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Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use (2013)

Chapter: Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22561.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22561.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22561.
×
Page 8
Page 9
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22561.
×
Page 9
Page 10
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Renewal Plan for Airport Parking Structures ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22561.
×
Page 10

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

6 Airport parking structures are a major asset at airports and can be included as an element of the airport asset management plan, particularly because these structures may be exposed to harsh environmental factors including precipitation, severe temperature cycles, and contaminants (1). OVERALL AIRPORT ASSET MANAGEMENT The overall airport asset management program represents a roadmap of how the capital facilities are maintained. With an asset management program, the emphasis shifts from simple repair to renewal of the infrastructure in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Findings from other industries such as gas, oil, and transit systems suggest that asset management plans enable agencies to do more with less, to make better financial and capital investment decisions, and to better serve the stakeholders. Guidelines have been published for setting up an asset management program for airport facilities. ACRP Report 69 (3), entitled Asset and Infrastructure Management for Airports—Primer and Guidebook, outlines a holistic integra- tion of process and systems. Figure 2 shows a chart of how the different components of the system work together. Fig- ure 3 from the report shows the 10-step generic approach to developing an asset management plan. PARKING STRUCTURES IN THE AIRPORT ASSET MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Having a specific asset management plan for the airport parking structures would formalize strategies to minimize disruption while taking into account the financial impacts of removing parking spaces from use during construction. As a capital asset, the parking structure must remain operational at all times to optimize non-aeronautical revenue. Having the parking struc- ture management plan integrated with the overall airport capital asset management policy allows for integration of long-range airport planning for parking structures, appropriate allocation of funding and human resources, and coordination with other airport facilities. An asset management plan for airport parking structures would include life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). LCCA inputs are determined for a set service period and include regular annual maintenance costs, the projected costs for scheduled renewal plans within set time intervals, and loss of revenue during the renewal projects. LCCA compares total present value of keeping the parking structure for a given period of time with the replacement costs for a similar parking structure. Such analysis provides a cross-check on the cost- effectiveness of maintaining and keeping an existing parking structure. In addition, when an airport parking structure renewal plan is integrated with the overall airport asset management program, funding for the renewal plan becomes easier to justify. However, according to survey responses, none of the 12 surveyed airports has a parking structure asset management program in place. Eight do have a regular renewal budget for their parking structures, but even those with set budgets only undertake renewal projects as needed or when there is known distress or an established issue. The survey also reveals that many responses do not perform LCCA for airport parking structures. One reason could be that the average age of air- port parking structures is generally less than 20 years old, so the question of whether replacement is more cost-effective than renewal has not yet become an issue (5). The role and competencies of an asset management orga- nization is shown in Figure 4. Each airport facility, including parking structures, would be included as an element of the overall asset management plan. Renewal planning for airport parking structures falls under implementation of the asset management plan in Role 4. A typical asset management plan in the ACRP Report 69 (3) includes the following steps, with applications to parking structures added: 1. State of the Assets: Summarizes the current condition and performance of the assets. 2. Levels of Services: Outlines the current and target levels of service. 3. Growth and Demand: Shows the forecasted growth and demand requirements for the planning period. Survey respondents indicated that many keep detailed records of how their airport parking structures are used, including information on parking occupancy and demand throughout the year. Graphic presentation of the data could provide a simple and quick visual understanding of the information. Figure 5 shows a sample of the actual parking overflow report used chapter two RENEWAL PLAN FOR AIRPORT PARKING STRUCTURES

7 at the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport for planning the following year’s construction schedule. 4. Life-Cycle Management: Describes the current oper- ations, maintenance, and capital renewal and augmen- tation or expansion plans and approaches. Figure 6 shows the typical life-cycle cost variation through the effective life of a structure. As an airport parking struc- ture ages, renewal reduces the cost of operations and regular maintenance and overall cumulative cost. But when this same renewal work is performed later in the structure’s life, renewal becomes more expensive and may culminate in a decision to replace the airport parking structure before the end of its initial antici- pated effective life. Figure 7 shows the typical cost flow history (3). During the lifetime of an airport parking structure, the highest expenditure is initial construction, with lower costs for routine maintenance interspersed with FIGURE 3 EPA’s five core questions in a 10-step approach to developing asset management plans [Source: ACRP Report 69 (3)]. FIGURE 2 Holistic integration of processes and systems for asset management [Source: PAS 55 (4)].

8 FIGURE 4 Roles and competencies for an Asset Management Organization [Source: ACRP Report 69 (3)]. FIGURE 5 Parking space demand report over different months (Source: Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport).

9 larger expenditures for renewal and restoration until the parking structure is deconstructed, salvaged, and replaced. If an airport parking structure is to be taken out of service because it is no longer functional or has reached the end of its service life, the asset manage- ment plan would anticipate replacing the lost park- ing spaces as well as meeting the anticipated future parking demand for that location. This may well mean planning to open a new parking structure before the old one goes out of service. 5. Risk Profile: Describes how risk exposure is evaluated and identifies at-risk assets. 6. Management Strategies: Describes the operations, main- tenance, and capital investment strategies determined for the planning period. This may include changes to maintenance strategies from unplanned as-needed or proactive maintenance or it could include changes to emergency response plans for specific events. Figure 8 shows the typical relationship between life-cycle cost and renewal intervals (6). This graph shows that there is an optimal interval when an air- port parking structure should undergo renewal. Before reaching that optimal interval, more frequent or more extensive rehabilitation would result in higher life- cycle costs; however, an interval extending too long past the optimal point would cause an increase in the life-cycle costs as a result of delayed or deferred repair and maintenance. 7. Financial Planning: Summarizes all costs associated with the implementation of the management strategies described in No. 6. It also includes a funding strategy and the associated impact on key financial indicators. Survey responses indicated that financial data are rou- tinely collected and tracked by airport operators and parking managers. Financial data pertinent to the renewal process includes costs and revenue during routine opera- tions; annual maintenance costs; and the annual budget for short to medium-term repair. 8. Business Improvement Planning: Describes any pro- cess improvements or projects required to improve the quality of asset management planning at the airport. FIGURE 7 Cost flow diagram [Source: ACRP Report 69 (3)]. FIGURE 6 Life-cycle components [Source: ACRP Report 69 (3)]. FIGURE 8 Relationship between life-cycle cost and interven- tion interval [Source: TCRP Report 157 (6)].

10 Survey respondents indicated that though many of the asset management steps have been undertaken for airport parking structures, there is no formal recognition of airport parking structures as an element of the airport asset management plan. IMPLEMENTING AND MANAGING PARKING STRUCTURE RENEWAL A renewal plan of a specific parking structure would need to recognize its life-cycle costs and service demands before considering different renewal approaches or identifying cost- effective repairs. Renewal activities may temporarily remove revenue-producing parking spaces, and extended renewal dis- ruption could further reduce revenue. However, delaying repair and maintenance is neither viable nor prudent. Deferred main- tenance generally results in longer down time, lower level of services, and potentially a reduction in asset service life. A good and comprehensive renewal plan addresses the costs of the loss of parking spaces during construction, the operational requirements, and renewal funding. An effective renewal plan also requires a history and eval- uation of the airport parking structure; planning for mainte- nance and repair; a plan to meet patrons’ parking needs and maintain a high quality of service during renovations; and methods of communication to manage service disruptions. Structural repair also affects parking managers’ ability to maintain quality levels of service. As a result, renewal proj- ects are typically undertaken in off-peak seasons or at lower- volume hours. Survey responses provide some successful steps taken to limit the impact of repair construction on park- ing services and operations at the airport. One measure of perceived high quality of service for park- ing patrons is how quickly open spaces can be located. Dallas/ Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) indicated that when parking demand approaches 85% of capacity, the time required to find an open space goes up significantly. Literature reports that parking supply is perceived full by users when 90% of spaces are full. Extended search time for a parking space is not acceptable to airport patrons because of the time constraints on catching departing flights. Whenever there are changes at parking facilities, such as changes to parking stall location or availability, traffic circulating patterns, maneuverability, directness of routing, frequency of transfer services, or facility aesthetics, it is best to let the parking patrons and stakeholders know well in advance. Communication between the airport parking operator and the patrons is important and requires attention to detail.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 47: Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use provides information on developing and implementing successful maintenance and repair strategies for in-use airport parking structures that involve the least impact on the airport patrons, revenue stream, and facility operations.

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