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Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports (2013)

Chapter: Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - A-CERT Exercise Plan." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
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44 a p p e n d i x d A-CERT Exercise Plan

a-CeRT exercise plan 45 To ensure the effective execution of an exercise, it is recommended that the proposed Lead Controller of the exercise complete the following minimum training courses from the FEMA and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS): FEMA IS-120a–An Introduction to Exercises. FEMA IS-139–Exercise Design and Development. FEMA IS-130–Exercise Evaluation and Improvement Planning. DHS–Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Training Course. This Appendix provides information and reference materials needed to plan, conduct, and evaluate an exercise. The following are critical tasks the Lead Controller will need to do in order to properly conduct an Airport Community Emergency Response Team (A-CERT) exercise: Review CERT and HSEEP exercise and supporting materials. Decide how to customize the scenario and objectives in a way that reflects the target airport’s specific needs and tests the A-CERT members’ skills and techniques to be applied in the target airport. Carefully plan the conduct and flow of the exercise. The Lead Controller must be able to develop a realistic timeline for the exercise conduct, and be able to appropriately control the exercise. Use the guidance provided by HSEEP to create the necessary supporting documents for participants and Controllers/Evaluators. Be sure to query participant feedback after each exercise by capturing verbal post exercise responses, and/or by handing-out a Participant Feedback Form following conduct. Complete an After-Action Report after every exercise. The original CERT program educated ordinary people from all walks of life about disaster preparedness and weapons of mass destruction and trained them in basic disaster response skills, such as fire safety, light search and rescue, and disaster medical operation. The A-CERT program takes the original CERT purpose of citizen support, and focuses the concept on disaster preparedness and response on airport property. Using a more “airport operations”-focused training, A-CERT members can assist airport staff, emergency responders, and persons in transit following an event and can take a more active role in preparing the airport. CERT Dri l ls and Exercises

46 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? The National CERT Program has developed a library of drills and exercises.10 These exercises have been designed in a ready-for-use format and include complete instructions, detailed lists of materials, and all supporting forms. At the time of this implementation plan, there is not yet an “Airport Disaster” scenario in the library of CERT exercise materials, however, the materials available are correctly formatted for use, and are useful templates for scenario and objective customization to fit the operational specifics of the target airport. The sample exercise given later in this Appendix is just one example of how the Lead Controller may modify the exercise content in order to meet the Scope, Objectives, and Capability Evaluation of the target Airport CERT. The Bui lding -Block Approach to Preparedness Like any other operational skill-set, CERT operations and procedures must first be learned and validated, beginning at the “novice level” before more complex CERT operations and member skills can be added to team members. The safest and most effective way to create an effective CERT is to use the “Building-Block Approach” as recommended by HSEEP. The first step in the building-block approach is always training. Team members should learn the new skill and understand their role in the operation(s) before being tested on it. Also in that first step is planning. There should be emergency plans in place for the operation(s), which specifically identify the responsibilities and organization of CERT during crisis operations. Once CERT members have been trained, and they know their responsibilities in the operations plan, their skills and responsible tasks should be evaluated with an exercise. Exercises are broken into two types: Discussion- Based and Operations Based. Discussion-based exercises are normally used as a starting point in the building-block approach of escalating exercise complexity. Discussion-based exercises include seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises, and games. These types of exercises typically highlight existing plans, policies, and procedures. Discussion-based exercises are valuable tools for familiarizing agencies and personnel with current or expected capabilities of an entity. 10 http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/exercises.shtm

a-CeRT exercise plan 47 Discussion-based exercises typically focus on strategic, policy-oriented issues. Facilitators and/or presenters usually lead the discussion, keeping participants on track toward meeting exercise objectives.11 Operations-based exercises represent the next level of the exercise cycle. They are used to validate the plans, policies, agreements, and procedures solidified in discussion-based exercises. Operations-based exercises include drills, functional exercises (FEs), and full- scale exercises (FSEs). They can clarify roles and responsibilities, identify gaps in resources needed to implement plans and procedures, and improve individual and team performance. Operations-based exercises are characterized by actual response to emergency conditions; mobilization of teams/resources; and commitment of personnel, usually over an extended period of time.12 CERT leaders must follow the building-block approach when creating and maintaining a CERT and its staff. Training and planning would be followed by a low-complexity validation tool, such as a tabletop exercise, or a “single-operation” drill. That exercise would be evaluated, and improvement recommendations would follow (such as more training or additional plan amendments). Once the improvements have been completed, another more complex validation tool may be conducted, such as a FE or FSE. And again, that exercise would be evaluated and improvement recommendations would follow. This planning, training, exercise, and corrective actions process is called the preparedness cycle, and it is continuously ongoing. The CERT leader of every team should involve the CERT in the target airport’s preparedness efforts so that they may stay ready and able to carry-out their respective tasks should a disaster occur. 11 https://hseep.dhs.gov/support/volumeI.pdf 12 Ibid.

48 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? The FSE example given below is just one approach to the modification of CERT exercise material to be applicable as an Airport CERT validation tool. As already mentioned herein, be sure to use the building-block approach when choosing the type of exercise to conduct for the target Airport CERT. Hazard: Severe storm Location: Airport Duration: 1-2 hours Incident Command System Communications Search techniques—interior Patient transport Size-up During the course of the exercise, A-CERT members will operate within and properly communicate through the incident command structure. Within the first 10 minutes of the incident onset, A-CERT members will assemble in their functional groups and be ready for assignment from the CERT liaison in the Airport Emergency Operations Center. Within the first 15 minutes of the incident onset, A-CERT members will quickly and thoroughly report damage assessment and area status for which they are assigned, back to the Airport Emergency Operations Center. During the course of the exercise, A-CERT members will remain accounted for by their functional group leaders, and ultimately to the CERT liaison in the Airport Emergency Operations Center. At 13:30 on a Saturday afternoon the airport is struck by high winds from a tornado (or severe thunderstorm). As the storm hit, visitors, travelers in transit, and airport personnel scattered and ran for shelter. Some were able to make it to designated storm shelter areas in the terminals and outside buildings; others were not. A 50-seat regional jet that had just landed and arrived at the gate was also caught by the tornadic winds before it could de-plane its passengers. The Embracer was picked up and thrown into the terminal where the gate seating area is located. A fueling truck was also Sample Airport CERT Ful l -Scale Exercise Exercise Overview Capabilities Exercised Exercise Objectives Scenario

a-CeRT exercise plan 49 pushed across the runway by high winds and wedged underneath the now upside-down plane and the gate overhang, There is no fire at the time, but the truck is leaking fuel from somewhere. The storm damaged many buildings and caused injuries to individuals in the airport terminal and other buildings, as well as those around the airfield and on roadways. People have been injured by flying debris and trapped under fallen debris. Passengers in the wrecked plane are unable to remove themselves from the aircraft due to its precarious position, height, and the leaking fuel underneath. The fire department is responding to other areas and has requested that the local CERT help with searching the airport, reporting damage and status of areas searched, locating and providing first aid to victims, and assisting in directing travelers as well as “walking-wounded” to proper areas of safety and/or treatment. The exercise begins with a description of the emergency situation. Following this, the A- CERT proceeds through a complete scenario, which involves integrating into the incident command structure. The team organizes into functional groups to carry-out the tasks they are responsible for in the Airport Emergency Operations Plan (EOP), to include immediate basic first aid to casualties, search and status report, escort, and patron and patient triage coordination support. The search and status report groups search outdoor parking areas, off-runway structures (e.g., rental car kiosks, outside vendors, onsite hotels), and all terminals. They are assigned by the command staff to identify hazards, triage victims, and apply basic first aid. These activities are performed in a scenario where buildings at the airport have been damaged and people injured as the result of a severe storm. Table 10 describes the factors that will need to be considered when planning the exercise. Table 10. Planning considerations. Item Factors to Consider Time of year What is the weather and temperature likely to be? How many hours of daylight will you have? Number of teams/people participating How many team members do you have? Are there enough for a good exercise? How many functional groups do you want and how many people should be in each group? Exercise site You will need an airfield or other area with both indoor and outdoor areas that can be used to simulate the disaster. Does it have space for a Command Post, a medical treatment area, For Exercise Staff Exercise Synopsis Planning Considerations (continued on next page)

50 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? Item Factors to Consider and one location for each functional group? [NOTE: There should be 3-4 functional group locations, as well as people wandering around who will need to be evacuated]. • 1 area loaded with victims • 1 area with just a few victims • 1-2 areas with a moderate number of victims Is there a place to set up food and water? Is there a need for portable toilets? Will you need security at the site? Parking Where will participants park? Is there adequate capacity? Do you need parking lot assistants? Food and water You will need food and water for all players, victims, actors, and exercise staff. What will be provided and where? Who will provide it? Who will set it up, distribute it, and clean it up? Exercise staff Can you get enough Controllers, Evaluators, and Safety Officers to have one of each at each location (Command Post, medical treatment area, and functional group locations)? You should have the following exercise staff: • Lead Controller (1) • Controllers (1 per location: Command Post, medical treatment area, tactical group locations) • Evaluators (1 per location: Command Post, medical treatment area, tactical group locations) • Safety Officers (1 per location: Command Post, medical treatment area, tactical group locations) • CERT Public Information Officer to handle media, if invited. [NOTE: This exercise takes place at the airport and possibly in open public space. This will give your team great public exposure. Consider appointing a Public Information Officer to handle media and public inquiries]. Who is responsible for planning and coordinating what tasks? Who will serve what roles during the exercise? When will you schedule a pre-meeting with the Controllers, Evaluators, and Safety Officers to brief them? Victims and actors How many volunteers do you need? (see Exercise Site above for recommendations) Can you get enough volunteers, or will you have to substitute some mannequins or cutouts? Who will do moulage for the volunteer victims? Exercise materials Clipboards: one for each Controller and Evaluator Table 10. Continued.

a-CeRT exercise plan 51 Item Factors to Consider Materials for use in the medical treatment area: • Splinting • Bandaging Materials for use in rescue operations: • Blankets or stretchers • Chairs • Levers and cribbing material Wood, furniture, and other materials to simulate interior damage to the buildings and trapped victims A cable to simulate a downed electrical wire Small (5x7 inches) printed sign saying “This victim has died” Portable toilets Exercise documents Make copies of the following (all except the map are included in the Appendix): Controller/Evaluator Briefing: 1 copy per Controller and Evaluator Exercise Overview: 1 copy per participant CERT Member and Volunteer Victims and Actors Sign-In Sheets Map of the airport (optional) Sample Victim Injury Cards: 1 card per victim volunteer Incident/Assignment Tracking Log: 3-4 copies, used at the Command Post Victim Treatment Area Record: 8-10 copies, for the medical treatment area Damage Assessment Form: 2-3 copies per tactical group General Message Form: 2-3 copies per tactical group Events and Evaluation Form for Lead Facilitator and Evaluator: 1 copy per Command Post Facilitator and Evaluator Events and Evaluation Form for Other Facilitator(s) and Evaluator(s): 1 copy per Facilitator and Evaluator Events and Evaluation Form for Medical Treatment Area Facilitator and Evaluator: 1 copy per medical treatment area Facilitator and Evaluator Controller/Evaluator Feedback Form: 1 copy per Facilitator and Evaluator Participant Feedback Form: 1 copy per participant After-Action Report Form: 1 copy per Facilitator Event clean-up Who will do it? Where will trash be taken? NOTE: Separate descriptions are provided for Controller, Evaluator, and Safety Officer. Manpower constraints may require that two of the roles be combined at a location. One person should NOT do all three roles. Exercise Staff Roles

52 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? There are two types of Facilitators:  The Lead Controller will stay at the Command Post.  Other Controllers will monitor the other exercise locations (e.g., medical treatment area, tactical group locations). Lead Controller The Lead Controller will have several key responsibilities during the exercise. The Lead Controller will play five roles.  First, the Lead Controller will assign roles to exercise staff and brief them on the details of the exercise.  Second, the Lead Controller will lead and guide the exercise by presenting information at the Command Post. He or she will follow the Lead Controller Guidelines to keep the exercise moving forward. He or she will provide messages to the exercise participants to ensure key decision points in the exercise are reached.  Third, the Lead Controller will observe and coach. In this role, he or she will observe the actions of exercise participants and be on the alert for potential safety issues. If the Lead Controller observes a safety concern, he or she may need to intervene and stop the exercise. If a group is struggling to make a decision or making numerous incorrect decisions, then the Controller may provide coaching tips. The Lead Controller may also intervene to help the team members at the Command Post clarify their decision making by asking questions about their thought process and the factors they considered in making choices.  Fourth, the Lead Controller will conduct a hot wash (debrief). The purpose of the hot wash is to reinforce learning by helping participants evaluate their own decision making. It is a balance between: • Asking participants why they made the choices they did and what they learned. • Providing additional information and coaching. Bear in mind that, although the Lead Controller may have more experience and knowledge, participants will likely learn more if coached through their decision- making process than if they are told what they should have done. During the hot wash and after the exercise, the Lead Controller has additional responsibilities including collecting feedback on the exercise and how beneficial it was for CERT participants, and providing input to improve future CERT exercises.  Fifth, the Lead Controller will wrap up the exercise, overseeing clean-up and ensuring that all players and volunteers are accounted for.

a-CeRT exercise plan 53 Controllers Two of the Controller’s roles are similar to those of the Lead Controller, but they are carried out at the location of one of the tactical groups.  First, the Controller will set up his or her location. This includes placing the victims.  Second, the Controller will lead and guide the exercise by presenting information at the tactical group location. He or she will provide messages to the exercise participants to ensure key decision points in the exercise are reached.  Third, the Controller will observe and coach. In this role, he or she will observe the actions of exercise participants and be on the alert for potential safety issues. If the Controller observes a safety concern, he or she may need to intervene and stop the exercise. If a group is struggling to make a decision or making numerous incorrect decisions, then the Controller may provide coaching tips. The Controller may also intervene to help the team members at the tactical group location clarify their decision making by asking questions about their thought process and the factors they considered in making choices.  Fourth, the Controller will collect any victim and actor volunteers at the conclusion of the exercise and invite them to attend the hot wash. Evaluator The primary responsibility of the Evaluator is to assess the exercise based on the events and expected actions listed on the Events and Evaluation Form for his or her area. The Evaluator typically has a passive role and does not interfere with the exercise unless he or she is also playing the role of Controller. Safety Officer Every location (Command Post, medical treatment area, tactical group location) should have a Safety Officer. This role may be performed by a Controller or Evaluator if staff is limited. Victim and Actor Volunteers Victim volunteers are needed. They should be placed throughout the park and the building. The number of victim volunteers will vary depending on the size of your group. A recommended ratio is 15-20 victim volunteers to a group of 30 CERT members. In addition, you will need three actors.  A person in a car  An insistent mother  A seriously injured victim who dies Be sure to account for all victim and actor volunteers at the end of the exercise.

54 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? A blank Exercise Schedule Template is included in the Controller/Evaluator Briefing in the Appendix. Table 11: Suggested Exercise Schedule Time Personnel Activity MM/DD/YYYY 1000 Controllers/Evaluators Arrive on site and participate in briefing 1015 Selected Controllers and exercise staff members Exercise site setup 1030 Participants (players, victims, actors, other volunteers) Registration, roles assignment, and moulage 1230 Controllers Communications check 1245 Participants Player briefing 1300 All Report to various locations 1330 All Start of exercise 1430 All End of exercise Immediately after the exercise Participants, Controllers, Evaluators Hot wash 1500 Controllers/Evaluators Event debriefing The following information should be provided to participants prior to the start of the exercise. The goal of the briefing is to ensure that participants are comfortable and prepared for a safe, instructive, and enjoyable learning experience. Welcome Review scenario At 13:30 on a Saturday afternoon the airport is struck by high winds from a tornado (or severe thunderstorm). As the storm hit, visitors, travelers in transit, and airport personnel scattered and ran for shelter. Some were able to make it to designated storm shelter areas in the terminals and outside buildings; others were not. A 50-seat regional jet that had just landed and arrived at the gate was also caught by the tornadic winds before it could de-plane its passengers. The Embracer was picked up and thrown into the terminal where the gate seating area is located. A fueling truck was also pushed across the runway by high winds and wedged underneath the now upside-down plane and the gate overhang, There is no fire at the time, but the truck is leaking fuel from somewhere. The storm damaged many buildings and caused injuries to individuals in the airport terminal and other buildings, as well as those around the airfield and on roadways. Suggested Exercise Schedule Player Briefing

a-CeRT exercise plan 55 People have been injured by flying debris and trapped under fallen debris. Passengers in the wrecked plane are unable to remove themselves from the aircraft due to its precarious position, height, and the leaking fuel underneath. The fire department is responding to other areas and has requested that the local CERT help with searching the airport, reporting damage and status of areas searched, locating and providing first aid to victims, and assist in directing travelers as well as “walking-wounded” to proper areas of safety and/or treatment. Review rules of play • Safety is our paramount concern. Follow your CERT training and remember that this is just an exercise. Be safe at all times. If you have questions about the exercise or potential actions, ask a Controller or Evaluator. These will be people wearing (insert appropriate information here). • The exercise will take place (Insert a description of the boundaries of the exercise area. Be very clear about what is in-bounds and what is out-of-bounds.) • The exercise will begin shortly and will continue until either all victims have been rescued or time is up. • The exercise will be terminated by THREE LONG WHISTLE BLASTS. • The same signal will be used if we need to terminate the exercise early. • Return to the (insert location) at the end of the exercise. Review communications protocols • Use the procedures you learned during your training to communicate with each other during the exercise. • If you need to communicate with staff, find a Controller or Evaluator. • Should you need to communicate something outside the scope of the exercise, preface your statement with “Real world . . .” So, for example, if you have twisted your ankle, say “Real world . . . I’ve twisted my ankle and need medical attention.” • If a Controller or Evaluator needs to communicate with you outside the scope of the exercise, he or she will say “Real world: Controller says . . .” So, for example, if the Controller or Evaluator observed an unsafe carry technique, he or she would say “Real world: Controller says STOP.” • If the exercise needs to be called off, the signal will be THREE LONG BLASTS on a whistle. At this point, all players would return to the (insert proper location). Step Action What to Say/Do 1 Prepare for the exercise. See the Planning Considerations section for details. Have victims and disaster props in place. Prepare role-players. Lead Control ler Guidel ines (continued on next page)

56 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? Step Action What to Say/Do • Prepare one role -player to play the role of a distraught mother. When told to by the Controller, she should approach the Command Post Team and be very insistent about sending someone to look for her child. 2 Introduce the exercise to all participants. Distribute the two-page Exercise Overview to all participants. Explain that the purpose of the exercise is: To provide an opportunity for the team to practice most of the skills covered in CERT Basic Training in a realistic environment. To improve CERT’s operational performance by practicing and validating policies, plans, procedures, and training in the risk-free environment of an exercise. 3 Review the objectives of the exercise with all participants. Explain the objectives of the exercise. During the course of the exercise, A-CERT members will operate within and properly communicate through the incident command structure. Within the first 15 minutes of the incident onset, A-CERT members will quickly and thoroughly report damage assessment and area status for which they are assigned, back to the Airport Emergency Operations Center. Within the first 10 minutes of the incident onset, A-CERT members will assemble in their functional groups and be ready for assignment from the CERT liaison in the Airport Emergency Operations Center. During the course of the exercise, A-CERT members will remain accounted for by their functional group leaders, and ultimately to the CERT liaison in the Airport Emergency Operations Center. 4 Review safety protocols with all participants. (See Player Briefing: rules of play and communications protocols). Ask the participants: Does everyone have the appropriate equipment they need to participate (e.g., goggles, N95 dust mask, medical gloves, work gloves, boots, etc.)? Explain the protocols to communicate safety issues during the exercise. “REAL WORLD: CONTROLLER SAYS STOP” is how the Controller or other exercise staff may stop the exercise. For example, if staff were to observe players carrying a victim in an unsafe manner, the exercise would be stopped temporarily and the safety issue would be addressed. If the exercise needs to be called off due to an emergency, the signal will be THREE LONG WHISTLE BLASTS. The Controller may also stop the exercise for the purpose of coaching the participants. For example, if team members placed a high priority on helping a victim who was probably dying, or if they decided to enter a building Lead Control ler Guidel ines Continued

a-CeRT exercise plan 57 Step Action What to Say/Do the team to work through the decision-making process with the members. 5 Control the exercise at the Command Post. Your role in this exercise will be as Controller, observer, and coach. Control by providing messages that require the Incident Commander (IC) to take action. Observe to ensure safety for both victims and team members. Coach when necessary. Take notes on decisions made and actions taken so you can refer to them later. 6 Present the scenario to all participants. At 13:30 on a Saturday afternoon, during an airshow with many spectators in attendance, the airport is struck by high winds from a tornado (or severe thunderstorm). As the storm hit, spectators and airport personnel scattered and ran for shelter. Some made it to nearby buildings; others did not. The storm damaged many buildings and caused injuries to individuals in the airport terminal and other buildings, as well as those around the airfield and on roadways. People have been injured by flying debris and trapped under fallen debris. The fire department is responding to other areas and has requested that the local CERT help with searching the airport, reporting damage and status of areas searched, locating and providing first aid to victims, and assist in directing patrons as well as “walking- wounded” to proper areas of safety and/or treatment. 7 Provide initial instructions and distribute the following forms: Incident/Assignment Tracking Log Victim Treatment Area Record Damage Assessment Form General Message Form Instruct the group to: Establish a command structure. Choose the location for the medical treatment area. Distribute the forms: Incident/Assignment Tracking Log to the IC. Victim Treatment Area Record to the medical treatment area Team Leader. Blank Damage Assessment Forms and General Message Forms to the tactical groups. 8 Hand out a local map to participants. If a map was prepared in advance, hand it out. If not, the team may want to construct a map of its own. 9 Provide “injects” to the IC as appropriate. Time and pace your injects to complement the flow of the exercise. Observe and evaluate the exercise. The purpose of injects is to provide a simulated event that forces the team to make decisions that test objectives. Be alert for potential safety issues, and be prepared to step in if necessary. NOTE: “Injects” are what drive play in an operations-based exercise. Injects are typically managed on a spreadsheet called a Master Scenario Events List (MSEL). A MSEL is a that was clearly too dangerous, the Controller may coach

58 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? chronological timeline of expected actions and scripted events (i.e., injects) to be inserted into exercise play by controllers in order to generate or prompt player activity. It ensures necessary events happen so that all exercise objectives are met.13 MSEL # Inject Time Inject Mode Send To Inject Expected Action 1 1330 Radio AllParticipants STARTEX Exercise Begins 2 1331 Direct Incident Commander I am the fire department Special Ops Battalion Chief. Say: I need a damage assessment report as soon as possible. Find out the number of injured victims and the general extent of their injuries. The IC should develop a plan to conduct an initial damage assessment and find and triage victims. The IC should then dispatch functional groups to conduct initial damage assessments and ask them to report back quickly. 3 1340 Actor CommandPost Actor playing the insistent, distraught mother to begin her role. The Command Post Team responds appropriately to the mother by addressing her concerns and perhaps asking her to help out in the medical treatment area. 4 1345 TerminalController A-CERT Triage member in the Terminal After CERT members have begun assessing and treating the seriously injured victims, volunteers at the medical treatment area place the small sign that says “This victim has died.” Explain to the actor that he or she should play dead. The medical treatment area team should notice that a victim has died, cease treatment, remove the body from the medical treatment area, and place it in the morgue area. 5 1400 Direct Incident Commander Tell the IC that a message has come from the Battalion Chief that the National Weather Service has issued a warning of a second severe storm approaching the area. It The IC issues the command to recall all search teams. Teams should bring as many remaining victims as they can bring to the medical treatment area. The medical treatment area should be relocated if it is not a sheltered area that can 13 is expected to arrive within 20 minutes. handle the storm. A-CERT Full-Scale Exercise Sample Master Scenario Events List (MSEL) https://hseep.dhs.gov/support/volumeI.pdf

a-CeRT exercise plan 59 These cards are intended to simplify the process of creating volunteer victims. They can be used in two ways. 1. If you have volunteer victims, use these descriptions to create roles for them. Brief the volunteers on the nature of their injuries, how they might behave, and any information you want them to share with search and rescue (SAR) staff. 2. If you are using simulated victims, such as gingerbread cutouts, you can attach a label to each with one of the descriptions. NOTE: Injury classification (e.g., immediate, delayed, minor, dead) is for your planning purposes. This information should not be shared with volunteer victims or included with the descriptions placed on simulated victims. VICTIM #1—Minor Compound Fracture, Right Forearm Breathing once every 3 seconds Color returns to finger tips in less than 2 seconds Responds to verbal commands VICTIM #2—Minor Facial injuries Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 2 seconds Breathing once every 4 seconds VICTIM #3—Minor Visibly pregnant (about 5 months), cuts on right arm Color returns to finger tips in 1 second Breathing once every 5 seconds Note: This victim has first aid training. VICTIM #4—Minor Numerous cuts and abrasions Responds to verbal commands Color returns to finger tips in 1 second Breathing once every 3 seconds VICTIM #5—Minor Bleeding from a scalp wound Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in less than 2 seconds Breathing once every 4 seconds VICTIM #6—Minor Right arm is deformed Alert Color returns to finger tips in 1 second Breathing once every 5 seconds VICTIM #7—Delayed Large piece of wood in left thigh Breathing once every 3 seconds Color returns to finger tips in less than 2 seconds Alert VICTIM #8—Delayed Bone projecting from right leg Breathing once every 4 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 2 seconds VICTIM #9—Delayed Both legs deformed Breathing once every 5 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 1 second VICTIM #10—Delayed Left ankle swollen and deformed Breathing once every 4 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 2 seconds Sample Victim Injury Cards

60 integrating CeRTs at airports: What is CeRT and How do i Use it? VICTIM #11—Delayed Both feet crushed by concrete block Breathing once every 3 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 1 second VICTIM # 12—Delayed Back injury, unable to move Breathing once every 4 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 2 seconds VICTIM #13—Delayed Right arm and leg are deformed Breathing once every 3 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 4 seconds VICTIM #14—Immediate Large piece of wood in left thigh Breathing once every 2 seconds Alert and responsive Color returns to finger tips in 3 seconds VICTIM #15—Immediate Severe cut on right thigh, heavy bleeding Breathing once every 5 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 3 seconds VICTIM #16—Immediate Both legs deformed Breathing once every second Not responsive to questions Color returns to finger tips in 3 seconds VICTIM #17—Immediate Impaled object in abdomen; breathing difficulties Breathing once every 3 seconds Cannot remember what happened Color returns to finger tips in 5 seconds VICTIM #18—Immediate Amputated left arm, bleeding controlled Breathing once every 4 seconds Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 4 seconds VICTIM #19—Immediate Severe bleeding from head wound Breathing once every 2 seconds Not responsive to questions Color returns to finger tips in 4 seconds VICTIM #20—Immediate Chest pain with possible broken ribs Breathing once every second Knows name, date, and what happened Color returns to finger tips in 2 seconds VICTIM #21—Immediate Severe head injury Not breathing Not responsive to questions Color returns to finger tips in 4 seconds VICTIM # 22—Dead Massive head injury Not breathing Unresponsive Color does not return to finger tips VICTIM #23—Dead Blood oozing from head wound Chest is not rising Finger tips blue/grey VICTIM #24—Dead No visible injury, blank stare Cannot feel air movement Color does not return to finger tips VICTIM #25—Dead Wood impaled in neck Breathing once every second Not responsive Color returns to finger tips in 4 seconds

a-CeRT exercise plan 61  Controller/Evaluator Briefing: 1 copy per Controller and Evaluator is distributed before the exercise  Exercise Overview: 1 copy per participant is distributed at the beginning of the exercise  CERT Member and Volunteer Victims and Actors Sign-In Sheets (2 pages each): 1 copy of each is distributed to the sign-in area before the exercise  Sample Victim Injury Cards: 1 card per victim volunteer is used to prepare victims prior to the exercise  Incident/Assignment Tracking Log: 3-4 copies are used at the Command Post and distributed during the exercise  Victim Treatment Area Record: 8-10 copies are used at the medical treatment area during the exercise  Damage Assessment Form: 2-3 copies per tactical group are distributed during the exercise  General Message Form: 2-3 copies per tactical group are distributed during the exercise  Events and Evaluation Form for Lead Controller and Evaluator: 1 copy per Command Post Controller and Evaluator is distributed before the exercise  Events and Evaluation Form for Controller(s) and Evaluator(s): 1 copy per Controller and Evaluator is distributed before the exercise  Events and Evaluation Form for Medical Treatment Area Controller and Evaluator: 1 copy per medical treatment area Controller and Evaluator is distributed before the exercise  Controller/Evaluator Feedback Form: 1 copy per Controller and Evaluator is distributed after the exercise  Participant Feedback Form: 1 copy per participant is distributed after the exercise  After-Action Report Form: 1 copy per Controller is distributed after the exercise All of these forms can be found on the National CERT Program library of drills and exercises.14 Keep in mind, when modifying exercise scenario information on one document, you will need to modify the same material on each supporting exercise document. 14 The exercise material provided here is just a partial example of how an A-CERT is able to develop exercise material to fit the needs of the target airport and the team’s capabilities to be evaluated at that airport. Forms and Materials Index of Forms and Materials http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/exercises.shtm

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Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 95: Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams at Airports (A-CERTs) provides guidance and tools designed to help organize and operate a citizen volunteer program to assist airport staff in emergency events or disasters.

The report, produced as a three part set, consists of the following:

• Part 1, What is a CERT and How Do I Use It?, explains what an community emergency response team (CERT) program is and how it can be used in the airport environment.

• Part 2, Basic Training Instructor Guide, includes a detailed curriculum designed to train volunteers to potentially assist at an airport during emergency events or disasters.

• Part 3, Basic Training Student Guide, is based on the instructors guide and is a resource for students as well as a takeaway from the training.

Also produced as part of ACRP Report 95 are customizable PowerPoint slides—for use by the instructor during training—and a video that can be used to educate the community and solicit volunteers.

View the ACRP Impacts on Practice for this report.

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