laboratories. Dr. Ouyang has published more than 100 papers and has received the NSF Early Career Award, Coulter Foundation Early Career Award, American Society for Mass Spectrometry Research Award, and the International Foundation of Mass Spectrometry Curt Brunnee Award.

Erica Pan, M.D., M.P.H., is a deputy health officer and the director of the Division of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention in the Alameda County Public Health Department. She joined Alameda County Public Health Department in November 2011 after serving as the director of the Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Section and deputy health officer at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Prior to this position, from 2004 to 2011 she was the director of the Bioterrorism and Infectious Disease Emergencies Unit in the Communicable Disease Control and Prevention Section at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Dr. Pan served as a participant in the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Anthrax Disaster Preparedness and Planning: Pediatric Clinical Guidance Meeting and the AAP/CDC Pediatric Anthrax Vaccines Workgroup in 2012, as a participant in the National Biodefense Science Board Anthrax Vaccine Working Group Medical Countermeasures for Children—Anthrax Vaccine Workshop in 2011, and as a member of the National Biosurveillance Advisory Committee (a subcommittee of the CDC Director’s Advisory Committee) from 2008 to 2010. She is also an associate clinical professor in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). She has maintained her clinical work attending at UCSF

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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for pediatric infectious diseases, at San Francisco General Hospital in the general pediatrics clinic, and at Children’s Hospital Oakland in infectious diseases. Her previous training includes completion of a pediatric residency, chief residency, and pediatric infectious disease, and traineeship in AIDS prevention studies fellowships at UCSF. She is board certified in both pediatric infectious diseases and pediatrics. She received her M.D. and M.P.H. degrees from Tufts University School of Medicine and completed her undergraduate education at Stanford University.

David Persse, M.D., has been the physician director of emergency medical services for the City of Houston since 1996 and for the Public Health Authority since 2004. A graduate of the Georgetown University School of Medicine, he completed his emergency medicine residency at Harbor–UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Medical Center and completed two fellowships, one at Ohio State University and one at Baylor College of Medicine. He is now on faculty at both the Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Medical School–Houston. He is also a tactical physician with the Houston Police S.W.A.T. team.

Sally Phillips, R.N., Ph.D., serves as the principal deputy assistant secretary (acting) within the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Office of Health Affairs (OHA). Dr. Phillips joined DHS in August 2010 and served as the deputy director of the Health Threats Resilience Division until March 2012. Dr. Phillips provides leadership and direction to five major programmatic areas within OHA: biological and chemical defense; food, agriculture, and veterinary; planning and exercises; health incidence surveillance; and state and local initiatives. Dr. Phillips came to OHA from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), where she served as director of the Public Health Emergency Preparedness Research Program. Dr. Phillips joined AHRQ in fall 2001 as a senior nurse scholar, where she managed a portfolio ranging from bioterrorism preparedness to multidisciplinary safety education and related health care workforce initiatives. Dr. Phillips was appointed director of the Bioterrorism Preparedness Research Program (now the Public Health Emergency Preparedness Research Program) in 2002. In July 2009, Dr. Phillips joined the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) as a senior advisor. There she was involved in policy issues, primarily supporting the H1N1 Task Force by addressing medical surge capacity and policies related to health care systems’ preparedness and response to H1N1. After completing her ASPR detail in January 2010,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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she returned to AHRQ to continue serving as the director of the Public Health Emergency Preparedness Research Program. Dr. Phillips is a leader in health systems’ surge capacity and in emergency preparedness. In her role at AHRQ, she served on numerous agency and department workgroups concerned with public health and medical response, as well as homeland security preparedness and response initiatives. She is an accomplished author, consultant, and speaker on public health and medical preparedness and response research initiatives. She also has additional expertise in health professional education and professional practice policy. Prior to joining AHRQ, Dr. Phillips was a Robert Wood Johnson health policy fellow and health policy analyst for Senator Tom Harkin for 2 years. She has also had a distinguished academic career in the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Dr. Phillips received a bachelor’s degree from Ohio State University, a master’s degree from the University of Colorado, and a doctorate from Case Western Reserve University. Her primary area of clinical practice is the care of women, infants, and children, with a specialty in the care of high-risk neonates.

John Plante, J.D., is the senior manager of emergency preparedness for the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA). He has more than 34 years of experience with the CTA and began working for the CTA as a trial attorney. From there he moved to trial supervision and then managing attorney. He created and managed the first litigation team in the CTA law department assigned to handle the litigation of major injuries and fatalities. Recognizing that litigation results from the intended or unintended actions of others, Mr. Plante expanded his competency well beyond litigation to the areas of claims, risk, safety, and, ultimately, to emergency preparedness and management. Following the events of September 11, 2001, the increasing focus of Mr. Plantes’ activities became external risk—natural, technological, and societal. As a strong advocate of emergency preparedness, Mr. Plante was responsible for the recognition of emergency preparedness and management as a separate and distinct discipline at the CTA. Mr. Plante, who is accredited by the State of Illinois as a professional emergency manager, serves as the CTA representative to local, state, and national emergency and security departments and agencies as well as a number of emergency preparedness working groups.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Donald Prosnitz, Ph.D., joined the RAND Corporation in September 2007 as a senior principal researcher. His studies at RAND concentrate on the utilization of technology to solve national and homeland security issues. Dr. Prosnitz was previously the deputy associate director (programs) for Nonproliferation, Homeland, and International Security at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he was responsible for overseeing all of the directorate’s technical programs. He received his B.S. from Yale University and his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He then spent 2 years as an assistant professor in the Engineering and Applied Science Department at Yale University before joining Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as an experimental laser physicist. During the next three decades he conducted research on lasers, particle accelerators, high-power microwaves, free-electron lasers, and remote sensing and managed the design, construction, and operation of numerous research facilities. In 1990 he was awarded the U.S. Particle Accelerator Award for Achievement in Accelerator Physics and Technology. In 1999 Dr. Prosnitz was named the first chief science and technology advisor for the Department of Justice (DOJ) by Attorney General Janet Reno. In this newly created position he was responsible for coordinating technology policy among DOJ’s component agencies and with state and local law enforcement entities on science and technology projects and programs. In 2002 he was named a fellow of the American Physical Society. He is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology.

Gary Resnick, Ph.D., is an independent consultant and guest scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He is a systems thinker with extensive experience and successes in organizational analysis and performance as well as strategic planning and implementation. He is an internationally recognized scientist in the area of chemical and biological defense with extensive technical leadership/management experience. His scientific and technical accomplishments encompass all aspects of research, development, and testing of chemical and biological warfare agents and defense systems. In addition, he has been an active member of the interagency and international chemical and biological weapons arms control communities.

Jeffrey W. Runge, M.D., is a principal at the Chertoff Group, a firm providing business risk management and security sector advisory services, and president of Biologue, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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biodefense, medical preparedness, and injury prevention and control. Dr. Runge serves on the Board of Directors of PharmAthene, Inc., a developer of next-generation anthrax vaccine and chemical nerve agent countermeasures. He is also an adjunct professor in the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. From 2005 to 2008, Dr. Runge served as the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) first chief medical officer and led the reorganization of biodefense operations into a new Office of Health Affairs (OHA). OHA acts as the principal advisor to all DHS component agencies on medical, biodefense, and workforce health issues. From 1984 to 2001, he practiced and taught emergency medicine at Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte. His primary research areas were in injury prevention, trauma care, and emergency service delivery. His leadership and innovation in injury prevention programs brought him to Washington as the head of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 2001. At NHTSA he instituted programs, regulations, and policies that led to the first absolute declines in U.S. motor vehicle deaths in almost a decade and the lowest highway fatality rate in history. Dr. Runge is board-certified in emergency medicine and has published more than 60 articles in medical literature in the fields of emergency medicine, traffic injury control, and medical preparedness. Dr. Runge is a graduate of the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee, and received his medical degree from the Medical University of South Carolina.

R. Paul Schaudies, Ph.D., is an internationally recognized expert in biotechnology and nanotechnology. Dr. Schaudies is the chief executive officer of GenArraytion, Inc., located in Rockville, Maryland. GenArraytion is a medical diagnostics company combining bioinformatics with array technology for the simultaneous identification and characterization of microorganisms. He has served on 12 National Research Council (NRC) committees on varied technology areas. In addition to his NRC service, Dr. Schaudies has served on advisory committees for several U.S. government agencies, including the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Department of Energy. He has served as chairman for various conferences, including several Gordon Research Conferences. Dr. Schaudies served as a science advisor to the Environmental Protection Agency On-Scene Coordinator, the sergeant at arms of the Senate and House of Representatives, and incident commander at the 2001 anthrax incident in Washington, DC. Dr. Schaudies has more than 20 years of experience in the biomedical research community, 4 years in the de-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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fense and intelligence community, and 9 years as a corporate management executive at Science Applications International Corporation. He spent 13 years as an active duty U.S. Army officer and retired as a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army Reserve. While on active duty, Dr. Schaudies served as program manager for biological and chemical defense research at the Defense Intelligence Agency and served as a United Nations Special Commission inspector in Iraq. Other assignments included senior researcher at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and chief of the General Support Laboratory in the Department of Clinical Investigation at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Dr. Schaudies holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Wake Forest. He earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry at the Temple School of Medicine and was awarded a visiting scientist position with Stewart Aaronson in the Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology at the National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute.

Jeffery A. Schloss, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Genome Sciences and also program director for technology development coordination in the extramural research program at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). At NHGRI, he serves the extramural program and Office of the Director as a resource on genome technology development issues. He leads the team that launched and manages the centers of excellence in genomic science, and he initiated a program to foster effective collaborations to validate new sequencing technologies for use in high-throughput laboratories. He implemented and manages the institute’s program to develop technologies with which to sequence entire human genomes at a cost of $1,000. He previously served the NHGRI as program director for large-scale genetic mapping, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing projects. Dr. Schloss represented NHGRI on the NIH Bioengineering Consortium, BECON, established in 1997 to foster support for bioengineering research, and served as the chair of BECON from 2001 to 2004. He represented the NIH on the National Science and Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Planning for the National Nanotechnology Initiative. He also cochairs the working group for the NIH Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative. Dr. Schloss served on the biology faculty at the University of Kentucky. He earned a B.S. degree with honors from Case Western Reserve University and a Ph.D. in cell biology from Carnegie Mellon University, and he conducted postdoctoral research at Yale University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Umair A. Shah, M.D., M.P.H., was appointed in May 2013 as the executive director of Harris County Public Health and Environmental Services (HCPHES) and the local health authority for Harris County, Texas, the third most populous county in the United States. Previously, Dr. Shah had served since 2004 as HCPHES deputy director and also as its director of disease control and clinical prevention. Prior to joining HCPHES he was an emergency department physician at Houston’s Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and chief medical officer at the Galveston County Health District. He earned a B.A. in philosophy from Vanderbilt University, an M.D. from the University of Toledo Health Science Center, and a primary care/general medicine fellowship and his M.P.H. in management and policy sciences at the University of Texas Health Science Center before completing his internal medicine residency. His focus areas include population health, wellness, and prevention; health care management; global and refugee health; health equity; and community engagement. His large-scale emergency response roles have included responses to Tropical Storm Allison; Hurricanes Ike, Katrina, and Rita; novel H1N1; and the earthquakes in Kashmir and Haiti. In addition to completing an international health policy internship at the World Health Organization in Geneva, he has provided leadership through the American Public Health Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, and the National Association of County and City Health Officials. He remains engaged in clinical patient care and academic teaching and is actively involved in the local Harris County community.

Thomas Slezak, M.S., is a computer scientist who has been involved with bioinformatics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since 1978. Mr. Slezak is currently the associate program leader for informatics for the global security program efforts at LLNL. He was part of the Human Genome Program for 14 years and part of the team that developed the BASIS and BioWatch systems. Mr. Slezak has chaired or served on multiple advisory boards, including the U.S. rice genome sequencing and annotation projects, mouse and maize genetics databases, and a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sequencing center contract renewal. He recently has served on two National Academy panels (Select Agent Science and Core Competencies of DoD Laboratories) and currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences DoD Standing Committee on Biodefense programs. From 2010 to 2012 Mr. Slezak served on the National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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He also cochaired a blue ribbon panel for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that examined the current state of bioinformatics at that agency and recommended paths for improvement. Mr. Slezak’s team has extensive experience in building computational systems to design pathogen detection signatures and analyze genomic sequence as well as in building fielded systems that utilize these capabilities.

Sandra C. Smole, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Molecular Diagnostics and Virology in the Bureau of Laboratory Sciences at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). In this position she is responsible for overseeing six laboratories, including the BioWatch laboratory since 2006. Her laboratory plays as active role in field response coordination for the Massachusetts BioWatch jurisdiction. She has participated in the BioWatch program since 2003. She currently serves on the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) infectious diseases committee and continues to serve on subcommittees such as Advanced Molecular Detection. She has served as a member of the APHL influenza subcommittee, and her laboratory actively works with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) influenza branch on validating new technologies for influenza preparedness. Previously, Dr. Smole was a CDC/APHL emerging infectious diseases research fellow spending time at both the CDC’s Bioterrorism Rapid Response and Advanced Technology Laboratory and at the MDPH. Prior to this fellowship she completed her postdoctoral training in molecular epidemiology from Boston University School of Medicine’s Department of Medicine while at the Boston Veterans Administration Medical Center. Dr. Smole received her B.S. in biology from the University of Portland and her Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.

A. Peter Snyder, Ph.D., is a research chemist who is currently working on a number of scientific projects. His work with Hampton University and Brimrose focuses on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced thermal emission to show that these methods can provide infrared signatures of various biochemical and bacterial compounds. Dr. Snyder is exploring Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy (visual and multivariate data analysis techniques) to obtain biological signatures for bacteria and protein toxin differentiation in water matrices in collaboration with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and ChemImage, Inc. He is also collaborating with SAIC and the Science and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Technology Corporation (STC) for studies in the differentiation and identification of single bacteria and mixtures of two to eight different bacteria in water buffer suspensions. Proteomics-electrospray with liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy technologies is the analytical system used. Further, sophisticated data analysis and reduction software developed by SAIC and STC are being used for the bacterial identification. The mass spectroscopy proteomics approach proved capable of identifying and classifying organisms within a microbial mixture. Additionally, Dr. Snyder is writing a series of papers that deal with using receiver operating characteristic curve mathematics and novel Gaussian univariate statistics that have not been utilized before for differentiation of multiple cases and many, many variables. Finally, Dr. Snyder is researching proteomics differentiation of biological substances by a combination of mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The ultimate goal is possible therapeutic ramifications of bacterial disease by determining the enzymes responsible for being expressed during the 1-day “growth” period in nutrient-free water.

Colin Stimmler, M.A., is the director of the BioWatch program at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) within the Office of Emergency Preparedness and Response in the Bureau of Policy, Community Resilience & Response. He coordinates the DOHMH BioWatch workgroup, developing tools and protocols for agency leadership and advancing various policy issues for resolution. He is also the agency’s official liaison to the New York City BioWatch Stakeholder Group. He has represented the DOHMH on numerous BioWatch national workgroups and focus groups. Prior to his current position he was an emergency planner with DOHMH, working on the development of the threat response guides and the school vaccination program for the fall 2009 H1N1 campaign. And prior to that, he was an emergency planner with the New York City Department of Homeless Services, developing various aspects of New York City’s Coastal Storm Plan Shelter System. Mr. Stimmler has a master’s degree in international political economy and development from Fordham University and is a former Peace Corps volunteer, having spent 2 years in Nepal.

David Tilles, M.S., is responsible for Northrop Grumman’s chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) detection and defense business area, which supports various government customers, including the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of De-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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fense, and the U.S. Postal Service. Mr. Tilles has more than 30 years of experience in technology development, systems engineering, and program management related to automated systems and CBRNE detection. He has a B.E.S. in materials science and engineering and an M.S. in technical administration from Johns Hopkins University.

John Vitko, Jr., Ph.D., is the former director of biological and chemical countermeasures for the Science and Technology Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In that role, he had overall responsibility for all DHS science and technology to deter, detect, or mitigate a biological or chemical attack on the people, infrastructure, or agriculture of this nation. Prior to that, Dr. Vitko was a director of exploratory systems at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California, where he had been since receiving his Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University in 1975. Trained as a solid-state physicist and spectro-scopist, Dr. Vitko has conducted basic and applied research in support of defense and energy programs; led a major portion of Sandia’s strategic defense programs in the 1980s; been the technical director of a multi-laboratory Department of Energy (DOE) program on the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles for climate research in the 1990s; played a formative role in many advanced detection technology programs at Sandia, ranging from lidars to a hand-held suite of chromatography labs known as µChemLab; led all of Sandia’s biological and chemical defense programs; served as coordinator for the detection thrust area of DOE’s multi-laboratory Chemical and Biological Non-Proliferation Program and as the DOE representative to the multiagency ChemBio Detection Roadmapping Committee. In September 2002 he went on temporary assignment to Washington, DC, to help in the planning stages for the Department of Homeland Security and has subsequently joined that agency on an IPA (interagency personnel agreement) status. Dr. Vitko also chaired a National Research Council study on advanced sensors for bioagent detection. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University.

Michael V. Walter, Ph.D., is the detection branch chief and BioWatch program manager for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Health Affairs. Dr. Walter joined the Office of Health Affairs as the BioWatch program manager in September 2009. Since joining BioWatch, Dr. Walter has instituted a robust quality assurance program. Working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), he directed the transition of BioWatch sample screening from CDC poly-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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merase chain reaction (PCR) assays to Department of Defense (DoD) Critical Reagent Program PCR reagents. In addition, he has overseen the successful completion of the Gen-3 Phase I Acquisition Program. He has worked to increase interoperability and partnerships with federal, state, and local BioWatch program stakeholders. He was recognized as “One of the Faces of Homeland Security” by Secretary Napolitano in 2011. Dr. Walter possesses more than 20 years’ experience in microbiology/biological warfare research. He has an extensive background in sampling and detection for aerosolized microorganisms as well as in the management and development of design, test, evaluation, and quality assurance for related systems and programs. He also has significant experience in laboratory assay development, testing, and evaluation. Prior to joining BioWatch, Dr. Walter was a staff senior scientist and headed the technology special project team for the DoD Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense. He has also held positions with the Central Intelligence Agency, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, and Texaco, Inc. Dr. Walter is the recipient of eight publication and innovation awards and author of numerous scientific articles, abstracts, and patents. He received his Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of North Dakota.

Brian Young, Ph.D., is a program manager at Battelle, where he has worked for more than 25 years. He currently directs Battelle’s internally funded research on the application of next-generation sequencing to forensic DNA analysis. This work focuses on developing bioinformatic workflows suitable in forensic and diagnostic applications and has resulted in the first successful method for allelo-typing microsatellites in short-read data. Previously, Dr. Young managed a number of programs in forensic analysis of environmental samples involving both biological and chemical signatures.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch: Ensuring Timely and Accurate Information for Public Health Officials: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18495.
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The BioWatch program, funded and overseen by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has three main elements--sampling, analysis, and response--each coordinated by different agencies. The Environmental Protection Agency maintains the sampling component, the sensors that collect airborne particles. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention coordinates analysis and laboratory testing of the samples, though testing is actually carried out in state and local public health laboratories. Local jurisdictions are responsible for the public health response to positive findings. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is designated as the lead agency for the law enforcement response if a bioterrorism event is detected. In 2003 DHS deployed the first generation of BioWatch air samplers. The current version of this technology, referred to as Generation 2.0, requires daily manual collection and testing of air filters from each monitor. DHS has also considered newer automated technologies (Generation 2.5 and Generation 3.0) which have the potential to produce results more quickly, at a lower cost, and for a greater number of threat agents.

Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch is the summary of a workshop hosted jointly by the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council in June 2013 to explore alternative cost-effective systems that would meet the requirements for a BioWatch Generation 3.0 autonomous detection system, or autonomous detector, for aerosolized agents . The workshop discussions and presentations focused on examination of the use of four classes of technologies--nucleic acid signatures, protein signatures, genomic sequencing, and mass spectrometry--that could reach Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6-plus in which the technology has been validated and is ready to be tested in a relevant environment over three different tiers of temporal timeframes: those technologies that could be TRL 6-plus ready as part of an integrated system by 2016, those that are likely to be ready in the period 2016 to 2020, and those are not likely to be ready until after 2020. Technologies to Enable Autonomous Detection for BioWatch discusses the history of the BioWatch program, the role of public health officials and laboratorians in the interpretation of BioWatch data and the information that is needed from a system for effective decision making, and the current state of the art of four families of technology for the BioWatch program. This report explores how the technologies discussed might be strategically combined or deployed to optimize their contributions to an effective environmental detection capability.

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