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S2-L07-RR-2 Design Guide for Addressing Nonrecurrent Congestion Anne Spine = .374 D esign G uide for A ddressing N onrecurrent C ongestion S H R P 2 TR B 028753 SHRP2 L07 Guide No Mailer.indd 1 10/1/14 11:23 AM

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2014 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Vice Chair: Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center, and Visiting Professor, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia (Past Chair, 2013) James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor and Director, Centre for Geoinformatics, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, California Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Bank of Montreal Capital Markets, and Chairman, Utah Transportation Commission, Huntsville, Utah Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, Louisiana Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany Abbas Mohaddes, President and CEO, Iteris, Inc., Santa Ana, California Donald A. Osterberg, Senior Vice President, Safety and Security, Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin Steven W. Palmer, Vice President of Transportation, Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Mooresville, North Carolina Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 2012) Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, Texas Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames Phillip A. Washington, General Manager, Regional Transportation District, Denver, Colorado EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thomas P. Bostick, (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Alison J. Conway, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, City College of New York, New York, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David J. Friedman, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Paul N. Jaenichen, Sr., Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Therese W. McMillan, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, and Deputy Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California Gregory D. Winfree, Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. Paul F. Zukunft, (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of July 2014. TRB OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE FOR SHRP 2* Chair: Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation MEMBERS H. Norman Abramson, Executive Vice President (retired), Southwest Research Institute Alan C. Clark, MPO Director, Houston–Galveston Area Council Frank L. Danchetz, Vice President, ARCADIS-US, Inc. Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation Stanley Gee, Executive Deputy Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation Mary L. Klein, President and CEO, NatureServe Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation John R. Njord, Executive Director (retired), Utah Department of Transportation Charles F. Potts, Chief Executive Officer, Heritage Construction and Materials Ananth K. Prasad, Secretary, Florida Department of Transportation Gerald M. Ross, Chief Engineer (retired), Georgia Department of Transportation George E. Schoener, Executive Director, I-95 Corridor Coalition Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration Frederick “Bud” Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials LIAISONS Ken Jacoby, Communications and Outreach Team Director, Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management, Federal Highway Administration Tony Kane, Director, Engineering and Technical Services, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Jeffrey F. Paniati, Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration John Pearson, Program Director, Council of Deputy Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety, Canada Michael F. Trentacoste, Associate Administrator, Research, Development, and Technology, Federal Highway Administration * Membership as of March 2014. RELIABILITY TECHNICAL COORDINATING COMMITTEE* Chair: Carlos Braceras, Deputy Director and Chief Engineer, Utah Department of Transportation Vice Chair: John Corbin, Director, Bureau of Traffic Operations, Wisconsin Department of Transportation Vice Chair: Mark F. Muriello, Assistant Director, Tunnels, Bridges, and Terminals, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey MEMBERS Malcolm E. Baird, Consultant Mike Bousliman, Chief Information Officer, Information Services Division, Montana Department of Transportation Kevin W. Burch, President, Jet Express, Inc. Leslie S. Fowler, ITS Program Manager, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Bureau of Transportation Safety and Technology, Kansas Department of Transportation Steven Gayle, Consultant, Gayle Consult, LLC Bruce R. Hellinga, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Sarath C. Joshua, ITS and Safety Program Manager, Maricopa Association of Governments Sandra Q. Larson, Systems Operations Bureau Director, Iowa Department of Transportation Dennis Motiani, Executive Director, Transportation Systems Management, New Jersey Department of Transportation Richard J. Nelson, Nevada Department of Transportation Richard Phillips, Director (retired), Administrative Services, Washington State Department of Transportation Mark Plass, District Traffic Operations Engineer, Florida Department of Transportation Constance S. Sorrell, Chief of Systems Operations, Virginia Department of Transportation William Steffens, Vice President and Regional Manager, McMahon Associates Jan van der Waard, Program Manager, Mobility and Accessibility, Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis John P. Wolf, Assistant Division Chief, Traffic Operations, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) FHWA LIAISONS Robert Arnold, Director, Transportation Management, Office of Operations, Federal Highway Administration Joe Conway, SHRP 2 Implementation Director, National Highway Institute Jeffrey A. Lindley, Associate Administrator for Operations, Federal Highway Administration U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LIAISON Patricia S. Hu, Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation AASHTO LIAISON Gummada Murthy, Associate Program Director, Operations CANADA LIAISON Andrew Beal, Manager, Traffic Office, Highway Standards Branch, Ontario Ministry of Transportation * Membership as of July 2014. 028753 SHRP2 L07 Guide with Mailer.indd 2 10/1/14 11:30 AM

THE SECOND STRATEGIC HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Ingrid B. Potts, Douglas W. Harwood, Jessica M. Hutton, Chris A. Fees, Karin M. Bauer, and Lindsay M. Lucas MRIGlobal Christopher Kinzel and Robert J. Frazier HDR Engineering, Inc. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD Washington, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Design Guide for Addressing Nonrecurrent Congestion SHRP 2 Report S2-L07-RR-2

SUBSCRIBER CATEGORIES Highways Operations and Traffic Management Planning and Forecasting

THE SECOND STRATEGIC HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM America’s highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technology—such as advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science—offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of significant transportation problems, however, requires concentrated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, large-scale focus, integrates mul- tiple fields of research and technology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research programs that have been the mainstay of the high- way research industry for half a century. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, pub- lished in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the first Strategic High- way Research Program, is a focused, time-constrained, management-driven program designed to complement existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid design and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions and produce lasting facilities; Reli- ability, to reduce congestion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environmental, and commu- nity needs in the planning and designing of new transporta- tion capacity. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The pro- gram is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memorandum of understand- ing among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sci- ences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of research contractors; independent research project oversight; and dissemination of research results. SHRP 2 Report S2-L07-RR-2 ISBN: 978-0-309-27369-5 Library of Congress Control Number: 2014946507 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from pub- lishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educa- tional and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate ac- knowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report num- bers ending in “w” are published as web documents only. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to moni- tor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical commit- tee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the Na- tional Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the re- search and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the pro- gram sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- emies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not en- dorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered es- sential to the object of the report. SHRP 2 REPORTS Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202.334.3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sci- ences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sci- ences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdis- ciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transpor- tation departments, federal agencies, including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

SHRP 2 STAFF Ann M. Brach, Director Stephen J. Andrle, Deputy Director Neil J. Pedersen, Deputy Director, Implementation and Communications Cynthia Allen, Editor Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity and Reliability Eduardo Cusicanqui, Financial Officer Richard Deering, Special Consultant, Safety Data Phase 1 Planning Shantia Douglas, Senior Financial Assistant Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal and Safety James Hedlund, Special Consultant, Safety Coordination Alyssa Hernandez, Reports Coordinator Ralph Hessian, Special Consultant, Capacity and Reliability Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Matthew Miller, Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Rachel Taylor, Senior Editorial Assistant Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator

vii This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was con- ducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program, which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was man- aged by Ralph Hessian, SHRP 2 Special Consultant, Capacity and Reliability. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ix FOREWORD The continuing growth of traffic congestion on the nation’s highways is increasing the concerns of transportation agencies, the business community, and the general public. Congestion has recurring and nonrecurring components. Recurring congestion reflects routine delays during specific time periods where traffic demand exceeds available roadway capacity. Road users have come to expect these daily traffic patterns and adjust travel plans accordingly to achieve timely arrivals. Nonrecurring congestion, which comprises the majority of total congestion, results from random incidents that cause unexpected delays, such as crashes, weather, and work zones. Road users are frustrated by unexpected delays that can make for unreliable arrival times at their destinations. The delivery of travel time reliability is becoming an emerging business activity and performance measure for transportation agencies to meet the increasing expectations of the public and freight industry. The purpose of this guide is to give transportation engineers, designers, planners, and decision makers an understanding and technical reference on how different high- way geometric design elements can be deployed, in new designs or site retrofit actions, to contribute specifically to the reduction of nonrecurring congestion and travel time reliability improvement on both urban and rural freeways. The guide introduces the nonrecurring and travel time reliability topics and metrics, a catalogue of design ele- ments, and a process for selecting candidate design elements to evaluate for a specific site. For individual design elements, example content includes a description of that ele- ment, advantages and disadvantages, factors to consider when selecting the element, applicability to nonrecurring congestion, design criteria and practices, safety effec- tiveness, typical applications, and costs. In addition, there is an evaluation procedure that allows practitioners to compare alternative design treatments and select the best treatment solution for a specific site. Ralph Hessian, P.Eng., FITE SHRP 2 Special Consultant, Capacity and Reliability

xDESIGN GUIDE FOR ADDRESSING NONRECURRENT CONGESTION The design guide is a product of SHRP 2 Reliability Project L07, Identification and Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Highway Design Features to Reduce Nonre- current Congestion. A companion product developed from Project L07 is the spread- sheet tool Analysis Tool for Design Treatments to Address Nonrecurrent Congestion, which predicts the changes in delay and travel time reliability resulting from the pro- posed application of a design treatment to specified baseline site and traffic conditions. This tool also calculates a cost-effectiveness metric and performs life-cycle benefit–cost analysis. Together, this guide, the research report, and the analysis tool are intended to help transportation agencies and practicing professional engineers and planners consider the use of highway design elements in new designs and retrofits of existing facili- ties as a potential countermeasure for improving travel time reliability. They are also intended to provide requisite technical and analytical resources to assess alternative design solutions to support programming project investment decisions.

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TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-L07-RR-2: Design Guide for Addressing Nonrecurrent Congestion catalogs highway design treatments that can be used to reduce nonrecurrent congestion and improve the reliability of urban and rural freeways.

The draft design guide is accompanied by a report titled Identification and Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Highway Design Features to Reduce Nonrecurrent Congestion.

SHRP 2 Reliability Project L07 also produced an Analysis Tool for Design Treatments to Address Nonrecurrent Congestion: Annotated Graphical User’s Guide Version 2. The guide is intended to assist users of the Microsoft-based Excel tool designed to analyze the effects of highway geometric design treatments on nonrecurrent congestion using a reliability framework.

The tool is designed to analyze a generally homogenous segment of a freeway (typically between successive interchanges). The tool allows the user to input data regarding site geometry, traffic demand, incident history, weather, special events, and work zones. Based on these data, the tool calculates base reliability conditions. The user can then analyze the effectiveness of a variety of treatments by providing fairly simple input data regarding the treatment effects and cost parameters. As outputs, the tool predicts cumulative travel time index curves for each hour of the day, from which other reliability variables are computed and displayed. The tool also calculates cost-effectiveness by assigning monetary values.

Subsequent to the analysis tool's release, SHRP 2 Reliability Project L07 produced an Microsoft-based Excel demand generator as a supplement to the analysis tool.

Analysis and Demand Generator Tools Disclaimer: The analysis tool is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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