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DNA Technology in Forensic Science (1992)

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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

Index

A

Abduction, 118, 121

Abuse of information, 19, 20, 24, 25, 114-116, 158-160

Access to databanks, 18-19, 93-94, 123

Accreditation of laboratories, 16, 17, 100-103, 105-108, 145, 162

Adenine, 2, 33

Admissibility of DNA evidence, 20-23, 52, 131-146

Allele frequency, 10-13, 14, 48, 62, 74-75, 77-79, 81-86, 91, 92-93, 122, 123

Alleles, 4, 32, 36

Allele-specific oligonucleotide probes, 42

American Association of Blood Banks, 102

American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, 102

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, 17, 72, 100, 102-103, 105-106, 107

American Society of Human Genetics, 72, 101-102

American Type Culture Collection, 91

Amplification methods, 40-43, 63-65, 69

Andrews v. State, 138-139

Anomalous bands, 58-59

Appellate opinions, 139-141

Argentina disappearance cases, 86

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 126

Artifacts, 8, 54-55, 144

ASO (allele-specific oligonucleotide) probes, 42

Assault, 112, 118-120, 143

Automated fingerprint identification systems, 17-18, 111, 113, 117 , 157

Automation,

see Computer technology

Autoradiography, 38-39, 53

Autosomes, 33

B

Band shifting, 54, 60-61, 140-141

Bayesian theory, 85

Behavioral traits, 48, 114

Bias in laboratory analysis, 53

Blind testing,

see Proficiency testing

Blood, 28, 89, 112, 120, 126, 142, 158

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

databank samples, 113, 117, 118, 125-126, 143

Blood banks, 84

Blood groups, 10, 27, 32, 43, 44, 88

Blot dotting,

see Reverse dot hybridization

Bone, 121, 125, 126

Boolean searches, 18, 114

Buccal swabs, 118

Bureau of Justice Assistance, 103

C

Caldwell v. State, 140-141

California Association of Crime Laboratory Directors, 88, 89

Carryover contamination, 58-59, 66-67

Ceiling frequencies, 13, 82-83, 84, 90-93

Ceiling principle, 13, 14, 25, 82-85, 92, 93, 158

Cell repositories, 14, 90-91

Census categories, 12

Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, 91

Certification of personnel, 16, 98, 100, 145, 153

Chain of custody, 131, 142

Civil cases, 20, 131-132

Cleavage sites, 38, 54

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, 17, 102, 107

Cobey v. State, 136

College of American Pathologists, 101-102, 107

Commonwealth v. Curnin, 141

Computer technology, 44, 48-49, 60, 61;

see also Networks

for databanks, 18, 113-114, 117, 123, 125

Confidence limits, 9, 14-15, 75-76, 92

Confidentiality,

see Privacy issues

Consequentialist ethical analysis, 24-25, 154, 156-157, 158

Constitutional issues, 20, 131, 143, 153

Contamination, 20, 52, 55, 131, 134

in PCR procedures, 65-67, 68, 70

in RFLP procedures, 58-59

Control primers, 70

Controls, in testing, 55, 57-58

for laboratory proficiency, 62-63

Convicted-felon DNA databanks, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160, 161

Cooperative services, 153

Coriell Institute of Medical Research, 91

Cost-benefit analysis,

see Economics

Credit-rating services, 18, 114

Criminal profile, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160

Criminal records, 18, 114

Custody cases, 20, 132

Cytosine, 2, 33

D

Databanks, 15, 104

access to, 18-19, 93-94, 123

allele frequency, 10, 74-75, 85-86, 91, 122, 124, 125

criminal profile, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160

and legal proceedings, 135, 139, 140, 141

privacy issues, 14, 17-20, 24-25, 32, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 155 -156, 158-160

samples, 112-113, 116-123, 125-126, 143

sequence variability, 44

see also Automated fingerprint identification systems;

Cell repositories;

Computer technology;

Networks

Defense counsels, 146, 147, 160, 161

Defense laboratories, 123

Demography,

see Ethnic groups; Subpopulations

Dental records, 125, 158

Department of Defense, 125-126

Department of Health and Human Services, 17, 107, 108

see also National Institutes of Health

Department of Justice, 17, 107, 108

see also Bureau of Justice Assistance;

Federal Bureau of

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

Investigation; National Institute of Justice

Dermatoglyphics,

see Fingerprinting

Diagnostic DNA testing,

see Disease testing

Diallelic RFLP systems, 4, 35, 36, 45, 46

artifacts, 54

match criteria, 53

Digestion procedures, 36-37, 38, 54

and anomalous results, 58-59

in PCR analysis, 68-69

in Southern blot preparation, 57

Digital DNA typing, 43-44

Digitizing pen, 60

Diploid genome, 2

Disclosure of information, 18-19, 24, 114-115, 132, 148

Discrimination issues, 114, 160

Disease testing, 3, 6, 48, 52, 69, 79

accreditation programs, 101-102

ethical issues, 24, 48

privacy issues, 18-19, 114-115, 116

use of fingerprints, 29

''DNA fingerprinting," 4, 28

DNA Proficiency Testing Act, 103

Documentation of laboratory procedures, 59, 99, 105, 148

Dot blotting, 42

Drug testing, 126

Due process, 153

E

Economics of DNA testing, 48-49, 148-149, 153-154

and profile databanks, 113, 117-118, 120

Electrophoresis, 36

in PCR procedures, 43, 67-68

in RFLP procedures, 37, 38, 57, 60

Employment discrimination, 114, 160

Endonuclease,

see Restriction enzymes

Enzyme markers, 44

Epstein-Barr virus, 90

Error rates of laboratories, 14, 15, 88-89, 94

Ethical issues, 24-25, 154-158

Ethidium bromide, 57, 58, 63

Ethnic groups, 9, 11-15, 25, 48, 75, 79-85, 91, 158

Evidence samples, 17, 23, 44, 87, 131-132

analysis procedures, 36, 53

contamination of, 55, 59, 65-66, 134

in databanks, 112-113, 121, 125

see also Admissibility;

Rules of evidence

Exclusion of suspects, 75, 88, 135, 154, 156

Expert testimony, 21-23, 132-133, 145-149, 153

External molecular-weight standards, 59-60

F

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 1, 71-72, 103-104, 116, 153

DNA databank, 10, 12, 77

DNA testing methods, 15, 28, 97

Forensic Science Research and Training Center, 104

Federal laboratories, 20, 116

Federal regulation, 101, 107-108

Federal Rules of Evidence, 21-23, 132, 136-139, 153

Fingerprinting, 17-18, 111-113, 120, 121-122, 125, 155, 157, 161

compared to DNA typing, 29-31, 111-113, 117-118

see also Automated fingerprint identification systems

"Floating bins,"; 86

Fluorometry, 53, 63

Forensic Science Research and Training Center, 104

Fourth Amendment issues, 20, 131

Fragment measurements, 59-61

Frequency calculations, 4-5, 9-15, 44-48, 74-86, 90-93

and databanks, 124

and legal proceedings, 141

Frequency theories, 85

Frye v. United States, 21-22, 132-136, 138

Funding issues, 101, 153

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

G

Genetic disorders,

see Disease testing

Genetic drift, 82, 83-84

Genetic mapping, 91, 152, 155

Genetics Society of America, 72

Genomes, 2-3, 9, 34

Genotypes, 32

Governor's Select Committee on DNA Typing, New York, 103

Grandparentage86

Guanine, 2, 33

Guidelines for a Quality Assurance Program for DNA RFLP Analysis, 98-99

H

Hair, 28, 120, 158

Haploid genome, 3

Hardy-Weinberg ratios, 4-5, 11, 45, 78, 81-81, 91, 139, 141

Helpfulness standard of evidence, 21-23, 132, 136-137

Heterogeneity of population, 82, 92

Heterozygosity, 4, 36

frequency calculation of, 11, 45, 48, 78

and PCR analysis, 68, 69

and RFLP analysis, 38-40, 58

HLA (human leukocyte antigens), 10, 27, 32, 44, 68, 70, 114

Homicide, 19, 112, 118-120, 143

Homogeneity of populations, 12, 14, 84

Homozygosity, 4, 36, 87

frequency calculation of, 11, 45, 48, 78, 79

and PCR analysis, 68

and RFLP analysis, 38-40, 58

Human genome project,

see Genetic mapping

Human leukocyte antigens,

see HLA

Hybridization, 37, 38, 40, 42, 48

and band analysis, 57-59, 60

reverse dot, 42, 67, 68

Hypervariable systems, see VNTR

I

Immigrants, 84, 155

Immortalized cell lines, 14, 90-91

Individual identification, 9, 28, 43-44, 74-75, 89-90, 113

from fingerprints, 29-31, 113

Information networks,

see Networks

In limine hearings, 144, 145

Inspections of laboratories, 106

Insurance companies, 114, 160

Internal molecular-weight standards, 60-61

International technology exchange, 25-26, 162-163

Interstate commerce, and laboratory accreditation, 108

Isotopic labeling, 37-38

J

Jeffreys, Alex, 4, 40, 43-44

Judicial notice, 133-134, 145

Jury presentations, 14, 20-23, 25, 89, 132, 136-137, 146, 147, 160 -161

Juveniles, 148

K

Kelly v. Texas, 140

Kidnapping, 118, 121

Kits, for PCR analysis, 68, 69

L

Laboratories, 8, 15, 18-19, 20, 28, 53-55, 97, 101, 105, 112, 116, 161, 162

error rates, 14, 15, 88-89, 94

and legal proceedings, 133, 135, 140-141, 145, 148

licensing, 100-101

protocols, 8, 53-55, 105, 112, 133, 135, 140-141, 145, 148

regulation of, 15, 16-17, 97-108, 162

see also Match criteria;

Proficiency testing; Technicians

Laboratory Accreditation Board, American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, 17, 102-103, 105-106, 107

Latent fingerprints, 17-18, 111-113

Leakage between samples, 59

Licensing of laboratories, 100-101

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

Likelihood ratios, 85

Linkage equilibrium, 36, 78, 81, 91

M

Match criteria, 53-54

and PCR analysis, 43

and RFLP analysis, 61-63

Medical accreditation programs, 101-102

Medical diagnostics,

see Disease testing

Membrane transfer, 37, 38, 42, 58-59

Mendel's law, 32, 36, 86

Military personnel, 125-126

Minisatellite repeat codings, 93

Minority groups,

see Ethnic groups

Missing persons, 121

Misuse of information, 19, 20, 24, 114-116, 158-160

Mitochondrial DNA, 86

Molecular-weight standards, 59-61

Monomorphic probes, 60

Multiallelic systems,

see VNTR

Multilocus probes, 4, 10, 14-15, 40, 56

Multiple sources in sample, 52, 58, 59, 65-66, 88, 158

Multiplex amplification, 42

Multiplication rule, 5, 10-15, 76-79, 82-83, 89, 92, 145

Mutations, 38, 52, 82

N

National Committee on Forensic DNA Typing, 8-9, 14, 16, 70-72, 84, 99

National Institute of Justice, 17, 71, 100, 108

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 71, 99, 116-117

National Institutes of Health, 17, 71, 90, 107

National Science Foundation, 71

Native Americans, 12, 15, 78

Networks, 113-114, 116-117, 123, 125, 126-128, 153;

see also Computer technology;

Databanks

New York v. Neysmith, 88

Nonisotopic labeling, 37-38, 40

Nucleotides, 2-3, 33-35, 64

see also Oligonucleotides

O

Oligonucleotides, 40, 42

Organizations,

see Professional organizations

P

Paternity determination, 20, 85, 86, 102, 132, 142, 155, 158

Pattern analysis, 53, 57-59

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis, 5-6, 7, 40-44, 63-70, 85 , 114, 132, 144

commercial kits, 68, 69

People v. Castro,135

Perpetrator populations, 13, 85

Phenotype, 32

Pipettes, 67

Polymerase chain reaction,

see PCR analysis

Polymorphism,

see FRLP analysis;

VNTR

Population frequencies, 9-15, 21, 44-48, 53, 74-85, 90-93, 157

and databanks, 124

and legal proceedings, 133, 135, 136, 139, 142, 145

Privacy issues, 14, 17-20, 24-25, 32, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 148 , 152, 153, 155-156, 158-160

for databanks, 18-19, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 143, 158-160

Private laboratories, 15, 18-19, 20, 97, 101, 162

Probability,

see Frequency calculations

Probative value, of DNA evidence, 22, 52, 134, 136-137

compared to fingerprints, 112

Probes, 54, 56, 144

see also ASO probes;

Monomorphic probes;

Multiocus probes;

Singlelocus probes

Product rule,

see Multiplication rule

Professional organizations, 16-17, 26, 63, 100, 105-106, 148

Proficiency testing, 14, 15, 16-17, 55, 62-63, 88-89, 94, 99, 103-108

Profile repositories, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

Proof-of-death cases, 20, 132

Proprietary data, 93-94, 148, 162

Prosecutors, 25, 146-147, 160, 161

Protective orders, 23, 93-94, 148

Protocols, 8, 53-55, 72, 105, 112

Publication issues, 56, 93, 137, 138, 144, 162

Public laboratories, 15, 20, 28, 97, 116, 162

Public opinion, 25, 28, 107, 160

Q

Quality assurance, 15-17, 32, 97-109, 134, 153

Quantitative analysis

of pattern images, 53

see also Frequency calculations

R

Racial groups,

see Ethnic groups

Radiocactive isotopes,

see Isotopic labeling

Rape, 19-20, 65-66, 112, 118-120, 143

Reagents, 53, 54

Recidivists, 19, 86, 118-120, 121, 143

Red-cell enzymes, 27

Reference samples, 14-15, 83-84, 90-91

Regional networks, 126-128, 153

Regulation, 15, 16-17, 97-98, 100-108, 153-154, 162

of commercial kits, 69

Relatives, 14, 25, 86-87, 121, 143

Reliability of testing methods, 51-52, 71, 88, 97, 106, 133-137, 156

Reproducibility of results, 85-86, 116-117, 135

Restriction digestion,

see Digestion procedures

Restriction enzymes, 3, 4, 34-38, 54, 57

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms,

see RFLP analysis

Retention of samples, 63, 122

Reverse dot hybridization, 42, 67, 68

RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) analysis, 3-4, 34 , 35, 36-40, 56-63, 85, 98-99

and databanks, 19, 114, 116, 118

State law coverage, 52, 131-132

see also Diallelic RFLP systems;

Southern blots

Rights of accused, 24-25, 154-157, 159

Robbery, 112, 118, 120

Rule 403, 20, 22, 132, 136

Rule 702, 20, 22, 132, 136-137

Rule 706, 20, 132, 153

Rules of evidence, 20-23, 52, 132, 136-139, 141-142, 145, 153

S

Saliva, 28, 142, 158

Samples, 17-20, 36, 44, 53, 58-59, 60

contamination of, 20, 52, 55, 59, 65-67, 68, 134

control, 57-58, 62-63

in databanks, 116-123

leakage, 59

mixed sources of, 52, 58, 59, 65-66, 88, 158

reference, 14-15, 83-84, 90-91

retention of, 63, 122

storage, 18-19, 20, 90, 114-115, 117, 122, 159

Sanctions, 100, 160

Security of information, 18, 19, 24-25, 113-116, 123

Semen, 19, 27, 28, 36, 65-66, 112, 120

Serial repists, 120

Serology, 88, 157-158

see also Blood groups Serum protein, 27, 32

Sex chromosomes, 33

Sex offenses, 19-20, 65-66, 118-120, 143

Single-band patterns, 58

Single-locus probes, 4, 5, 15, 23, 37, 38-40, 48, 52, 56, 57

Societies,

see Professional organizations

Software

for databanks, 14, 18, 87, 117, 125, 128

for fragment measurement, 61

Soldiers, 125-126

Southern, Edwin, 3, 38

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×

Southern blots, 5, 37, 38, 63

compared to PCR, 69-70

preparation of, 3, 4, 57, 59

validity as evidence, 23, 52, 131, 142

Spencer v. Commonwealth, 139

Sperm, 65-66

Standardization of methods, 8, 15-17, 26

and databanks, 112, 116-117, 126-128

and quality assurance, 97-109

see also Molecular-weight standards

"Star activity,"; 57

State Justice Institute, 71-72

State laboratories, 20, 28, 108, 116

State regulation, 100-101, 108

of databanks, 115-116, 120, 124-125, 126-128, 142-143

State rules of evidence, 20, 21, 52, 132, 141-142

State v. Despain138

State v. Pennell, 139

State v. Schwartz, 135-136

Statistical analysis,

see Frequency calculations

Statistical disclosure, 18-19, 114-115

Subpopulations, 10-15, 48, 76, 77-85

Suspect samples, 20, 36, 53, 59

in databanks, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160

T

Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis and Methods, 16, 98-99, 104 , 106, 116-117

Technicians, 15, 16, 17, 25-26, 66, 97, 100

Technological advancement, 15, 55, 70-71, 143-145, 153

Technology transfer, 71

international, 25-26, 162-163

Thermocyclers, 64

Thymine, 2, 33

Trade secrets, 93-94, 148, 162

Twins, 29, 44

Training, 15, 16, 17, 25-26, 96, 104, 108, 125, 153

U

UNC (uracil N-glycolase enzyme), 67

Unidentified bodies, 121, 125, 126, 158

United States v. Jakobetz, 138

United States v. Porter, 138

United States v. Yee, 138

Uracil N-glycolase enzyme,

see UNC

Urban areas, 25

Urine, 28, 126

V

Vaginal fluids, 65-66

Validity of methods, 51-52, 140, 145

statistical, 75, 76-79, 90, 134, 140

Variable number tandem repeat,

see VNTR

Victim samples, 121

Victims' rights, 25, 156-157

VNTR (variable number tandem repeat), 4, 34-40, 45-48

and amplification, 42, 64

match criteria, 42, 53-54

and multiplication rule, 11-12

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
×
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1866.
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DNA Technology in Forensic Science Get This Book
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Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread.

The volume addresses key issues:

  • Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification.
  • DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility.
  • Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology.

Combining this original volume with the new update—The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence—provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic.

This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.

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