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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
×
Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
×
Page 66

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62 Guidance The development of new domestic energy sources to sup- port economic development and national security will result in potential safety impacts on the U.S. air transportation sys- tem. Aviation and energy stakeholders alike will benefit from development of best practices to address these impacts. The objectives of this Guidebook are to (1) deliver an overview of the National Airspace System (NAS) and how aviation safety is regulated in the context of energy technology development, (2) give a detailed account of research and lessons learned related to the aviation safety impacts of certain energy tech- nologies, and (3) establish best practices for planning and implementing energy production and transmission technol- ogies for preservation and improvement of aviation safety. Chapters 2 and 3 provide significant technical depth regard- ing airspace and airport operations, aviation regulations, energy technology development near airports and other NAS resources, and related safety implications. This chapter, in con- trast, is intended to be an accessible guidance resource for best practices related to each energy technology covered previously. Please refer to Chapters 2 and 3 for more detail related to these best practices. The guidance provided in this chapter is organized in two formats. The first section lists best practices for each energy technology, allowing users to quickly review issues particular to a proposed energy project. The second section includes some general guidance for siting structures to avoid physical obstructions, based on structure height and design observations by technology. 4.1 Best Practices Listed by Technology Tables 4.1 through 4.5 show best practices listed by energy technology. C H A P T E R 4 SOLAR POWER Best Practice Who When Why Meet with FAA (and/or Block Grant State Aviation Departments), State DOTs, and Other Relevant State and Local Agencies/Entities Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid all impacts Use Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool (SGHAT) Model Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid glare during siting of PV arrays Use Notice Criteria Tool Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid physical penetration during siting File Form 7460 Airport, Energy Company Planning Identify all impacts Engage Stakeholder Process Airport, Energy Company Planning Raise issues that can be addressed through agency review Coordinate with Tower and Airport Airport, Energy Company Construction Avoid airspace hazard Issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) FAA Construction Avoid airspace hazard; should only be used in short term (3-6 months) to call attention to potential safety hazard Table 4.1. Best practices for solar power.

63 WIND POWER Best Practice Who When Why Use DoD Siting Tool Energy Company Planning Avoid areas of significant radar activity Use Notice Criteria Tool Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid physical penetration during siting Meet with FAA (and/or Block Grant State Aviation Departments), State DOTs, and Other Relevant State and Local Agencies/Entities Energy Company Planning Identify specific airspace issues Engage Stakeholder Process Energy Company Planning Raise issues that can be addressed through agency review File Form 7460 Energy Company Planning Avoid impacts to flight paths and radar Upgrade Facilities Energy Company Development Mitigate for identified radar impacts Apply Lighting/Marking to Wind Turbine Energy Company Development Mitigate for airspace penetration Apply Lighting/Marking to MET Energy Company Planning Avoid airspace hazard Issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) FAA Construction Avoid airspace hazard; should only be used in short term (3-6 months) to call attention to potential safety hazard Table 4.2. Best practices for wind power. OIL AND GAS DRILLING Best Practice Who When Why Meet with FAA (and/or Block Grant State Aviation Departments), State DOTs, and Other Relevant State and Local Agencies/Entities Airport, Energy Company Planning Identify specific airspace issues Use Notice Criteria Tool Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid physical penetration during siting File Construction Safety Phasing Plan Energy Company Planning Avoid airspace hazard File Form 7460 Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid airspace hazard Plan Frack Ponds as Temporary Structures or Incorporate Wildlife Prevention Measures Energy Company Planning Avoid wildlife hazards Prohibit Flaring Airport Planning Avoid airspace hazard Coordinate with Tower and Airport Airport, Energy Company Construction Avoid airspace hazard Issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) FAA Construction Avoid airspace hazard; should only be used in short term (3-6 months) to call attention to potential safety hazard Table 4.3. Best practices for oil and gas drilling. 4.2 Siting Guidance and Design Criteria for Energy Structures One of the directives of this research was to identify siting and design guidance for energy technologies, such as “height and distance criteria for wind turbines, distance and angular criteria for solar panels, and thermal plumes effects on aviation operations.” After reviewing all of the available information, it was difficult to identify specific criteria. However, general siting guidance is possible based on FAA definitions of air- space and physical penetration. Design observations are also provided, organized by technology type.

64 ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION INFRASTRUCTURE Best Practice Who When Why Meet with FAA (and/or Block Grant State Aviation Departments), State DOTs, and Other Relevant State and Local Agencies/Entities Energy Company Planning Identify specific airspace issues Engage Stakeholder Process Energy Company, Airport Planning Raise issues that can be addressed through agency review Use Notice Criteria Tool Airport, Energy Company Planning Avoid physical penetration during siting File Form 7460 Energy Company Planning Avoid impacts to airspace Apply Lighting/Marking, Spherical Balls Energy Company Planning Avoid airspace hazard Issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) FAA Construction Avoid airspace hazard; should only be used in short term (3-6 months) to call attention to potential safety hazard Table 4.5. Best practices for electricity transmission infrastructure. 4.2.1 Siting Guidance The general siting guidance shown in Table 4.6 has been developed for energy structures based on the typical height of structures currently being proposed by energy companies and airspace criteria included in Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). The locations relative to an airport are shown graphi- cally in Figure 4.1. Because these structures penetrate airspace, compliance with FAR Part 77 will ultimately be assessed by the FAA after conducting an aeronautical study through the filing of Form 7460. However, these general guidelines, if fol- lowed, will help avoid many conflicts. 4.2.2 Design Observations Table 4.7 presents a summary of design observations for each of the technologies reviewed. POWER PLANT STACKS AND COOLING TOWERS Best Practice Who When Why Meet with FAA (and/or Block Grant State Aviation Departments), State DOTs, and Other Relevant State and Local Agencies/Entities Energy Company Planning Identify specific airspace issues Engage Stakeholder Process Energy Company, Airport Planning Raise issues that can be addressed through agency review Use Notice Criteria Tool Energy Company Planning Avoid physical penetration during siting File Form 7460 Energy Company Planning Avoid impacts to airspace Use MITRE Model1 Energy Company Planning Predict characteristics of thermal plume Use Air To Air Heat Exchangers or Other Plume Abatement Technology Energy Company Planning Avoid impacts to airspace Issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) FAA Construction Avoid airspace hazard; should only be used in short term (3-6 months) to call attention to potential safety hazard Notes: 1. The MITRE Plume Hazard Model has not been released by FAA as of this writing. Therefore, until release of the model and updated AC, air traffic controllers, pilots, and developers should rely on current FAA guidance and recommended practices, including the use of the CASA guidance where applicable. Table 4.4. Best practices for power plant stacks and cooling towers.

65 Table 4.6. Siting guidance. SITING GUIDANCE Structure Height (ft. AGL) Representative Structure Distance Guideline (NM)1 Basis2 Solar Tower 540 Crescent Dunes (Tonopah) Concentrating Solar Power Project3 6.4 FAR 77.23 Solar Panel 10 Typical 0.02 FAR 77.25 Meteorological Tower – Tall 330 Typical for 100 meter hub height 4.3 FAR 77.23 Meteorological Tower – Small 199 Typical 3 FAR 77.25 Wind Turbine – Tall 600 GE 2.5MW 120 meter hub height 7 FAR 77.23 Wind Turbine – Medium4 265 GE 1 MW Wind Turbine 3.6 FAR 77.23 Wind Turbine – Small5 155 Northern Power Systems 100 kW Wind Turbine 1.8 FAR 77.25 Drill Rig 1 – NoMAC 173 DFW 1.9 FAR 77.25 103 DFW 1.6 FAR 77.25 Oil / Water Tank 21 DFW 0.2 FAR 77.25 Communication Tower 70 DFW 0.6 FAR 77.25 Power Plant Stack 630 Turk Coal Plant, AR6 7.3 FAR 77.23 Cooling Tower 370 Fort Martin Power Plant, WV 4.7 FAR 77.23 Transmission Tower 150 Northern Pass Transmission Project 1.8 FAR 77.25 Drill Rig 2 – Mountain Rig 103 DFW 1.6 FAR 77.25 Notes: 1. Base point for distance measurement is assumed to be closest runway threshold at the airport. 2. FAR Part 77, “Objections Affecting Navigable Airspace.” 3. Under construction; expected to be commissioned in late 2013. 4. Wind turbine sizes from DOE NREL: http://www.nrel.gov/wind/midsize_wind.html. 5. http://www.nrel.gov/wind/smallwind/. 6. Commissioned in December 2012. Drill Rig 2 – Mountain Rig Figure 4.1. General guidance for siting distance for typical energy structures.

66 Technology Impact Design Observation Implementation Solar PV Glare PV module tilt and compass orientation have a significant impact on the direction of glare Use SGHAT to evaluate impact Wind Turbine Radar There is no design flexibility with wind turbines because they must be tall to produce sufficient energy Engage DoD Siting Clearinghouse and FAA Physical Hazard of METs All should be marked and located on aeronautical charts File Form 7460 Oil and Gas Flaring Prohibit flaring near airports as alternatives are available Include in land lease and CSPP Wildlife Attractants Reclaim frack ponds after construction or include wildlife-deterrent designs Include in land lease and CSPP Power Plants Thermal Plume Turbulence Sites should avoid areas of aircraft take-off and final approach below 1,000 ft. AGL Utilize MITRE model1 Transmission Physical Hazard All should be marked and located on aeronautical charts File Form 7460 Notes: 1. The MITRE Plume Hazard Model has not been released by FAA as of this writing. Therefore, until release of the model and updated AC, air traffic controllers, pilots, and developers should rely on current FAA guidance and recommended practices, including the use of the CASA guidance where applicable. Table 4.7. Design observations.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 108: Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace describes processes to plan, develop, and construct energy production and transmission technologies at and around airports. The guidebook emphasizes aviation safety practices in order to help ensure a safe and efficient national air system while still helping to meet U.S. domestic energy production needs.

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