National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Leadership Development Program (2013)

Chapter: Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum

« Previous: Part 1 - Report of Research
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 70
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 73
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 74
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 75
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 76
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 78
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 80
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 81
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 82
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 83
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 84
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 85
Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 86
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 87
Page 88
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 88
Page 89
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 89
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 90
Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 91
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 92
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 93
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 94
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 95
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 96
Page 97
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 97
Page 98
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 98
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 99
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 100
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 101
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 102
Page 103
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 103
Page 104
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 104
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 105
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 106
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 107
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 108
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 109
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 110
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 111
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 112
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 113
Page 114
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 114
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 115
Page 116
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 116
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 117
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 118
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 119
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 120
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 121
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 122
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 123
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 124
Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 125
Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 126
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 127
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 128
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 129
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 130
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 131
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 132
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 133
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 134
Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 135
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 136
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 137
Page 138
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 138
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 139
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 140
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 141
Page 142
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 142
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 143
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 144
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 145
Page 146
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 146
Page 147
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 147
Page 148
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 148
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 149
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 150
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 151
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 152
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 153
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 154
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 155
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 156
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 157
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 158
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 159
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 160
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 161
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 163
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 164
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 165
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 166
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 167
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 168
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 169
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 170
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 171
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 172
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 173
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 174
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 175
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 176
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 177
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 178
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 179
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 180
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 181
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 182
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 183
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 184
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 185
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 186
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 187
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 188
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 189
Page 190
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 190
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 191
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 192
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 193
Page 194
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 194
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 195
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 196
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 197
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 198
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 199
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 200
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 201
Page 202
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 202
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 203
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 204
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 205
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 206
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 207
Page 208
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 208
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 209
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 210
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 211
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 212
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 213
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 214
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 215
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 216
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 217
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 218
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 219
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 220
Page 221
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 221
Page 222
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 222
Page 223
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 223
Page 224
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 224
Page 225
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 225
Page 226
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 226
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 227
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 228
Page 229
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 229
Page 230
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 230
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 231
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 232
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 233
Page 234
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 234
Page 235
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 235
Page 236
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 236
Page 237
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 237
Page 238
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 238
Page 239
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 239
Page 240
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 240
Page 241
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 241
Page 242
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 242
Page 243
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 243
Page 244
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 244
Page 245
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 245
Page 246
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 246
Page 247
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 247
Page 248
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 248
Page 249
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 249
Page 250
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 250
Page 251
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 251
Page 252
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 252
Page 253
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 253
Page 254
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 254
Page 255
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 255
Page 256
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 256
Page 257
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 257
Page 258
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 258
Page 259
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 259
Page 260
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 260
Page 261
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 261
Page 262
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 262
Page 263
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 263
Page 264
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 264
Page 265
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 265
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 266
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 267
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 268
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 269
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 270
Page 271
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 271
Page 272
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 272
Page 273
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 273
Page 274
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 274
Page 275
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 275
Page 276
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 276
Page 277
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 277
Page 278
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 278
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 279
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 280
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 281
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 282
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 283
Page 284
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 284
Page 285
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 285
Page 286
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 286
Page 287
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 287
Page 288
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 288
Page 289
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 289
Page 290
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 290
Page 291
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 291
Page 292
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 292
Page 293
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 293
Page 294
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 294
Page 295
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 295
Page 296
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 296
Page 297
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 297
Page 298
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 298
Page 299
Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Airport Leadership Development Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22574.
×
Page 299

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

S E C T I O N 1 Program Facilitator Guide 77 Module I Leadership Concepts 94 Module II Leadership Fundamentals 121 Module III Leadership Execution S E C T I O N 2 Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes S E C T I O N 3 Program Participant Workbook S E C T I O N 4 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide and Materials P a r T 2 Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum

73 S E C T I O N 1 Program Facilitator Guide Introduction This guide provides all the materials, information, and references needed to facilitate the Air- port Leadership Development Program. Be sure to review all the materials and read the refer- enced information prior to delivery of the course. It is recommended that a dry run of the course be conducted prior to delivery to a live audience. The facilitator guide is designed for facilitators to identify the key points and background information, directions for activities, and preparation needed to conduct a successful leader- ship development program. The materials include lists of multimedia resources, books, and other research materials used to develop this course. The facilitator should review all articles and multi media links to become familiar with the content in order to present it well to the audience. The guide also includes a script that corresponds to each slide as well as the reference to the sup- porting materials and participant’s workbook. The Airport Leadership Development Program is designed to be led by a facilitator and attended by a group of course participants. Optional additional roles include a 360-degree feed- back survey administrator and guest speakers for specific topics on content. Aviation Background Preparation If the participants in the course are coming from different airports, some of the nuances to keep in mind when preparing are level of responsibility of the individuals, degree of latitude, cus- tomers and communities represented, and the individual’s ability to provide control. All airports follow federal rules and regulations for safety and security; however, airports can be governed within different structures. The structural governance differences may affect the participant’s responses and discussions for some of the content of the course. Specific areas in the content in which to be mindful of these differences include relationship building, performance manage- ment, building culture, strategic planning, and goal setting. The different governance structures may include airports operated by an authority or airports operated by a city or county. Authorities are independent entities with greater ability to effect change and operate separate from the city or county in which they reside. They are still pub- lic institutions, and all internal information is public knowledge. Airports operated by a city or county are government institutions and abide by government processes, procedures, and stan- dards for hiring, managing, and terminating employees. They may also have direct authority over the appointment of the executive director as well as influence over the operating strategy of the airport. In these circumstances, there are limitations and boundaries to the complete leadership and development of an independent culture that can be developed at an airport that is guided by

74 Airport Leadership Development Program another body. However, all the content of the course is still applicable regardless of the governing structure since it can still be applied to the working group within the leader’s span of control. There are some specific points influenced by the governance to keep in mind and include in the appropriate section of materials: People: Hiring can be dictated by civil service practices such as exams, or can be restricted due to an overall government freeze on positions; existing government employees may be required for employment within a classification due to seniority; hiring can be assigned to personnel with near-term retirement, with their retirement benefits being charged to airport enterprise fund, or to near-term retirees who are holding positions from emerging leaders. Salary structure may have governmental parameters based on classifications and compari- son to other governmental positions, may not permit being competitive with industry salary structures. Salary levels may be regulated by local government policy and are not necessarily competitive with salary levels for similar positions in the private sector. Performance management tools and practices include bargaining unit negotiations, which are not likely to be environment-specific enough to aviation-related and management rights. Union membership may be greater and possibly stronger in airports with governmental structure ver- sus independent authority. Benefits are often contingent of the benefit packages offered by the local government, which can add savings due to numbers, although this does not permit as much flexibility in contracting and negotiating terms. Some governmental structures have an inability to self-insure or modify or reduce benefit offerings to be more progressive or reflective of their workforce. Operating Practices and Processes: Use of technology systems can be determined and these can be procured through the city or county with oversight for the airport. Hardware and soft- ware systems, timekeeping programs, and accounting software may all be adopted for common use across the entire city or county and may not be customized to the operations of the airport. Communication and information sharing practices will likely be determined for the entire city or county and adopted in the airport as well. Work rules and regulations that are not aviation-specific will be standard across the entire city or county offices, including safety standards, dress code, smoking policy, and OSHA require- ments. The same will be true for operating rules and regulations that are not aviation-specific. Financial: Governmental entities may have competing priorities and desire other government services to receive benefits from the airport without paying full cost. In many instances enterprise funds are established for airports, although there are some governmental entities that do not fully agree that the airport should not pay for city or county services it does not benefit from. Interest rates can be affected by government financial standing for capital project financing. There are fewer flexible investment opportunities within a government structure, and procure- ment tends to be less flexible as well. Customer and Community: The airport’s image and branding in the community is directly linked to the government entity. This may affect hiring practices and overall performance man- agement. Within the government entity there may also be political influences. Because gov- ernment is frequently changing with elected officials, challenges include people, relationships, priorities, and level of interest that are periodically shifting. This can affect the strategic plan- ning and strategy execution when what is important today may not be as important tomorrow based on the players. Community business partnerships may be influenced by other government

Program Facilitator Guide 75 contracts and agreements—the airport may have been a bargaining chip. Internal and external communications are monitored because messages conveyed have to be transparent. Media inter- action and engagement may be with the city or county rather than airport-specific. Use these key points to adjust the dialogue that may occur during delivery of specific sections of the curriculum. Keep in mind that participants may feel stuck because of some of the gov- erning circumstances in their specific situations. The facilitator will need to help them arrive at solutions within their individual span of control for application in their roles. Participant Preparation: The participant materials include worksheets to support the con- tent of the course. The facilitator will need to be familiar with all of the material provided in the participant workbook. Prior to attending the Airport Leadership Development Program, the facilitator may require participants to read articles or studies on leadership to become familiar with topics and be prepared to discuss ideas in class. Recommended articles as pre-read assignments include current events found in the Harvard Business Review, those related to industry issues, or any such literature that may be considered relevant to a facilitator. Recommended ACRP publications to use for pre-read assignments are the ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry, ACRP Synthesis 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices, ACRP Synthesis 13: Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit–Cost Analysis, ACRP Report 49: Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook, and ACRP Report 36: Airport/Airline Agreements—Practices and Characteristics. All of these recommended assignments can also be used as post-course recommendations for follow-up learning. Curriculum Format and Contents This curriculum is made up of three modules: Module I: Leadership Concepts: 360-degree feedback delivery, self-management, leadership brand, leadership journey, and followership. Module II: Leadership Fundamentals: Communication, conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, building a business case, and negotiation. Module III: Leadership Execution: Strategic planning, goal setting, building culture, perfor- mance management, team building, meetings, relationship building, power and influence, crisis communication, strategy execution, and change management. The entire Leadership Development Program was designed to be used with both emerging and existing leaders. Module I is also to be used with both emerging and existing leaders. Module II is to be used for emerging leaders or as a prerequisite for existing leaders who have not had previ- ous formal leadership development training. Module III is to be used for existing leaders. The three modules do not necessarily need to be delivered sequentially, and Modules I and III can be delivered together in the same time frame without Module II. All three modules can be delivered to the same audience multiple times on an annual basis using different scenarios for applying the concepts learned in the content. Based on growth and current circumstances, the materials can be good refreshers and may be relevant in a different way than previously learned. The curriculum as written is intended to be delivered in sequential days and in a classroom setting. The course could be delivered in components using online delivery tools with minor

76 Airport Leadership Development Program adjustments to the materials. An alternative delivery option is to deliver in a blended approach of online via webinar and face-to-face via classroom. To translate the materials to be delivered online, a review of the facilitator’s guide and select sections of the presentation slides as well as the activities should be evaluated to identify which material can be presented asynchronously. Any activities, such as the assessment centers, are meant to be worked on in collaborative groups. These can also be facilitated virtually; however, thoughtful preparation should be conducted prior to delivery in this manner. Keep in mind that online delivery will require specific hardware and software access by the par- ticipants, and the ability for all users to access the course materials should of course be ensured. The following materials are provided as part of this curriculum: Leadership Development Program PowerPoint Presentation Deck: The presentation deck is intended to be used to supplement the delivery of the course and is provided on the CD-ROM that accompanies this report. Slides should be presented as the facilitator reviews and discusses the content of the slide. The presentation deck is not intended to be used as individual reading material for the participants. Program Facilitator Guide: The Program Facilitator Guide is designed to assist the course facilitator in preparing the course for delivery. The guide includes descriptions of topics and background information that may be helpful for the facilitator. Accompanying the guide is a CD-ROM that includes the Microsoft PowerPoint presentation slides and notes, which include a sample script for describing each slide and facilitating the course activities. The guide and CD-ROM should be examined in their entirety prior to delivering. It is also suggest that the facilitator present a dry run as practice prior to delivering to a live audience for the first time. It also includes sample communications for the participants, reference materials, and supplemen- tal background information that may be helpful in preparing to deliver the course. It should be read in its entirety prior to delivering. It is also suggested that the facilitator present a dry run as practice prior to delivering to a live audience for the first time. Leadership Development Program Participant Workbook: The participant workbook is intended to be presented to the participants as they begin the course. It includes figures, charts, and activities for the participant to use when following along with the instruction. Leadership Development Program 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide and Materials: The 360-degree feedback survey tool and report are optional components to the course materials. The pilot participants for the program found great value in having the results of the 360-degree feedback as they began the course. The 360-degree feedback concept is relatively new to the aviation industry and must be implemented thoughtfully in order for it to be effective. The facilitator guide explains how to administer the survey, capture results, and deliver the reports to participants. Leadership Development Program 360-Degree Survey Question Bank: The question bank, which is included as Appendix B of the 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide, includes the survey questions, which are correlated directly to the course content. Leadership Development Program 360-Degree Feedback Report Template: The template, which is included as Appendix B of the 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide, is an optional tool to capture and display the results from the surveys completed.

77 This module presents topics associated with the concept of leadership. This module is intended for those who are training for a leadership role and for current leaders who desire to see their roles from a fresh perspective. Objectives • Increase awareness of self and environment. • Identify key attributes of self-managed leaders. • Identify different leadership styles. • Map skills associated to leadership styles. • Draft leadership brand statement. • Develop personal development road map. Topics • Defining leadership. • Leadership versus management. • Challenges to effective leadership. • The personal leadership brand. • Leadership styles. • The leadership journey. • Leadership passages. • Followership. • Self-management. Activities • Review of 360-degree evaluation. • Brainstorming interpretations of leadership. • Identifying individual and organizational challenges. • Developing a personal leadership brand. • Identifying appropriate leadership styles. • Considering your strategic vision. • Describing your leadership passage. • Identifying the characteristics of your airport’s job descriptions. • Taking the followership quiz. • Brainstorming key attributes of self-management. • Drafting your leadership road map. M O D U L E I Leadership Concepts

78 Airport Leadership Development Program Introduction This module introduces the concept of leadership. The definition of leadership and the discus- sion of the difference between leadership and management set the context for the entire curricu- lum. This topic also sets the tone for the discussions and sharing of information expected to occur. The objectives of this module are to: • Increase awareness of self and environment, • Identify key attributes of self-managed leaders, • Identify different leadership styles, • Map skills associated to leadership styles, • Draft a leadership brand statement, and • Develop a personal development road map for leadership. While self-awareness is preparation for growth, self-management is the application of devel- opmental opportunities for continuous improvement in attitudes, abilities, skills, and knowl- edge. Demonstrating strong self-management establishes the leadership style. Self-management also includes the willingness to accept and apply feedback. It means having a clear vision of one’s values and ethics and the ability to stay true to one’s self regardless of sur- rounding influences. Self-management also determines the boundaries for the way one will treat people and subsequently how one will be treated by others. In the journey of self-awareness, awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses and what can be done about them should be evaluated. The leader should also start to become aware of the external cues that are happening that may indicate the positive as well as negative characteristics of a leadership style. This is the beginning of the personal leadership journey. A leader is constantly being watched by his or her colleagues. A leader has a responsibility to impart wisdom to others through behav- ior as well as words. Good leaders: • Are lifelong learners, • Focus on continuous improvement, • Stay current regarding personal competencies, • Build a network, • Look for opposite points of view, • Join organizations outside of their organization, • Are willing to broaden their perspectives, • Read, • Learn from their mistakes, • Find a trusted resource who will be honest with feedback (personal coach or mentor), and • Listen. Activity: Review of 360-Degree Evaluation. If a 360-degree evaluation was performed on the participant going through this curriculum, it is suggested that a review of the findings of the evaluation be discussed before proceeding. The participant having a clear understanding of his or her leadership strengths and weaknesses and an opportunity to discuss or identify any challenges within his or her role within the organization would be beneficial for leadership growth.

Leadership Concepts 79 Topic: Defining Leadership Leadership by its very nature has historically been very difficult to concisely define. Leadership may be defined, for example, as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. While this definition may be thought of as comprehensive and concise, it may also be considered vague and open to inter- pretation. In the airport environment this definition may have the following interpretations: The process of social influence may be: • Providing a common mission that has the buy-in of the organization; • Having effective incentive (and sometimes disciplinary) programs; or • Ensuring positive relationships with the airport board, tenants, and constituents. The support of others may include: • Airport operations and administrative staff; • Contractors; • Tenants; and • The airport board, city manager, and elected officials. The accomplishment of a common task may be: • The safe and effective operation of the airport on a daily basis, • Planning for airport expansion, • Handling unusual or emergency conditions, or • Achieving optimal organizational effectiveness. Activity: Brainstorming Interpretations of Leadership. Brainstorm other inter- pretations of the definition of leadership that would be directly applicable to a particular airport environment. In some instances, effective leadership may imply effectively taking the mission of the organi- zation in a different direction or reorganizing the organization in the hope of a more effective or financially healthier direction. Leadership may imply ensuring that a singular message is com- municated from the organization, particularly in times of change, emergency, or hardship. An effective leader may be thought of as the person that bonds the organization together and takes the organization in a direction that provides for increasingly successful performance. As the definition also implies, leadership is an art, not a science. There are no equations in which data are entered and an answer is provided, and, as also implied by the definition, what constitutes leadership is up for interpretation. While there are common tools for effective leader- ship, every organizational environment is different, particularly within the airport industry, and every leader must develop his or her own individual style to meet the organization’s needs. Regardless of the environment, some leadership characteristics remain consistent. Leadership involves the use of power and influence. Power is defined as the ability to influence. Influence is defined as altering people’s beliefs or behaviors. Effective leaders have three basic skill sets to use to develop power and influence in the organization. These skill sets are: 1. Technical (knowledge), 2. Administrative (skills), and 3. Interpersonal (behavior).

80 Airport Leadership Development Program The role of a leader is to use these skill sets to inspire, delegate, develop, and coach employees. Different situations require different leadership roles. On some occasions, leaders will need to pro- vide specific instructions and close supervision; on some occasions, leaders will need to explain their decisions and provide clarification; on some occasions, leaders will need to share ideas and facilitate decision making; and on some occasions, leaders will need to turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation to someone else. Delegation of responsibilities is a tremendously important administrative skill for leading larger organizations such as airports. The leader will also use these skill sets to influence the organization’s partners. Here too, different situations will require varying uses of these skill sets. On some occasions, such as when working with contractors, effective technical knowledge may be used to exert influence over projects that require adherence to specific design guidance, such as airfield construction. On other occasions, such as communicating with the local community, interpersonal skills will need to be emphasized. In almost all instances, the sole use of one of the leadership skill sets discussed will not result in effective leadership. This is often revealed when new airport leaders are put in their positions with formal training only in the technical area of airports. While airport operations staff and even mid- to upper-level management may have been successful in their previous positions, their performance once placed in leadership roles becomes highly challenged without effective training and education in the other two skill sets. This situation often leads to the realization that leadership is not simply management. Topic: Leadership Versus Management There is often confusion between the concepts of leadership and management, and hence the terms are often used interchangeably. However, the terms should be thought of as having very dif- ferent core meanings. Management simply refers to the planning and oversight of existing tasks. Such tasks may be components of a certain project or part of the operational process of meeting the mission of an organization. Management does not imply the process of social influence. Because of the confusion between the meanings of management and leadership, management tools are often applied toward leadership goals, with little positive result. For example, the use of technology tools and devices, such as digital calendars, project management software, and even communications tools such as e-mail, should be thought of as management tools, not tools for effective leadership. These tools, while they do help manage tasks, rarely are effective in creating social influence in an organization. Leaders must be present, not absent behind technology, in their positions and must be effective in direct engagement with their organizations. This leads to an interpretation of the definition of leadership as “the art of mobilizing others through power and influence to achieve shared aspira- tions.” Leaders often achieve this power initially by defining what is known as their leadership brand. Topic: Challenges to Effective Leadership Challenges to effective leadership may be thought of as falling into two distinct categories: 1. Individual challenges: Challenges that exist, either within an employer or with the leader him- or herself, associated with one’s personal skills, talents, strengths, and weaknesses, or those external circumstances that, regardless of a particular organization, affect the ability to effectively lead. 2. Organizational challenges: Challenges that exist externally from an individual but internal to the organizational structure, such as regulatory or political issues, physical or financial

Leadership Concepts 81 constraints, or interpersonal organizational relationships (although relationships within an organization are often attributed somewhat to individual challenges as well). Individual challenges found among airport leaders and leaders (and their employers) in all types of business organizations include: • Difficulty or uneasiness with continuous change; • Time management; • Speed and responsiveness toward task completion or strategic evolvement; • Adaptability, flexibility, and resilience in the face of a multitude of external conditions; • The ability to be effective in collaborative efforts; • Balancing workload; • Maintaining sufficient levels of energy or enthusiasm; and • Inertia (the tendency to slip back to normal, perhaps unproductive, activities or circumstances). Organizational challenges found among airports and other public-sector (and often private- sector) organizations include: • The need to adapt to external threats to safety and security (such as the potential for terrorist attacks, aircraft accidents, etc.); • The aging of the workforce; • Industry restructuring; • Changes in technologies; • Operating in a new social media environment; • The regulatory and political environment at the federal and local levels; • Financial constraints; • Partnering with external organizations (airlines, concessionaires, etc.); • Matching organizational requirements with staff of particular skill sets; and • Operating among highly varied organizational environments, ranging from unions to indus- try stakeholders. Activity: Identifying Individual and Organizational Challenges. One method of gaining self-awareness, establishing strong self-management skills, and develop- ing a leadership brand is to identify the challenges associated with one’s orga- nization, or in particular, one’s position within an organization. Establishing a list of these challenges and investigating why they are challenges and how one currently reacts to such challenges will serve as a basis for leadership growth. Participants in this curriculum are encouraged to list the individual and organiza- tional challenges for their airport organizations. Topic: The Personal Leadership Brand Every leader has a personal leadership brand, and the intent of this topic’s discussion is to assist in becoming aware of what the leader’s brand is and what he or she would like it to become. A personal leadership brand is the thoughtful way the leader chooses to create a leadership identity in order to be in a position for success in the current environment. A personal leader- ship brand may be thought of as the leader’s own personal marketing package. Every leader has a brand, whether it is thoughtfully developed or promoted or it is developed or promoted on its own. Wise leaders know how to create and use their brand as part of their leadership style.

82 Airport Leadership Development Program The results of 360-degree feedback reports or other self-evaluation rubrics will help the leader understand the brand he or she is projecting. Developing a leadership brand goes beyond building on strengths. In developing a leadership brand, the strengths that are actually of value to the organization should be identified. In addi- tion, the leader’s leadership brand should be developed to most effectively align with the vision of the organization. For example, if an airport is positioning itself to be a leader in international service in a large city, the brand of the leader should be one of effective multicultural knowledge and appreciation. If, on the other hand, an airport has the mission of becoming a preferable alternative airport in a region, a leader might develop a brand of being highly sensitive to cus- tomer needs. If an airport has a very friendly and cooperative staff, the leadership brand of the airport director might be developed into being accepting of communal-based decision making. Conversely, if the airport organization is fraught with division, an airport director’s brand that reflects strong and convincing authority may be warranted. Developing a leadership brand is based on a unique combination of individual and organizational strengths and challenges. In developing a personal leadership brand, the following questions should be asked: • Organizational input – What is the current mission of the organization? – What are the organization’s strengths? – What are the organization’s challenges? – What are the results desired for the organization in the near future? • Individual input – What is the legacy you would like to leave? – How do you want to be perceived within the organization? – What words or phrases best define your identity within the organization? Finally, the following statement can be used as the basis for developing a personal leadership brand by filling in the blanks: “I want to be known for being _______________ so I can deliver _________________.” Activity: Developing a Personal Leadership Brand. Answer the personal leader- ship brand development questions in this section. Then, reflect on the questions to draft a short paragraph that would best describe the leadership brand most desired for the organization. Topic: Leadership Styles There are as many interpretations of leadership style as there are definitions of leadership. For the purposes of this curriculum, this section references leadership styles defined by Goleman in “Leadership That Gets Results” (Goleman, 2000) that are highly applicable in the airport envi- ronment. The purpose of identifying these leadership styles is to understand that a leader may need to apply different styles to different circumstances. Typically, an individual has a primary leadership style along with multiple backup styles. A leadership style tends to develop over time, and may grow to use all of the skills associated with each style for differing situations. The six leadership styles are: 1. Directive leadership: leadership that demands immediate compliance, 2. Engaged leadership: leadership that mobilizes people toward a vision, 3. Coaching leadership: leadership that develops people for the future,

Leadership Concepts 83 Table 1. Six leadership styles and associated skills. Leadership Style Associated Skills Directive Driving—the ability to marshal resources and direct energy toward achieving goals. Engaged Motivating—the ability to identify and address the desires of others. Coaching Teaching—the ability to bring others along a path of learning a new skill or domain. Democratic Collaborating—the ability to respond to others and build on their contributions with one’s own perspectives. Affiliative Empathizing—the ability to understand the feelings and states of mind of others. Expert Mastering—the ability to turn new knowledge into a domain of expertise. 4. Democratic leadership: leadership that builds consensus through participation, 5. Affiliative leadership: leadership that creates emotional bonds and harmony, and 6. Expert leadership: leadership that expects excellence and self-direction with little direct over- sight. (George and Sims, 2007. True North) Great leaders are capable of using a different leadership style for different environments and situations. Table 1 further defines these six leadership styles, showing skills that maybe associated with each skill. These styles will be referenced throughout this curriculum. It is important to remember that no style is better or worse than another. The right style is the style that best matches the circum- stance. The right style for a given circumstance, may, in fact, be different for different leaders. Activity: Identifying Appropriate Leadership Styles. Think about and note different circumstances at an airport where one of the leadership styles mentioned in this sec- tion may be warranted. For each circumstance, identify the most appropriate leader- ship style, understanding that the best leadership style may be different for different individual leaders. Also, describe why the leadership style chosen is the best style for the circumstance. This exercise will make evident the different situations that exist at airports and demonstrate the appropriate use of the six leadership styles. Topic: The Leadership Journey A leadership journey is the continuous life cycle of leadership within an organization. This is the fundamental process of leadership that will be repeated over and over and is evidenced in strategic planning, implementation of new initiatives, processing new information, organiza- tional changes, development of goals, and management of operations for the organization. Figure 1 illustrates the leadership journey. This figure will become the touchstone for the conversations within the course. The application of this illustration will be repeated at the end of each topic for review and to allow leaders to identify their own leadership journeys. The skills needed to perform these functions are represented in the middle of the figure. Figure 1 should be referred to in two ways. The first is to understand each element or phase of the journey. The second is to appreciate that the journey should be viewed as a whole, where each phase is integrated, coordinated, and in many ways interdependent with the others. For example, attempts at leadership will often have a tendency to focus on the strategic vision phases and jump directly to strategic execution, completely neglecting the critical phases of social- ization, commitment, and engagement of ideas. This incomplete appreciation for the leadership

84 Airport Leadership Development Program Figure 1. The leadership journey. journey as a whole often results in fits and starts of strategic initiatives or organizational changes that never gain traction. This also establishes a pattern of behavior that is unproductive and disengaging for the organization’s employees. Often, leaders attempting to implement strategic initiatives or organizational changes have forgotten that they individually have gone through the entire process of developing strategic ini- tiatives, as well as socializing, committing, and engaging with these initiatives, and expect others to be introduced to a vision and begin executing immediately. Not allowing the entire organi- zation to follow the entire journey may in fact set the organization up for failure. What leaders simply need to do is slow down and proceed through each phase of the journey with the orga- nization. If a slow and steady process is applied, the result is often a much more rapid execution of strategic vision because the entire organization will be committed and engaged in the process. Activity: Considering Your Strategic Vision. Consider a strategic vision that you desire to implement at your airport. Given this strategic vision, write down the various players in the organization that you may need to bring on board to the leadership journey to bring your strategic vision to execution by the entire orga- nization. Consider not only your staff but your tenants, sponsors, stakeholders, and community partners in this process. Understand that while the leadership journey as a whole is critical, it is also important to fur- ther define each phase of the journey. Developing the strategic vision: A process typically undertaken by an individual leader or a small group of executives that develop an initial vision for the future of the organization. This vision may range from small modification in an operational segment of the organization to an entirely different mission for the organization. It is important to note that this phase does not

Leadership Concepts 85 result in the final vision for the organization, only the initial development. Maturity of the vision occurs within the socialization phase. Socialization: The process of developing the relationships within the organization that will lead to maturity, acceptance, and eventually ownership of the vision. The process of socialization is based on effective communication with the members and key stakeholders of the organization, receiving input and feedback from these participants, and effectively allowing all stakeholders to participate in the ultimate development of the vision. Commitment: The process of establishing commitment to a strategic vision through ingrain- ing the vision into the culture of the organization. This cultural integration tends to occur almost immediately after an effective socialization phase. If the entire organization has participated in the visioning process through socialization, the entire organization will take ownership of the vision, and ownership is often implicitly integrated into the culture. Engagement: The process of implementing the strategic vision, which will clearly be a new direction for the organization, through effective change management. While the commitment phase ensures acceptance of organizational or operational changes, implementing of such changes can lead to challenges, requiring effective change management. This is accomplished by managing the pace of change, as well as managing any challenges that occur during this phase. Strategy execution: Upon accomplishment of the previous phases, the execution of a new strat- egy is accomplished, with effective monitoring and making minor corrections when necessary. The leadership journey is sometimes thought of as being similar to the sales process. A leader may be considered a salesperson who is constantly selling strategic priorities, ideas, and changes to the organization. Leadership happens because employees do not recognize the need to replace old ideas as quickly as leadership typically does. As such, organizations may need to be sold on the new ideas. Moving staff through the leadership journey gets them through the recognition of need to do things differently and gains momentum for execution. This journey is a continuous process. It is the primary task, as well as responsibility, of the leader to effectively lead the journey for all the initiatives that the organization may be pursuing. Topic: Leadership Passages This section defines the concept of leadership passages that leaders develop through. Much as college students will develop as they pass through a defined curriculum, or as airport employ- ees will develop as they pass through orientation and training programs, leaders pass through various stages of leadership development. While these passages are far less formally defined and structured than training or orientation programs, it is important that they be illustrated. Leadership skills need to change for each passage taken in a leadership path. As professionals move from one leadership position to the next, it is critical to review the skills and experience that have been gained from previous roles and then identify the skills necessary to succeed at the new level of authority and span of control. One area identified as critical to the development of leaders in the airport environment is to differentiate the skills needed to lead successfully at each level of leadership. Despite the relative apparentness that leading an entire airport organi- zation requires a different and entirely new set of leadership skills from those of leading a small operations department, often it is the case that the leader of an operations department will get promoted to the director position, particularly at smaller airports. Furthermore, without any additional awareness of the concept of leadership passages, the leader in the new position is expected to successfully lead without any problems. Understanding the concept of leadership passages has not occurred in the airport industry, and the concept is new to organizations in

86 Airport Leadership Development Program general. Leading the effort to understand the concept of leadership passages has been the work of Charan, Drotter, and Neal in their text The Leadership Pipeline (Charan, Drotter, and Neal 2011). The leadership passage concept is based on four key development stages pertaining to any given level of leadership: 1. Determining the span of control for a given leadership level. 2. Identifying key responsibilities of the leadership level. 3. Creating a development plan. 4. Coaching for success. Activity: Describing Your Leadership Passage. For your current leadership role, describe Stages 1 and 2 of your leadership passage through this position. Identify your span of control and your key responsibilities at your leadership level. Doing so will allow you to effectively apply Stage 3 and find an appropriate mentor for Stage 4 of the leadership passage process. While it is understood that every airport, and in fact every organization, is unique, there are certainly commonalities associated with different levels of leadership. Furthermore, for each of these levels, while the individual elements of the leadership passage are unique, the process of understanding and applying the four key development stages is similar for all leadership levels. Charan, Drotter, and Neal describe characteristics of various job titles that are associated with leadership roles through leadership passages. While these roles are not the only positions for which there are leadership responsibilities, they are comprehensive in the characteristics found in all leadership positions. Supervisor: A frontline manager, with direct responsibilities for leading a team to perform defined tasks within the organization. Manager: Direct superiors to supervisors, with responsibilities for setting the tasks that a supervisor will then manage on a day-to-day basis. Director: A direct overseer of multiple departments, often outside of the director’s core area of expertise. Vice president: Leader with the first level of strategic responsibility and authority for integrat- ing and coordinating multiple functional areas of an organization. Chief operating officer (fiscal, information, technical, or other): Person responsible for an operating element of the entire organization. President/chief executive officer: Person with the highest level of operational and strategic leadership, responsible for setting the vision and culture of the organization. Figure 2 illustrates these roles by way of a leadership passage pyramid. Each level of the pyramid has direct oversight of the level immediately below it and indirect oversight over all levels below it. Note that above the pyramid are those groups of people who ultimately provide guidance to the top of the organization. Such groups include, in the case of an airport, the airport board, elected officials, community partners and constituents, and of course, the airport’s customers and tenants. Tables 2 through 7 summarize the roles and responsibilities of, skills required for, and pitfalls associated with these described positions. These tables are designed to help discriminate and differ- entiate between the leadership requirements for each position of leadership within the organization.

Leadership Concepts 87 Figure 2. The leadership passages pyramid. Table 2. Supervisor. Description: Individual contributions are still part of the duties of a first-line manager, but they must be balanced with management of others. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Motivate and coach. Selection of people. Delegate work and empower frontline employees. Culture setting (by example: positive attitude, core values). Relationship building up, down, and sideways for team’s benefit. Communication. Management Plan work – projects, budget, workforce within span of control. Minimize doing. Manage to plan and budget. Measure work of others. Set priorities for team. Frontline employee performance monitoring and accountability. Current, immediate, and short-term focus. Current and near-term focus. Manage boundaries that separate units that report directly with other parts of the business. Begin to think beyond department into strategic issues to support overall business. Coaching and mentoring. Fail to reallocate time from doing work to getting work done through others. Cannot allocate all of their time to putting out fires, seizing opportunities, and handling tasks themselves. Stress among individual contributors. Available capacity in individual contributors. Fixing mistakes of others rather than teaching. Focus on past. Suggested development opportunities: DiSC (or another personality profile; DiSC is a branded personal assessment tool, with “DiSC” standing for dominance, influence, steadiness, and conscientiousness, the four primary characteristics the tool uses to describe one's personal or leadership traits), goal setting, performance management, communication styles, time management, resource planning, coaching and mentoring, project management.

Table 3. Manager. Description: Where the company’s management foundation is constructed. Managers must become pure management, taking responsibility for managing existing tasks, projects, or cultures, but not leading cultural or strategic change. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Selecting people to become first-line managers. Measure progress and coach first supervisors and superintendents. Collaborate and support other managers when opportunities occur. Manage boundaries that separate units that report directly and with other parts of the business. Begin to think beyond department into strategic issues to support overall business. Return first-line managers to individual contributors if appropriate. Current and near-term focus. Management Assign managerial and leadership work to supervisors and superintendents. Hold supervisors and superintendents accountable for managerial work. Participate in teams with directors. Participate in business meetings. Work with directors outside functional area. Increased managerial maturity—thinking like a director instead of manager. Adopt a broad, long-term perspective. Future focus; sustainable competitive advantage. Spend more time listening. Review plans and proposals from a functional ability to get things done. Focus on what can get done. May have skipped first-line management. Tries to retain individual contributions, which instills the wrong values and confusion in team. Inability to differentiate those who are expert contributors and those who can lead. Difficulty delegating. Single-minded focus on getting work done. Failure to build a strong team. Poor performance management. Choosing clones over contributors. Suggested development opportunities: Leadership development, serve on internal committees, external relationships (within organization), goal alignment, performance management, program management, special project assignments, mentoring. Table 4. Director. Description: Manage areas outside their own experiences; must penetrate two layers of management to communicate to individual contributors. Receive a significant level of autonomy within their own divisions. sucoF tcerrocnI fo sngiS/sllaftiP poleveD ot sllikS seitilibisnopseR Leadership Management Participate in teams with vice presidents. Participate in enterprise-level business meetings. Work with vice presidents outside functional area. Strategic and cross- functional. Review plans and proposals from a profit perspective. Long-term view. Working with a wide variety of people. Sensitive to functional diversity issues. Balance future goals and present needs to make trade-offs between the two. Failure to make the transition from an operational project orientation to a strategic orientation. Poor sense of how business operates. Lack of long-term thinking. Lack of a functional strategy that ties functional activities to business goals. Ignores corporate functional standards, needs, policies, and programs. Inability to manage and value work that is unfamiliar or of relatively little interest. Shows bias toward familiar areas. Immaturity in leader—manager skills. Suggested development opportunities: Master self-leadership, serve on external local committees and boards, business analytics, external relationships (outside organization), strategic thinking and execution, goal alignment to strategy, portfolio management, mentoring. Report to multifunctional general managers and need to become skilled at taking other functional concerns into consideration. Team play with other functional managers. Proficient strategist to align functional business to organization strategy. Adopt a broad, long-term perspective. Future focus; sustainable competitive advantage. Long-term thinking. Stop doing things every second and reserve time for reflection and analysis. Awareness of the state of the art. Complete understanding of business model. Factors all aspects of function into strategy. Ability to make trade-offs within the function that support business strategy and profit rather than just the function’s success. Spend more time listening. Focus on what can get done. Develop business case justifications to compete for resources based on business needs. Participate in business team meetings. Work with other functional managers. Increased managerial maturity: thinking like a functional leader instead of functional member. Begin to manage up strategically. Review plans and proposals from a functional ability to get things done.

Leadership Concepts 89 Description: Value the success of their own businesses. Receive a significant level of autonomy across functional areas. Must focus on integrating functions instead of understanding and working with other functions. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Strategic and cross-functional. Review plans and proposals from a profit perspective. Long-term view. Skills in working with a wide variety of people. Sensitive to functional diversity issues. Balance future goals and present needs to make trade-offs between the two. Focus on how business will grow. Considerations of external factors and influences—ability to perform environmental scans. Be highly visible internally (up and down hierarchy) and externally. Management Clear link between efforts and marketplace results. Meet quarterly profit, market share, product, and people targets while planning for goals 3 to 5 years in the future. Learn to ask the right questions, analyze the right data, and apply the right corporate perspective to understand which strategy has greatest probability for success. Manage the business’ portfolio strategy. Astute about assessing capabilities of resources; make difficult decisions. Factor in complexities about running the business. Risk-based decision making; take on calculated opportunities. Not valuing staff functions. Must trust, accept advice, and receive feedback from all functional managers. Must think differently about the business. Too much focus on products or systems and not enough on people. Uninspired communication. Inability to assemble a strong team. Failure to grasp how to generate revenue. Problems with time management. Neglect soft issues. Suggested development opportunities: Executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, master of change management, serve on industry committees and boards, culture transformation, crisis communication, enterprise management, mentoring. Table 5. Vice President. Table 6. CxO. Description: This position values the success of other people’s businesses. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Evaluate strategy for capital allocation and deployment. Learn to ask the right questions, analyze the right data, and apply the right corporate perspective to understand which strategy has greatest probability for success. Develop business managers. Be astute about assessing capabilities of resources; make difficult decisions. Factor in complexities about running the business. Risk-based decision making; take on calculated opportunities. Develop systems that drive performance in tune to long-term strategy. Management Manage the business’ portfolio strategy. Move from operational to global perspective. Manage an enterprise in totality. Well-developed external sensitivity. Set enterprise vision and culture. Authority is being usurped. Not properly supported. Not operating at peak performance. Adversarial relationship with organization. Suggested development opportunities: Individual development plan, executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, master of change management, serve on industry committees and boards, culture transformation, crisis communication, enterprise management, mentoring.

90 Airport Leadership Development Program Table 7. CEO/President of Organization. Description: Executive-level position. Focus changes to values rather than skills. Must be long-term visionary thinkers. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Suggested development opportunities: Value-based focus, visionary thinking, motivational and inspirational speaking, power and influence, individual development plan, executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, serve on industry committees and boards. Leadership Set enterprise vision and culture. Well-developed external sensitivity. Proactively identify external influences and impacts. Set 3 or 4 mission-critical priorities and focus on them. Move from operational to global perspective. Assemble a team of high performing and ambitious direct reports. Develop a successor. Responsible to multiple constituencies – board, workforce, regulators, direct reports, and local community. Highest level of visibility. Management Ability to manage external constituencies. Manage an enterprise in totality. Development of others. Clear understanding of power and influence of position. Simplification of complex issues. Motivational and inspirational. Release internal control—focus on the external and the future. Failure to let go of the pieces and focus on the whole. Misunderstanding the power/influence of the position. Inability to set a clear enterprise direction. Inability to deliver consistent, predictable top- and bottom-line results. Inability to shape the soft side of the enterprise (culture). Inability to maintain an edge in execution. Inability to manage conflicting advice from boards. Ignorance about how the organization gets work done. Too much time spent on external relationships. Skipped too many levels. Activity: Identifying the Characteristics of Your Airport’s Job Descriptions. Think about the jobs at your airport that have leadership responsibilities and find which characteristics of the job titles noted here apply to them. Many leaders move into their current leadership positions having skipped some of the traditional passages to get there. This is not necessarily a cause for failure, but it is a circumstance that must be acknowledged. Each passage through the organization usually broadens the experiences of a develop- ing leader, bringing different circumstances that require specific leadership skills. Skipping passages without self-awareness can cause professionals to operate as leaders at levels that are inappropriate for the level of authority. Moving into a new role without self-awareness can also cause a leader to not further develop but rather to continue to perform as if he or she was still at a lower level within the organization, which also may be inappropriate for the new level of authority necessary. Suggested Reading: What Got You Here Won’t Get Your There by Marshall Gold- smith is a great reference for these passages and for identifying the need for continuous development of your leadership skills. Topic: Followership This section defines the concept of followership. Followership may be considered the neces- sary complement to leadership. It may be argued that all professionals within an organization carry some level of leadership, as well as followership, within their job responsibilities. Those

Leadership Concepts 91 in entry-level positions most often have a much greater component of followership, given their responsibilities to follow direct orders to perform specific tasks. Entry-level workers also have an element of leadership within their positions since they often have authority to make judgments during the course of a workday, whether it be the authority to make operational decisions or merely to have the self-leadership to arrive at work promptly each day. As one moves through the leadership passage process, the level of leadership responsibilities increases, while the level of followership decreases but never fully disappears. Even the highest level of leadership has the responsibility to follow the desires of the board of directors, shareholders, elected officials, and community constituents. To this end, followership may be defined as the capacity or willingness to follow a leader. Fol- lowership is necessary in order to have leadership. Leaders must recognize whether they are creating an environment that promotes good followership. Leaders must also recognize that they, to an extent, must be good followers themselves. Neck and Manz, in their text Mastering Self-Leadership: Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence, describe 10 rules for successful followership: Good followers: 1. Support a leader’s decisions rather than blame the leader for their decisions; 2. Offer dissenting opinions in private within an organization rather than in public; 3. Seek approval from their superiors for decisions they seek to make; 4. Accept responsibility for their actions; 5. Are honest, open, and forthright; 6. Do their homework and are thus prepared to work based on the authority of the leader; 7. Make recommendations for improvement; 8. Keeps their superiors well-informed; 9. Addresses issues and fix problems; and 10. Go the extra mile while maintaining an appropriate work/life balance. Activity: Taking the Followership Quiz. Take the following followership quiz. Select a present or past superior and answer each question about your behavior using the following scale. 5 _____ 4 _____ 3 _____ 2 _____ 1 _____ I do this regularly. I do not do this. _____ 1. I offer my support and encouragement to my superior when things are not going well. _____ 2. I take initiative to do more than my normal job without having to be asked to do things. _____ 3. I counsel and coach my superior when it is appropriate, such as with a new, inexperienced leader, and in unique situations in which he or she may need help. _____ 4. When the superior makes a decision that I do not agree with, I raise con- cerns and try to improve the plans, rather than simply implement what I believe is a poor decision.

92 Airport Leadership Development Program _____ 5. I seek and encourage the superior to give honest feedback rather than avoiding it and acting defensively when it is offered. _____ 6. I try to clarify my role in tasks by making sure I understand my superior’s expectations of me and my performance standards. _____ 7. I show my appreciation to my superior, such as saying thanks when he or she does something in my interest. _____ 8. I keep the superior informed; I don’t withhold bad news. _____ 9. I would resist inappropriate influence by the superior; if asked, I would not do anything illegal or unethical. Add up the numbers on lines 1–9 and place your score here ________, and circle the appropriate value on the continuum below. 9–16 17–24 25–32 33–40 41–45 Ineffective follower Effective follower The higher your score, generally the more effective you are as a follower. Note, however, that your score may change depending on the leadership skills of your superior. Topic: Self-Management Of all the concepts and definitions provided within this module, perhaps the most important is the concept of a leader’s key attributes of self-management. Self-management may be defined as the attributes, or personal characteristics, of a leader, or any professional, that may be consid- ered focused on individual performance, regardless of organizational structure. Key attributes associated with self-management include: • Standing tall during times of challenge and turning the challenges into opportunities. • Understanding that the job ultimately must get done even if one must do it him- or herself. • Securing the necessary resources. • A willingness to make mistakes while trying rather than ensuring failure by doing nothing. • Giving out before giving up. • Keeping calm. • Standing up for what is right even when it is not popular or it is harder. • Understanding that the road can be demanding, lonely, and frustrating, but willing to accept the responsibility nonetheless. • Staying true to the leader’s vision. • Inspiring to the leaders of tomorrow. • Preparing others to follow – passing the baton to the new generation. • Recognizing the work and contributions of others first. • Having the energy and stamina to persevere. Activity: Brainstorming key attributes of self-management. Brainstorm addi- tional key attributes that make up the self-management qualities of a leader.

Leadership Concepts 93 Topic: Development of a Leadership Road Map This module has presented the fundamental concepts associated with leadership, including the difference between leadership and management, individual and organizational challenges, the leadership brand, an introduction to the six core leadership styles, the leadership journey touch- stone, leadership passages, and effective followership. The next module will present fundamental skills associated with effective leadership. Prior to beginning, it is important for developing leaders to create their own personal development road map. To do so, the developing leader should answer the following self-awareness questions: • Energy: Where do you get your energy? What inspires you at your job? • Vision: What is your personal mission? Where do you see yourself within your organization in the future? • Abilities: What are your natural strengths? How do you perceive yourself? • Goals and values: What matters most to you regarding your organization? • Perceptions: How do you believe that others in the organization see you? • Growth: What are the opportunities for development within your organization? • Leadership brand: Who am I? How do I want to be known by those I serve? • Leadership legacy: How would the organization be perceived once you leave your ultimate leadership role? Activity: Drafting Your Leadership Road Map. Use the following table to draft your leadership road map. Energy: Where do you get your energy? Vision: What is your personal mission? Abilities: How you see yourself Goals and Values: What matters to you? Perceptions: How others see you Growth: Development opportunities Leadership Brand: Who am I, and how do I want to be known by those we serve? Leadership Legacy The leader you want to be to create the environment you want to lead in

94 M O D U L E I I This module discusses the fundamentals of leadership. Topics include communication styles, conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, and building a business case. Objectives • Determine differences in nonverbal, electronic, and verbal communications. • Identify four communication styles. • Increase awareness of personal style and identify styles in others. • Determine actions for resolving conflict. • Identify behaviors associated with unresolved conflict. • Assess personal critical thinking capability. • Identify actions associated with critical thinking. • Classify decision-making types and approaches. • Include risk-based decision principles in decision-making criteria. • Define elements necessary for a solid business case. • Establish negotiating postures and opportunities. Topics • Communication styles. • Conflict resolution. • Critical thinking. • Decision making. • Building a business case. • Negotiation. Activities/Assessment Centers • Nonverbal demonstration. • Self-style analysis. • Communication styles. • Conflict resolution. • Communication and conflict resolution assessment center. • Critical thinking. • Decision-making. • Risk-based decision making. • Business case assessment center. • Business case activity. • Refine leadership brand and personal development road map. • Negotiation assessment center. Leadership Fundamentals

Leadership Fundamentals 95 Introduction This module presents the fundamental skills that are the foundation of leadership. These skills may have been learned by leaders, depending on the career path they took to be in the role they are performing. It is necessary to review all of these fundamentals to ensure that all the leaders have the same knowledge and can draw upon these fundamentals for the greater leadership needs. There are many fundamental skills that we take for granted that are at the heart of leadership. These skills are learned or developed over time and include communication, conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, developing a business case, and negotiation. Great leaders use these skills every day and understand that through use of these skills there is a great influ- ence on the people who are following. Having a solid foundation in the fundamentals is critical in the ability to build culture and develop relationships and to self-awareness and managing change. Within this module, the following topics will be presented: • Communication styles. • Conflict resolution. • Critical thinking. • Decision making. • Building a business case. • Negotiation. This module has the following objectives: • Determine differences in nonverbal, electronic, and verbal communications. • Identify the four communication styles. • Increase awareness of personal style and identify styles in others. • Determine actions for resolving conflict. • Identify behaviors associated with unresolved conflict. • Assess personal critical thinking capability. • Identify actions associated with critical thinking. • Classify decision-making types and approaches. • Include risk-based decision principles in decision-making criteria. Topic: Communication Styles This section presents the various ways leaders communicate within their organizations. Com- munication is more than just a conversation with another person. There are many factors to con- sider when communicating, including choice of words, delivery type, and style of the receiver. All of these aspects will be covered in this section. Developing and fostering good communication skills takes intention, practice, and aware- ness of others. Communication is not just the words one says but also the tone, body language, method of delivery, and actions that follow. Good communication is the foundation of every organization and the basis of relationships, culture, and leadership. How leaders communicate is as important as what is communicated. Messages must be thoughtful and appropriate, and the state and style of the receiver must be considered. Exceptional leaders adapt their communication strategies to audiences, messages, and methods for effective delivery. Good communication results in the desired responses from the audience. Messages are only meaningful when the receiver interprets the information in the way it was intended.

96 Airport Leadership Development Program Some of the primary purposes of communication are to set expectations, clearly articulate vision, build relationships, provide feedback, apply course correction, and avoid surprises. Understanding the leader’s style and the styles of others will allow a leader to strengthen these areas. One of the key ingredients of communication is nonverbal communication. Studies have revealed that 93% of meaning is interpreted from verbal and nonverbal cues in communica- tion. Only 7% of interpretation of meaning comes from the actual words. Communication is more than just the words being said. It is a sum of the words, verbal cues, nonverbal cues, and the interpretation of the delivery. The true meaning of a communication lies in the receiver’s interpretation of the words spoken. Greater meaning is also received from the follow-on actions. Elements of nonverbal communication include: • Eye contact. • Facial animation. • Gestures. • Stance. • Use of props. Eye contact: Eye contact conveys confidence in the message and interest in an audience. Make direct eye contact to get clear messages across. Avoid looking over people or down at the floor. This will affect the intended message and reduce the receiver’s confidence in its meaning. When speaking to a group, avoid looking exclusively at one person—try to make contact with as many members of the audience as possible. When trying to relay a message directly to key individuals, however, make eye contact with specific people at intended points to emphasize meaning. The eyes should never be rolled in response to someone during a communication exchange because this is always interpreted as a sign of inconsideration. Facial animation: A person’s face displays attitudes and emotions. As such, it is important to be conscious to make facial expressions match the content and intent of the communication. Gestures: Use gestures to emphasize and reinforce statements. Allow gestures to be natural. Be aware that nervous energy may increase and expand gestures that may not be the intention behind the message. Excitement and enthusiasm may increase the frequency and expansiveness of ges- tures. Match the enthusiasm to the message. Be aware of finger pointing or shaking of the finger as gestures to avoid. Hands on hips, arms crossed, and other similar gestures may conflict with the message. Stance: The usual stance of a leader should be standing up straight and confident but avoiding being rigid. Move in ways that complement the message. Random movement and awkward pos- ture convey nervousness and are distracting. Be aware of where the hands are held. They should be kept loose at the sides, visible in front but avoiding the “fig leaf” stance where they are being wrung or crossed in the front or placed in the pockets. Props: A person should use props that support the meaning of the message but avoid their use if they become a distraction. Nonverbal communication is the body language that supports the words delivered in com- munication. It is not just in the moment of delivery but also the actions that occur after verbal communication is delivered. It becomes the story behind the story and can support the leader’s words or undermine them.

Leadership Fundamentals 97 To summarize, nonverbal communication will tend to be emphasized by: • Tone and volume of voice, • Location of arms and hands, • Stance and stiffness of body, • Sharpness and inflection of words, • A smile or frown, and • Emphasis on key words. Emphasis on key words may not only express varying opinions or emotions, but can also sig- nificantly affect the meaning of statements. As an example, the sentence “I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor” may be interpreted entirely differently based on which word is emphasized: I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (Someone else told him.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I’m keeping the act a secret.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I only hinted at it.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I told everyone but John.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I said that someone around here was a bad supervisor. John figured out it was you by himself.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I told him you still are a bad supervisor.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I merely voiced my conviction that you weren’t very bright.) Electronic Communication Interestingly, as more communication among professionals is done via electronic methods, the emphasis on particular words in a statement is lost, leaving the reader to interpret the state- ment on his or her own. This can cause significant communication issues. Electronic communication includes: • E-mail, • Voicemail, Activity: Nonverbal Demonstration. Say the phrase “I’m not mad” with three different tones, poses, and inflections: once where you truly are not mad, once where you may be slightly annoyed, and once where you are furious. Note your tone of voice as well as nonverbal communication. Often, the first (not mad) communication is delivered in a happy, energetic voice, with the arms at the sides and perhaps a smile on the face. The second is often delivered with the hands on the hips or crossed, with a firmer tone, particularly with emphasis on the word “mad,” with a slightly greater volume, and with a stern face and stiff body. The third delivery is often made with the arms crossed in front of the body, with an angry facial expression, a loud and very firm tone, and an empha- sis on the word “not.”

98 Airport Leadership Development Program • Texting, and • Social media (Twitter, Facebook, and so forth). As e-mail and electronic communication have become the norm, we need to challenge the idea of our dependency on their use. Leaders should not use electronic communication as a leadership tool. Much of the business world, including the airport industry, has settled into the cultural norm of depending on technology as a primary communication tool. What is less understood is that technological communication methods are not necessarily the best communication methods, particularly in leadership roles. While e-mail and texting are common tools for communications, as stated in the previous section, without the complement of nonverbal communication, words alone provide only 7% of the meaning of the message. A good leader will determine when electronic communication is appropriate for the meaning of a message and choose alternative delivery methods when necessary. If electronic communi- cation is necessary, it is important that the receiver have a relationship with the sender to hear the tone of voice from the individual in the message to assist with interpretation. It is also good practice to follow up electronic communication with an alternative method to ensure correct interpretation. Self-Style Analysis This section provides a tool for analyzing the leader’s leadership communication style. This tool comprises a survey instrument, which offers a series of two options to select from that the leader feels best describes his or her natural personality. It is loosely based on standard self-style evaluations such as the Myers-Briggs, Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI), or DiSC tools, but this tool focuses on how self-style affects communication style and is designed for airport organizations. The survey instrument is provided in Figure 3. For each of the 18 items, the participant is asked to circle one of two choices. The letters for the choices represent the following natural workplace personality traits: E: Extrovert – a person who is most comfortable and becomes energized when around other people. I: Introvert – a person who is most comfortable and becomes energized when being alone. P: Slow – requires a higher level of effort for the leader to accomplish. F: Fast – requires a lower level of effort for the leader to accomplish. The tally of I, E, P, and A scores from the self-style analysis survey can then be placed in the graph in Figure 4 in the following manner: Subtract the tally of A scores from the tally of P scores. The net value should be plotted along the x-axis. For example, if 6 As were circled and 1 P was circled, the net score would be a 5. If 6 Ps were circled and 1 A was circled, the net score would be a –5. Subtract the tally of E scores from the tally of I scores. The net value should be plotted along the y-axis. For example, if 6 Es were circled and 3 Is were circled, the net score would be a 3. If 6 Is were circled and 3 Es were circled, the next score would be a –3. One point should be plotted based on the x-axis and y-axis values, such as (5, 3), (–5, 3), (5, –3), (–5, –3) and so forth. This point relates to a certain communication style.

Leadership Fundamentals 99 Self style analysis survey instrument instructions: This is an informal survey designed to determine how you usually interact with others. The survey tries to get a clear description of how you see yourself, so please be as candid as possible. Circle one letter for each set of statements that best describes you most of the time, in most situations, and with most people. Please make a choice for every set of statements. Key: I = Introvert E = Extrovert P = Slow A = Fast 1. E Easy to get to know personally in business or unfamiliar social environments. I More difficult to get to know personally in business or unfamiliar social environments. 2. I Focuses conversations on issues and tasks at hand; stays on subject. E Conversation reflects personal life experience; may stray from business at hand. 3. P Infrequent contributor to group conversations. A Frequent contributor to group conversations. 4. P Tends to adhere to the letter of the law. A Tends to challenge the spirit of the law. 5. I Makes most decisions based on goals, facts, or evidence. E Makes most decisions based on feelings, experience, or relationships. 6. P Infrequently uses gestures and voice intonation to emphasize points. A Frequently uses gestures and voice intonations to emphasize points. 7 A More likely to make emphatic statements like “this is so” and “I feel.” P More likely to make qualified statements like “according to my sources.” 8 E Greater natural tendency toward animated facial expressions or observable body responses during speaking and listening. I More limited facial expressions or observable body responses during speaking and listening. 9 I Tends to keep important personal feelings private; tends to share only when necessary. E Tends to be willing to show or share personal feelings more freely. 10 I Shows less enthusiasm than the average person. E Shows more enthusiasm than the average person. 11 A More likely to introduce self to others at social gatherings. P More likely to wait for others to introduce themselves at social gatherings. 12. E Flexible about how his or her time is used by others. I Disciplined about how his or her time is used by others. 13 I Goes with his or her own agenda. E Goes with the flow. 14 A More naturally assertive in behavior. P More naturally reserved in behavior. Figure 3. Self-style analysis survey instrument. (continued on next page)

100 Airport Leadership Development Program Figure 4. Communication self-style analysis graph. These four main styles of communications are: 1. Relator: focused on harmony and relationships; good listener; 2. Socializer: loud, social, entertaining, typically in a group, talkative; 3. Analyzer: methodical, step-by-step, detailed focus, accurate, factual; and 4. Driver: see themselves as correct, direct, may dictate, firm, clear, factual. An alternative method of analyzing communication styles is by drawing vertical and horizon- tal lines to form a box based on the I, E, A, and P scores. Figure 5 illustrates the point and box methods using the scores A = 6, P = 1, I = 6, and E = 3, which results in a self-style leaning toward the driver and socializer styles. Nearly all leaders have, to some extent, each of these four styles of communication, and often have the skills to blend the styles in different situations. However, each individual has a primary and preferred communication style. No style is better or worse, stronger or weaker, more pro- Key: I = Introvert E = Extrovert P = Slow A = Fast 15 A Tends to express his or her own views readily. P Tends to reserve the expression of his or her own opinions. 16 A Tends to naturally decide quickly or spontaneously. P Tends to naturally decide slowly or deliberately. 17 I Prefers to work independently or dictate the relationship conditions. E Prefers to work with others or be included in relationship. 18 P Naturally approaches risk or change slowly or cautiously. A Naturally approaches risk or change quickly or spontaneously. Total number circled I ____ E _____ P _____ A _____ Figure 3. (Continued).

Leadership Fundamentals 101 fessional or less professional, or more desirable or less desirable in any way. Understanding the different styles will help leaders deliver a more meaningful message to their various audiences. It is much easier to recognize communication styles in others than it is to recognize them in our- selves. However, when styles are identified in others or we perceive the style we believe an individual to have, the identification is always made compared to one’s own point on the graph rather than from a neutral point. For example, someone who is very much an analyzer may perceive someone else to be a driver, while another individual may perceive that same person to be an analyzer; the difference is simply based on the personal communication styles of the two individuals. Simply understanding this phenomenon in fact improves a leader’s ability to effectively communicate. Each of the four styles of communications has particular characteristics with respect to six distinct descriptors: 1. Behaviors: The typical personality characteristics of individuals of a given style. 2. Motivators: What excites the individual. 3. Conflict style: How the individual addresses conflicts. 4. Strengths: The core strengths of the individual. 5. Weaknesses: The greatest challenges for the individual. 6. Effectiveness: How the individual tends to be most effective within a leadership role. These characteristics are as follows for each style: For the relator: • Behaviors include the desire to solve people’s problems. Wants everyone to be ok. • Motivators include relationships, harmony. • The relator’s conflict style is to submit and oblige conflicting parties. • Strengths include flexibility to meet multiple needs; works well in team negotiations. • Weaknesses: vulnerable to competing types, can be resentful and neglect self needs. • Effectiveness: works well in political situations and highly emotional scenarios. For the socializer: • Behaviors include being engaging and interactive, enjoying problem solving, acting as a cheer- leader, acting as an organizer, and enjoying being the center of attention. Figure 5. Alternative communication self-style analysis graph.

102 Airport Leadership Development Program • Motivators include creating innovative solutions and receiving appreciation. • The socializer’s conflict style is often characterized as attacking or abrasive. • Strengths: able to identify differences of opinion and focus on probing to identify problems. • Weaknesses: Makes problems bigger than they need to be. Has the tendency to rally people against a solution. • Effectiveness: Can rally people together to find solutions. Good at building teams. For the analyzer: • Behaviors include being methodical, being process focused, and a having focus on being cor- rect and factual. • Motivators include accuracy and being detail oriented. • The analyzer’s conflict style is often to withdraw or avoid any conflicts. • Strengths: ability to take time to gather facts; is very tactful. • Weaknesses: tends to be the bottleneck in the decision-making processes; waits too long, defers, or avoids making decisions. • Effectiveness: allows time for cooling off; knows when being right is more important than being fast. For the driver: • Behaviors include stating facts to make the case; drivers see themselves as correct; they stay in charge of situations and are competitive. • Motivators including winning and seeing results. • The driver’s conflict style is typically to dictate a resolution. • Strengths: excel in crisis situations and are capable of breaking a tie. • Weaknesses: hard on relationships; focused solely on winning versus losing; quick to get results, which may backfire. • Effectiveness: in transactional negotiations, in stuck decisions, when stakes are high, and in critical paths; is deadline driven. Activity: Communication Styles. Compare the characteristics of the four different communication styles with your perceived style, noticing particularly whether the intensity of each style matches where you fall using the point or box method of analyzing the results of the self-style survey analysis. Note how the results of the analysis compare with your initial self-described style. Variation to this activity: perform this analysis with a co-worker as a subject. Table 8 presents a summary of how each style tends to communicate within an organization and the best practices for communicating with people of varying styles. Topic: Conflict Resolution Conflict resolution is necessary when communication goes poorly. Most conflict is due to a mismatch of expectations or a misunderstanding regarding a communication. This section reviews the types of conflict and the personalities involved in conflict. A role of a leader is to identify conflict and encourage constructive conflict to occur in the workplace. A leader must also be able to identify destructive conflict and reduce it swiftly. The participants in this course will identify their own conflict style and the styles of others around them in order to influence conflict for resolution. They will also learn techniques appropriate for use with different styles.

Leadership Fundamentals 103 FACTORS SOCIALIZER DRIVER RELATOR ANALYZER How to recognize: They get excited. They like their own way; decisive and have strong viewpoints. They like positive attention, to be helpful, and to be regarded warmly. They seek a lot of data, ask many questions, and behave methodically and systematically. Tend to ask: Who (the personal dominant question). What (the results oriented question). Why (the personal non-goal question). How (the technical analytical question). What they dislike: Boring explanations wasting time with too many facts. Someone wasting their time trying to decide for them. Rejection, being treated impersonally or with uncaring and unfeeling attitudes. Making an error, being unprepared, spontaneity. React to pressure and tension by: Selling their ideas or being argumentative. Taking charge or taking more control. Becoming silent, withdrawing, becoming introspective. Seeking more data and information. Best way to deal with: Get excited with them. Show emotion. Let them be in charge. Be supportive; show you care. Provide lots of data and information. Like to be measured by: Applause, feedback, recognition. Results (are goal- oriented). Friends, close relationships. Activity and busyness that leads to results. Must be allowed to: Get ahead quickly (like challenges). Get into a competitive situation (like to win). Relax, feel, care, know you care. Make decisions at their own pace, not be cornered or pressured. Will improve with: Recognition and some structure with which to reach the goal. A position that requires cooperation with others. A structure of goals and methods for achieving each goal. Interpersonal and communication skills. Like to save: Effort. They rely heavily on hunches, intuition, and feelings. Time. They like to be efficient and get things done. Relationships. Friendship means a lot to them. Face. They hate to make an error, be wrong, or get caught without enough information. For best results: Inspire them to bigger and better accomplishments. Allow them freedom to do things their own way. Care and provide detail, specific plans, and activities to be accomplished. Structure a framework or track to follow. Table 8. Communication styles.

104 Airport Leadership Development Program Conflicts develop between team members for many reasons. Conflict can be an adversarial competition over resources, ideas, or other interests having real or imagined value to one or more of the parties involved. Or it may simply be any situation in which one person’s concerns or desires differ from those of another. It is important to remember that there is not just one way to resolve a conflict. A leaders’ reac- tion to conflict can, will, and should vary based on the circumstances of the conflict. Conflict management occurs when a leader can use personal awareness, communication techniques, and environmental understanding to mitigate and resolve differences. Managing conflict is one of the stressful aspects of leadership. Effectively working through conflict results in stronger working relationships and encourages creative solutions. Avoiding or ignoring conflict can damage relationships and inhibit the expression of valuable opinions. Choosing to allow your followers to manage conflict when they are not capable of doing so will have the same results as avoiding or ignoring the behavior. There are two types of conflict: 1. Constructive: the type of conflict that presents differing points of view to help the group achieve a higher understanding and a better outcome. 2. Destructive: characterized by a dysfunctional sharing of differing points of view focused on breaking down the ability of others to achieve goals and objectives Each type of conflict is capable of resolution. In fact, the only difference between the two types of conflict is how the conflict is presented. For either type, when the conflict is reduced down to its source and one gets past the noise and symptoms, it is typically found that the conflict has occurred due to one of four reasons: 1. Personal differences: Those perspectives, points of view, and conditioned behaviors that can cre- ate conflict with others. Sources of conflict that arise from personal differences include attitudes, values, beliefs, religious or political affiliations, ethics, priorities, and work/life balance issues. 2. Communication of information: The delivery and interpretation of information by different individuals are often sources of conflict, particularly within large and diverse organizations such as airports. As stated earlier, the way information is communicated within an organiza- tion, particularly using electronic methods such as e-mail, often leads to inconsistent inter- pretation of information. 3. Different objectives: Different objectives can be individuals and groups having different or incompatible purposes, goals, and objectives; conflicting and contradictory priorities; or a lack of clear direction in one area that affects another. 4. Environmental factors: Competition for organizational resources, economic impacts on the environment, and attempts to break cultural norms in order to make the organization better can create stress that can result in conflict. These sources of conflict are difficult to diagnose because they are typically masked by behav- iors that demonstrate there is a problem but do not really help to identify the source. Some behav- iors that may be observed that may help determine the development of a conflict include lack of effective communication within an organization, misalignment of goals of groups within the organization, and adverse opinions of others by individuals or groups within the organization. Conflict Resolution Activity #1: Identify instances where conflict has occurred in your organization. Attempt to identify which of the core sources contributed to the conflict.

Leadership Fundamentals 105 An organization’s leader has the primary responsibility of addressing conflict within the organization. The first steps in addressing conflict are to identify that a conflict is occurring and identify the symptoms of and then the source of the conflict, which is usually one of the four sources discussed previously. It is the job of the leader to the resolve the conflict by addressing the source and not just the symptoms. Conflict Resolution Styles There are four main styles of conflict resolution: 1. Competitive 2. Accommodating 3. Avoiding 4. Collaborating The competitive style of conflict resolution is characterized by taking quick action to resolve conflict, often quickly making an unpopular decision, taking a stance on a vital issue, and often attempting to reach a resolution primarily to protect one’s self. This style may often resolve conflicts in the shortest amount of time. The competitive style is often characterized as having a lack of feedback and communication between the leader and the conflicting parties, offering very little empowerment to individuals outside of those in leadership positions, and having a reduced amount of learning from the conflict experience. As such, any conflict resolutions may be short- lived and may simply result in an organization of followers complying for no other reason than to satisfy the leader, with no real acceptance of the resolution. The competitive style is often the most applicable during urgent situations, such as, in the case of airports, airfield emergencies or public threats where quick resolution is vital. The competitive style is often the strongest style of leadership, which may be vital when quick, correct decisions must be made. The accommodating style of conflict resolution is characterized by a leader that portrays rea- sonableness, makes an effort to create goodwill among conflicting parties, and has a strong desire to keep the peace within an organization. The accommodating style is often defined as one that tries to maintain perspective and consider what the conflict means within the big picture of the organization. The accommodating style is also characterized as resolving conflict without complete consideration of all ideas or perspectives, where resolution is made merely to maintain good will at the sacrifice of finding the resolution that is operationally or strategically best for the organization. The accommodating style is often used when the leader is at a loss for, or is not confident of, a true solution. The avoiding style of conflict resolution is characterized by a leader who chooses to leave difficult or unpleasant issues alone. This leader considers that not addressing a conflict may in fact allow the conflict to resolve itself or simply go away. While this style may certainly seem to be the weakest style of conflict resolution, it may actually be applicable in certain conflict situa- tions, including those with trivial issues of passing importance, those where more information is needed to reach a final resolution, those where the best resolution may actually be worse for the organization than the conflict itself, and those where the conflict is merely a symptom of an entirely different core issue. The collaborative style of conflict resolution is characterized by considering the perspectives of the conflicting parties, integrating solutions, merging perspectives, gaining commitment to a resolution, and improving the relationships between those in conflict. The collaborative style is also often characterized as spending as much time considering trivial matters as it does more critical issues, diffusing responsibility for resolution, and focusing on ancillary issues rather than core issues. The collaborative style is best applied during conflicts that are more strategic

106 Airport Leadership Development Program or theoretical in nature. Resolution of such conflicts does require acceptance by all parties to ensure effectiveness and sustainability and to maintain good working relationships within the organization. It is evident that the use of different styles for different circumstances may be required when dealing with different types of conflicts among different individuals or groups. It is important to remember that each individual comes to a conflict with his or her own unique perspective, based in large part on individual personal behaviors and communication styles described earlier in this section. Conflict Resolution Activity #2: Identify instances where conflict has occurred in your organization. Attempt to identify which of the conflict resolution styles would have been most appropriate in addressing these conflicts. Conflict Resolution Techniques This section describes some of the key techniques often applied to resolving conflict. Each of these techniques, or fundamental skills, may be applied to each of the previously discussed conflict resolution styles: • Effective listening. • Removing any focus on right versus wrong. • Removing personal issues from professional conflicts. • Dealing with one specific issue at a time. • Accepting—often forgiving—and moving forward. As fundamental as it may sound, the most important technique in conflict resolution is effec- tive listening. Listening and asking probing questions facilitate discovering the source of the conflict. After asking a question, listening to the response tends to help all involved get to the core of the conflict by addressing symptoms, or ancillary issues, associated with the conflict. An iterative process of asking probing questions and listening to responses will eventually reduce all symptoms to the true source of the conflict. This iterative process also becomes therapeutic and cathartic for those involved in the conflict and so is time well invested. It can also help in remov- ing any personal issues and help to specifically address the facts of the issue. When listening, it is important to interpret and clarify the tone of the words the individual is using. Conflict often begins with emotional, inflammatory statements that can be wrongly interpreted by the receiver. Effectively taking the focus away from the issue of who is right and who is wrong is a critically important technique in conflict resolution. It should be well understood that all individuals or groups entering a conflict come with a perspective that they feel is right and may, as a default, have the perception that the other perspective is wrong. Resolving conflict with this perception among groups is nearly impossible. Therefore, it is vitally important that these perceptions be removed from the resolution process. This is very difficult to achieve. Often, the best technique is to state explicitly that the resolution process will not take into consideration right versus wrong. Other times, techniques to deter conversation that is insinuating right versus wrong should be used. This is often accomplished by redirecting conversation back to the facts associated with the conflict. Negotiations and compromise can only be achieved when both parties feel that they are being respected and that blame is not laid on either side.

Leadership Fundamentals 107 Removing personal issues from professional issues is an important conflict resolution technique. Conflict can often result in personal emotions taking over where professionalism should be. Being able to make the conflict about the work and not the person is vital. A key technique to do this is to attempt to rephrase statements made by an emotional individual into a more profes- sional statement. This removes the personal from the professional and also adds validation to the individual’s perspective. Dealing with one specific issue at a time helps to make conflict resolution proceed more effi- ciently. Conflict is very difficult to work through and can be exhausting, so deal with one issue at a time and take breaks when required, particularly if you see that no progress is being made. The process of accepting, forgiving, and moving forward is often the most difficult technique to master because it often directly targets the pride of an individual. However, there are times when letting go may be required. Not having this ability can result in long and tiresome negotiations that may not lead to a resolution. It is not fair for conflict to be carried as a grudge or as baggage into a relationship moving forward. Acceptance, forgiveness, and moving forward can lead to the removal or avoidance of grudges that often result from conflict. Symptoms of Unresolved Conflict When conflict remains unresolved, either because the resolution was focused on symptoms or because conflict has not been addressed, it can escalate into some extreme behaviors that become embedded and will affect the organization culture. Common symptoms of unresolved conflict that are often apparent among individuals within organizations include: • Behavior associated with anger or intimidation; • Emotional despair; • Increased level of complaints; • Non-responsiveness and lack of engagement; • Refusal to enter into further resolution discussions; • Development of cliques within the organization; • Spreading of unproductive conversations, such as those involving rumors; and • Discussions associated with rebellion, such as strikes, union engagement, or presenting of conflicts to those outside the organization, such as the media. The last example is often the most extreme result of unresolved conflict and in the most extreme cases can result in the removal of current leadership. It is of great importance to recog- nize the other symptoms in the list so that steps may be taken to address these symptoms while the conflict continues to be addressed. Conflict management and conflict resolution are fundamental skills in the leadership port- folio. Conflicts are best addressed quickly and diagnosed to the root of the problem. Communication and Conflict Resolution Assessment Center: To evaluate your understanding and skills associated with communication and conflict resolution, consider the following scenarios and discuss your responses: 1. You have just finished a 3-month redesign of the organization. Just as you are ready to announce it to the staff, some uncharacteristic and unethical information is shared with you about one of the leaders you were going to promote. What do you do?

108 Airport Leadership Development Program 2. You have two colleagues who do not get along and work hard in order to avoid each other and even ensure they do not provide assistance to each other’s areas. This is becoming a barrier to everyone in the organization because these two do not get along. What do you do? 3. You hired someone you thought was going to be a stellar employee and now find this person does not get along well with others. It is beyond the proba- tionary period. What do you do? 4. You have had a great relationship with your board until a recent change in board chair. You are struggling to build a rapport with your new chair, and it seems the chair catches you off guard every time you talk. What do you do? 5. An individual in your team is a direct communicator and can be perceived as dominating over others on the team. You consistently see this person take over ideas and stop others from contributing. It is beginning to affect morale. What do you do? 6. One of your peers shares information with others that may be premature or incomplete. It typically results in drama or chaos being created and work is interrupted. This is consistent behavior. What do you do? Conflict Resolution Activity #3: Consider your conflict and motivation styles based on the style analysis. Think about what areas you may need to develop to be better at conflict resolution. Look back at the challenges brainstormed and think about the results of your 360 feedback report (if performed). Are there scores or comments that may lead you to believe you need to work on some of these areas? Does the application of some of this knowledge match the opportunities you see for yourself to change? Topic: Critical Thinking Critical thinking is the ability to analyze issues in a clear, consistent, and objective manner. Critical thinking is the foundation for negotiation and decision making. It is a fundamental skill for a leader. The key to analyzing issues is the process you use to examine facts, obtain infor- mation, and expand your thinking beyond your normal assumptions, experiences, and beliefs. Successful analytical thinking involves developing the ability to separate emotions, preconceived beliefs, assumptions, and personal bias from the issue at hand; to probe for answers beyond the obvious; and to tactfully involve colleagues, those who report directly, and key stakeholders in evaluating and resolving issues. Characteristics associated with critical thinking skills in an organizational leadership role include: • Looking for multiple ways to define problems; • Looking for more than one option or solution to an issue; • Looking for implications and effects of behaviors, solutions, and actions; • Anticipating the concerns of individuals or groups within the organization; • Having the ability to see connections and interrelationships among individuals, organizations, and issues;

Leadership Fundamentals 109 • Approaching the organization from a systems- and process-oriented perspective; • Determining different approaches to getting thoughts and ideas accepted by the organization; • Planning for reactions and responses from the organization; • Understanding underlying assumptions to an issue; • Having a curiosity about the varying perspectives of others within the organization; • Being open to the ideas and perspectives of others within the organization; • Being open, adaptable, and flexible to feedback; • Adapting the thought process based on new or different information; • Breaking down larger issues into smaller, more manageable problems; • Focusing on the most critical information; • Looking beyond symptoms to the core of issues; • Identifying and testing assumptions; • Being open to ideas and perspectives; • Analyzing issues, often scientifically; • Applying accurate logic; • Recognizing the broad implications of issues; • Integrating information from a variety of sources; and • Defining reasonable alternatives. Activity: Critical Thinking. Evaluate your critical thinking skills by answering yes or no to each question: Do you look for multiple ways to define problems? YES NO Do you look for more than one option or solution? YES NO Do you look for implications and effects of behaviors, solutions, and actions? YES NO Do you anticipate people’s concerns? YES NO Do you usually see connections and interrelationships between things? YES NO Do you approach work from a systems- and process-oriented point of view? YES NO Do you figure out ways to get your ideas accepted? YES NO Do you plan for reactions and responses from others? YES NO Do you ask for the assumptions that underlie strategies and plans? YES NO Are you curious about why others see things differently? YES NO Do people see you as open to the ideas and perspectives of others? YES NO Do others give you feedback that you are flexible and adaptable? YES NO Do you regularly change your mind when you are given new information? YES NO Each of the above items is a positive characteristic of critical thinking skills. Those that you selected “no” for should be targeted as the characteristics skills to focus on for improving critical thinking in a leadership role.

110 Airport Leadership Development Program Topic: Decision Making Critical thinking and decision making go hand-in-hand. When critical thinking techniques are properly applied, the decision needed often appears through the process. Identifying decision- making criteria and then using critical thinking will move the leader quickly through the deci- sion process. Making good decisions takes an investment of time to collect data and include the right people in the process. Decisions are too often made quickly without the necessary perspectives or a logical approach, or decision making takes too long and too many opinions are included in the process, which complicates the solutions. Different situations require different types of decision- making processes. It is the leader’s responsibility to use the right decision-making process for the type of decision required. There are two primary decision-making approaches: • Tactical • Strategic Tactical decision making is a process that is relatively immediate, unilateral, and short-term in nature. Through tactical decision making, the leader often solely makes the decision. This level is used primarily in the operations environment, when directing new employees, or in situations where corrective actions or decisions have to be made immediately. Tactical decision making is straightforward, immediate, and often made among relatively few alternatives. Tactical decision making in the airport environment may be used for day-to-day operational situations such as: • Injuries to personnel, • Inoperable vehicles, • Responses to media inquires, • Passenger emergencies or complaints, • Minor airfield incidents or accidents, and • Individual employee conflicts. Strategic decision making is a collaborative process, where input from multiple stakeholders is provided, analytics are used to weigh alternatives, and decisions are made that will affect the long-term environment of the organization. Strategic decision making is often a much lengthier process than the tactical approach. As such, it is less applicable when decisions must be made immediately. However, the strategic approach tends to result in more long-lasting or sustain- able results, which may be necessary to sustain the direction of the organization as well as to ensure buy-in from the organization and its constituents. Strategic decision making often takes into consideration a much wider range of possible solutions than would be considered under the tactical approach. Often, strategic decision making is used when there is no single, correct decision. In such cases, strategic decision making is in fact most effective not in the decision making itself but in ensuring that collaboration and analysis are properly used to ensure ownership of the deci- sion by the entire organization. Strategic decision making in the airport environment may be used for planning and admin- istrative decisions such as: • Financial and budget planning, • Facilities planning, such as airport master planning and terminal plans, • Tenant negotiations, • Deciding on the mission of the airport, and • Long-term organizational structure planning.

Leadership Fundamentals 111 Decision-Making Activity #1: Identify issues where decision making has been required at your airport and determine which decision-making approach (tactical versus strategic) was or should have been applied. Regardless of the approach used, critical decision making always involves three types of par- ticipants or roles: • The owner or leader • The sponsor • The stakeholder(s) The owner/leader is the one responsible and is ultimately directly accountable for the decision made. The owner or leader is also responsible for leading the critical decision-making process by ensuring that all participants, including stakeholders, are involved or, if necessary, ensuring that a decision is made despite lack of participation by others. The owner or leader is also responsible for overseeing the results of decisions and for providing corrective action when necessary. In the airport environment, the owner or leader is typically the airport manager or executive director, particularly for strategic decision making, but may also be a mid-level manager or operations supervisor serving in an operational or tactical leadership role. The sponsor supports the owner or leader by providing guidance, being a sounding board, provid- ing historical lessons, removing barriers, or influencing others. The sponsor endorses decisions, keeps progress in line with the overall strategy of the organization, and provides course correction if neces- sary. In the airport environment, the sponsor is typically the airport’s board of commissioners and as such often has the ultimate authority for approving strategic decisions, particularly when the decision significantly affects an airport’s budget or has a significant effect on the surrounding community. The stakeholder is the individual or group that will be affected by the decisions made. Because of this, stakeholders often actively engage in the decision-making process. In the airport environ- ment, there is often a wide range of stakeholders, which may include: • Tenants, such as airlines, concessionaires, fixed-base operators (FBOs), and private aircraft owners; • Passengers and visitors; • Employees; • Residents of the surrounding community; and • Local businesses. Decision-Making Activity #2: Identify the owner/leader, sponsor, and stakehold- ers in your airport organization. What have their roles traditionally been during decision-making activities? While it is not always possible, decision making with consensus is often the ultimate goal of the decision-making process. Decision making with consensus refers to the acceptance of the decision by those in all roles: the owner/leader, the sponsor, and all stakeholders. To attempt to achieve consensus, taking the following steps during the decision-making process may be helpful: 1. Decide on the primary goal to be achieved. 2. Identify the key stakeholders for successfully achieving the goal(s) and what their points of view are likely to be.

112 Airport Leadership Development Program 3. Identify which of the stakeholders are most likely to be influential in achieving the goal. 4. Identify what bases of power and/or influence might be used, and by whom, to persuade each stakeholder to become more supportive in the decision-making process. 5. Determine various strategies and/or tactics to use toward achieving the goal. 6. Make the decision with confidence to ensure support. Often, identifying and weighing specific issues explicitly through the process tends to clarify issues and aid in reaching consensus. Table 9 is a sample chart that may be used to assist in this process. Risk-Based Decision Making Risk-based decision making is a process of specifically and objectively considering and evalu- ating the need for a decision to resolve an issue, and the impact of such a decision, by using risk-based criteria. Risk-based decision making is used in a variety of operational and adminis- trative departments at airports. In the administrative realm, risk-based decision making is often couched as cost/benefit analysis or return on investment (ROI) analysis. On the operational side, it may be known as the application of safety management systems (SMS). In either case, risk-based decision making takes two key factors into consideration: • The potential outcome of an issue, given a particular decision, and • The likelihood of that outcome occurring, given a particular decision. Program/Project Weight 1-3 Perspective A Perspective B Agreement Comments Statutory impacts • Safety • Security • Environmental • Legal Strategic priority alignment Business driver Impact on human capital Impact on facilities or processes, including internal technology needs Financial benefit • Generated revenue • Estimated savings • Sustainability Funding requirements • Initial • Ongoing maintenance • Preservation/replacement Risk Customer or community impact • Pros • Cons • Social responsibility • Public image/perception Table 9. Decision making with consensus worksheet.

Leadership Fundamentals 113 In risk-based decision making, these factors are first considered under the current environ- ment, where no decision has yet been made. For example, consideration of the next fiscal year if no budgetary decisions are made, particularly in light of reduced revenues from poor tenant performance, may be an administrative risk-management approach. Operationally, the consid- eration of a poorly lit service road and the potential for a vehicular accident would be a risk- based infrastructure management decision. Each of the factors is weighed using a scaling system. While the scaling system for each organi- zation may be slightly different, most look like the standard scales illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. The FAA suggests a risk-based matrix that combines these two factors in determining risk. This matrix is illustrated in Figure 8. This matrix and the risk-based decision-making theory that underlies it are the foundation for the FAA’s Safety Management Systems initiative. SMS is an excellent example of how leader- ship may use risk-based decision making to determine priorities for addressing potential safety hazards at an airport. Outcome Scale Risk Opportunity Catastrophic Destructive Considerable Material Minimal High value Significant Moderate Minimal None Figure 7. Risk-based outcome (or severity) scale. Likelihood Scale Almost certain (90% chance) Likely (~75% chance) Possible (~50%) Unlikely (~25%) Remote (~5%) Figure 6. Risk-based likelihood scale. Figure 8. Safety Management Systems matrix: example of risk-based decision making. Activity: Risk-Based Decision-Making. Identify issues where risk-based decision making may be applied at your airport. Analyze the potential outcome, and likelihood of that outcome occurring of the issue should a decision not be made. Determine a solution to the issue that would significantly reduce the risk of the issue occurring. This activity should be applied to one operational example and one administrative example.

114 Airport Leadership Development Program The Decision-Making Question Model Figure 9 illustrates what is known as the decision-making question model. The model fol- lows a typical model of journalistic questioning: to identify precisely what the issue is, why it is being addressed, who the key interest groups are, where and when the issue arose, how the issue might be resolved, and how much it will cost to appropriately address the issue. This model allows for an objective, organized, thorough, and often highly supported decision-making process. Figure 9. Decision-making question model.

Leadership Fundamentals 115 Topic: Building the Business Case Along with critical thinking, conflict resolution, and decision making, the ability to build a business case is a critical skill for a leader. A proper business case should be acceptable to a specific audience. It is the structure for the due diligence to work toward a solution using cost/ benefit analysis (risk-based decision-making criteria), anticipating objections (conflict resolu- tion), and critical thinking (testing assumptions). The business case brings it all together in a more formal, thoughtful deliverable to present to different audiences to gain commitment and engagement. The most obvious reason for putting together a business case is to justify the resources and capital investment necessary to implement change. However, this implies that the business case is simply a financial document. While all business cases should include financial justification, it should not be the only purpose of the document. The business case is the one place where all relevant facts are documented and linked together into a cohesive story. This story tells people about the what, when, where, how, and why. Specifically: • Why is the project needed (issues and opportunities)? • How will the effort solve the issues or take advantage of the opportunities facing the organization? • What is the recommended solution(s)? • How does the solution address the issues or opportunities (benefits)? • What will happen to the business if the effort is not undertaken (the do-nothing scenario)? • When will the solutions be deployed? • How much money and time, and how many people, will be needed to deliver the solution and realize the benefits? The Three Roles of a Business Case The business case serves three roles: 1. To act as a vehicle for capturing knowledge and decision-making activities in one document. 2. To use a document to support the decision and to justify funding support. 3. To bring all parties involved in the decision processing to uniformly participate with a singu- lar guidance document that provides a consistent message. The writing of the business case forces the team to reflect on all of the work they have com- pleted. It is far too easy for the team to continue to plug away toward the end result and fail to document the work they have already accomplished. This is especially true during the concept and design stages of any project. Therefore, the business case serves as a wake-up call to the team, causing them to capture the knowledge they have developed about how the business will func- tion both with and without the final solution. The second role of the business case is to verify that the solution meets the needs of the business and is the vehicle for receiving funding and approval to move forward. It provides a vehicle for the team to step back and review their facts and assumptions. In addition, it is vital that the team document what would happen to the business if the project were not undertaken. This base-case or do-nothing scenario is the foundation upon which all benefits from the effort are derived. By documenting everything together in one story, it is easy to link the issues to the solution and the benefits and identify where the business would be without the project. The development of the overall business case simplifies the development of the financial justifica- tion, and will usually identify holes in or problems with the solution. Moreover, the business

116 Airport Leadership Development Program case provides a tool for which to measure success. This analysis is also useful for a leadership team to prioritize decisions against the many other initiatives in the business that may require capital investment. The final important role that the business case plays is to provide a consistent message to dif- ferent audiences. It is a high-level view of the entire project and enables all parties affected by the effort (such as customers, management, operations, research and development, service, sales, accounting, finance) to be knowledgeable about the project. The business case should be viewed as a story. Therefore, everyone on the team should con- tribute to its development. This does not mean that everyone will write a section of the business case. In fact, only one or two people should actually write the final document. However, all of the information used in the business case should come from team members themselves. Guidance to direct the business case writing effort is the responsibility of the leader. The business case writers should be team members who have an overall understanding of the entire project and can synthesize the multiple and varied plans into one document. Keeping the actual writers of the case to a minimum ensures a consistent style throughout the document. The business case should answer many of the following questions: • Why is the decision being made? Why is the project being defined needed? • How will this decision address the issue at hand within the organization? • What is the recommendation being made? • What are the proposed benefits of the recommendation? • What are the consequences if the decision is not made (the do-nothing option)? • When can this decision be implemented? Is there a project schedule? • Are there any dependencies to the decision? • What resources will be needed to implement this decision? Business Case Assessment Center: This assessment center is designed to evalu- ate your understanding of business case development. Specifically answering the questions listed in the “Three Roles of a Business Case” section, develop business cases for the following hypothetical scenarios: 1. The airport operations team wants to change the rotating schedule to cover 24 hours a day 7 days a week all year from using a seniority choice to a more evenly distributed scheduling. Write the business case to justify the change. 2. The airport operations staff would like to purchase laptops and mobile devices for receiving e-mail and staying connected while being mobile. The airport employees are in three different facilities on airport property. Write the business case to justify the request. 3. The younger generation in the workforce would like IT to install chat technol- ogy so that they can ask questions of their colleagues in an instant messag- ing format. The airport’s current system has the capability, but it needs to be turned on and maintained. Write the business case to justify the use. 4. The marketing department wants to buy a new copier to create market- ing material, board presentations, and public relations communications in-house rather than sending them out. Write the business case to justify the purchase.

Leadership Fundamentals 117 5. The IT department would like to institute a project management office (PMO) to implement consistent language, processes, and management for the airport’s project load. The PMO would require a new head count. Write the business case to justify the creation of the office. 6. The finance department is requesting that the airport move all airline rate agreements from residual to compensatory models. The airport has recently increased its airline service from three carriers serving 10 destinations to five carriers serving 25 destinations, and overall market share has become more evenly distributed. Write the business case to justify the change in rate model. 7. The planning department is suggesting that the only crosswind runway on the airfield be removed in favor of development of a new corporate FBO, business park, and automobile surface parking. Write the business case to either justify the removal, or the preservation, of the crosswind runway. It is best to develop and present these hypothetical business cases in group settings in order to allow practice in using presentation skills and soliciting and responding to feedback from potential sponsors and stakeholders. In writing or presenting a business case, the following considerations should be made: • Make it interesting; remember someone will have to read it. • Keep it clear and concise. • Minimize jargon and conjecture. • Communicate all facts as part of the overall story. • Provide the reader with a picture or vision of the end state. • Demonstrate the value the project brings to the organization, customer, and financial bottom line of the company. • Provide a well-organized narrative of thoughts, activities, and knowledge. • Be objective in the review of the ideas and facts of the project. • Demonstrate the ability to identify holes, inconsistencies, or weaknesses in the effort. • Provide financial justification for the case. Examples of business case uses at airports are: • Master plans, • Terminal expansions, • Renegotiation of tenant contracts, • Organizational changes, • Technological investments, and • Outsourcing of services. Activity: Business Case. Identify major decisions at your airport where the devel- opment of a business case was necessary. Was the business case well developed? What was the outcome of the decision? Did the development of the business case play a major role in the decisions support?

118 Airport Leadership Development Program Topic: Negotiation This section provides a description of negotiation strategy. Negotiation, in fact, builds upon the other skills and strategies discussed within this module. Along with conflict resolution, criti- cal thinking, decision making, and building a business case, the ability to negotiate is a funda- mental skill of any leader. Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties. The intent of negotiation may be to: • Reach a common understanding, • Resolve a point of difference, • Produce an agreement upon courses of action, • Bargain for individual or collective advantage, or • Craft outcomes that satisfy various interests of the people/parties involved in the negotiation process. A leader’s role in negotiation is to set the vision and the tone for the environment to allow negoti- ation to take place. Negotiation is a process where each party involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for themselves by the end of the process. Negotiation is intended to aim at compromise. Negotiation occurs throughout all areas of organizations, including airports. Types of nego- tiations differ within organizations, depending on the parties involved and the issues at hand. For example, disputes between two co-workers may require one form of negotiation, while discus- sions on labor contracts will require another form of negotiation. A negotiation strategy is one in which each party attempts to reach agreement with other par- ties while relinquishing as little as possible of what is important. Negotiated settlements are most effective when the following conditions exist: • All parties believe they will benefit from the outcome. • There is a belief that other parties will live up to the agreed terms. • No party possesses and wishes to use sufficient power to force a solution. • At least one party is willing to initiate the process with a proposal. • There is proper authority to negotiate for each party. • It is accepted that getting all one wants is not probable; there is general satisfaction in coming out with the best that was possible. • Sufficient information is available to all parties before, during, and after the negotiation process. • All parties are open and receptive to innovative alternatives. There are two common negotiation strategies that leaders tend to default into: the win–lose strategy and the win–win strategy. The win–lose strategy is a struggle for dominance. It may be a fast or expedient way of coping with conflict, but the conflict will manifest itself in another way. The danger in this strategy is its long-term effects: • Lower levels of trust. • Increased defensive or counter-aggressive behaviors. • Decreased quality of long-term relationships. • Decreased levels of commitment to the other parties or the organization. The win–win strategy is a struggle for compromise. Win–win strategy behaviors include: • Constructive assertiveness by all parties, • Active listening skills and effective questioning techniques,

Leadership Fundamentals 119 • A high level of commitment and persistence in seeking positive outcomes for each party involved, and • Being receptive to exploring underlying concerns and issues. Negotiation Assessment Center: As a method of practicing the fundamental leadership skills discussed in this module, consider the following hypothetical situations and assess how you would go about entering into negotiations: 1. You are an operations director who was recently promoted into this position. You are responsible for the labor relation negotiations that begin in one month. It is the organization’s position that contract negotiations will not result in benefits for represented employees that would be an overall greater benefit than non-represented employees. The union representative that will be part of the negotiations was your peer prior to your promotion and also applied and interviewed for the position you currently hold. When he did not receive the promotion he filed a grievance with the union for unfair practices. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What is the anticipated perspective for the bargaining unit, and what is management’s perspective during the negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? 2. Your current air service contract has been in place for 15 years. The trend in contracts is to negotiate for a 5-year commitment, which can provide some flexibility. Airlines are feeling the constraints of the tight economy and the reduction in the traveling public and see a benefit in a shorter contract term. However, airports are feeling uncertainty regarding grant money and passen- ger facility charges (PFCs) and are trying to find new innovative ways to gen- erate revenues that can support capital development. The current contract includes provisions for majority-in-interest approval by air carriers for capital projects; this has been in some instances limiting, although air carriers have been recently somewhat more amenable to not disapprove of the use of PFCs for projects so that the cost will not be allocated to their rate base. The current issues most likely to be negotiated include air carriers’ desire to have some share of revenue generated by airline-related activities, including park- ing and concessions. The air carriers do not want the burden of constructing or maintaining baggage systems or technology that is not air-carrier-specific. The air carriers also want to look for means to reduce their customer service expenses. The airport wants to have more flexibility with the projects they pri- oritize and does not want to get airline approval. The airport wants to assign unused space at its discretion and wants the air carriers to pay for common- use equipment and capital and operating expenses for baggage systems. The airport would like to update its facilities, and the air carriers are comfortable with existing accommodations. How will you prepare for this negotiation ses- sion? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? 3. An employee who reports to you has shown a considerable decrease in performance over the past 6 months and has a poor attitude toward the completion of work. The employee seems to be busy and yet there are no scheduled appointments on his calendar and few results or accomplishments

120 Airport Leadership Development Program to his credit. You inherited this employee from a reorganization 18 months ago. He is a long-time employee with the organization and seems to have been passed from manager to manager over the course of his tenure. You pull all of his previous performance reviews and find all reports have a satisfactory rating for performance overall; however, each one shows the same recom- mendations for improvement that you can make. All of the overall ratings have shown decreasing results over the past 5 years even though they are still within the satisfactory range. The employee thinks he is well qualified for the work performed and is well liked throughout the organization. He feels he is performing well since he continues to receive satisfactory ratings. You decide to have a performance conversation with the employee that will result in a performance plan. You can expect the employee will negotiate the plan. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? 4. You are the CEO of a small hub airport with a city-appointed board. Three months previously, the new appointments of the board and board chair were made. At the last board meeting the board chair announced that he has taken a look at the budget and the airport needs to reduce expenses by 20%. This news took you by surprise. He is asking for you to put together a pro- posal that will be discussed and negotiated in the next board meeting. The board is pushing to cut the capital funded projects that are slated to develop new opportunities to generate revenues within 5 years. You think person- nel is going to be one of the areas where you will need to reduce; however, you know the board will be uncomfortable with the message it sends to the community. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate?

121 M O D U L E I I I This module presents topics associated with the execution of leadership. Objectives • Determine strategic planning process. • Identify the purpose and state of the business. • Review SWOT analysis. • Identify five levels of process maturity. • Define the culture you want—translate leadership legacy to culture. • Determine ways to develop the culture in your organization. • Identify ways to assess culture. • Apply coaching matrix to current resources. • Determine types of feedback and impacts of each. • Comprehend team building principles. • Understand how meetings, performance management, and motivating employees affect culture. • Determine the difference between strategic planning and strategy execution. • Understand change management. • Equate life change events to the workplace. • Review the change cycle and behaviors associated with each phase. • Identify the forces of change. • Evaluate the faces of change and apply to current change initiatives. Topics • Strategic planning. • Developing an organization’s culture. • Relationship building. • Strategy execution. • Change management. Activities/Assessment Centers • Strategic planning. • Considering the maturity level of your organization. • Building culture discussion. • Culture scenarios. • Team assessment. • Crisis communication discussion. • Considering the environment of change. • Culminating assessment centers. Leadership Execution

122 Airport Leadership Development Program Introduction This module is focused on executing leadership. It is strategic in nature rather than skill-based and tactical. A leader’s role in executing leadership is to be sure to address the followers where they are and then lead them to the vision of the future. It is not the role of the leader to gain acceptance of the vision without guiding the path to get there. This module focuses on gaining the acceptance of a developed vision for the organization and on the creation and guidance of a path for the organization to meet the mission. Key components of executing leadership described in this module include strategic planning, defining and building culture, relationship building, and strategy execution. Topic: Strategic Planning Today’s business challenges are complex. The world is changing at a faster pace than in the past. To lead an organization successfully, it is critical that today’s leaders keep a strategic focus while balancing tactical execution. Effective leaders bring cross-disciplinary knowledge, a view of com- petitive differentiators, and an understanding of current legislative and regulatory issues to balance a deep understanding of the current state of the organization’s capabilities and customers’ needs. A strategic focus is founded in strategic thinking and manifested in an organization’s strategic plan. The strategic plan for the organization begins with the organization’s purpose and mission. After clarifying the purpose for the organization to be in business, strategies or goals must be developed. In order to make goals achievable, an effective leader must have a deep understanding of the capability and capacity of the current workforce. Defined goals must take into account the current demand on the available resources and be achievable along with the workload already in place. Goals should focus on innovative ideas or improvements to existing services that are aligned to the mission and purpose of the organization. ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry provides comprehensive guidance in developing strategic plans for civil-use airports—material that will not be explicitly repeated within this document in favor of focusing on the leader’s role in the strategic planning and execution process. In summary, however, ACRP Report 20 describes the creation of a strategic plan as composed of the following steps: 1. Evaluate and understand the organization; determine capacity for work and appetite for change. 2. Define mission, vision, and values. a. Mission = your purpose for being in business. b. Vision = who you want to be and what you want to make happen. c. Values = how you want work performed. 3. Scan the environment for external influences and indicators; identify critical drivers; conduct SWOT analysis. 4. Identify goals and long-term objectives (a vital few) with performance measures and success factors; define roles and responsibilities within the goals and long-term objectives. 5. Formulate short-term objectives and action plans to demonstrate progress toward goals; define roles and responsibilities within the objectives and action plans. 6. Document, communicate, and execute. 7. Monitor, evaluate, and modify. Planning and leadership without a clear vision lead to plans that are hardly strategic, often resulting in organizations, including airports, that are operating suboptimal at best and, at their worst, are downright dysfunctional.

Leadership Execution 123 Figure 10 illustrates steps in the strategic planning process, as described in ACRP Report 20. Following these steps will help identify an organization’s vision and road map for further strategic planning. STRATEGIC PLANNING Clarify purpose and objective, create process plan and road map • Participants/sequence/calendar • Approval and adoption process/distribution intention Evaluate and understand organization • Prior planning documents • Staff and organization information • Community’s interest and airport’s role Determine mission, vision and values • What is our business?/What do we want to be?/How do we conduct our business? Conduct Environmental Scan – Market Forces • Data collection—surveys, benchmark studies, etc. • SWOT Exercise and brainstorming Identify strategic issues, strategies and long-term objectives • Issues that can be controlled, managed, and/or responded to prioritized • Highest value focus strategies concluded Formulate short term objectives and create action plan • Aligned realistic goals established then projects, responsibilities, responsible parties and deadlines specified Define performance measures and monitoring plan • Objectives reflect targets and action plan initiatives become measured • Identify how and when measurements will be reflected and communicated Communication plan • Audiences and formality • Written and verbal communication opportunities and means Figure 10. Steps to strategic planning. Activity: Strategic Planning. Identify your airport’s strategic vision, mission, and goals. Performing an Environmental Scan In association with strategic planning and execution, it is important to perform an environ- mental scan. An environmental scan is a comprehensive investigation of key components of an organization that may affect or have an impact on the execution of strategies. Internal and external components of an organization may include information technology, human capital, capital funding, and regulatory environment: Information Technology Information technology has become a core component of infrastructure within organiza- tions of all shapes and sizes, including, of course, civil-use airports. Information technology lies not only within typical business functions of airports, but also within critical operational

124 Airport Leadership Development Program components associated with aviation safety and security. Any strategic execution that affects information technology should be included in any environmental scan by considering the following: • Investment in technology, use of current technology—modules to expand, skills to expand. • How information technology may automate processes that are documented and validated. • How tech savvy the organization is. Human Capital Human capital (the workforce) is not only a core component of an organization, but is also often the most fluid. The workforce is constantly changing in its demographics, its training needs, and in the ways needed to maintain organizational effectiveness. An environmental scan should take into consideration: • The aging workforce—Generation X is the smallest generation; must get younger generations ready to take on leadership roles sooner. • Does the organization offer a competitive environment and/or offer attractive benefits (such as health care and retirement plans). • Succession planning—not just focused on retiring workforce, must focus on retaining insti- tutional knowledge. • Know when to promote and when to hire externally. Capital Funding Any environmental scan should take into consideration the implications of strategic execution on capital funding and other fiscal issues, such as: • Modifications to passenger facility charges (PFCs), revenue bond rating and interest, grant availability, earmarks discontinued. • Alternative sources of funding. • Diversification of revenue sources. Regulatory Environment Federal, state, regional, and local regulatory policies are constantly changing. Any environ- mental scan should consider the impact of current or future regulatory changes on strategy, including those relating to DOT funding, FAA reauthorization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), cap and trade, aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) requirements, building codes, cargo security, use fees implementation, and health-care benefits. Market-Based Competition Any strategic execution decisions should consider how such decisions will affect the organiza- tion, particularly in the face of competition. In the airport industry, competition may be local or across the world, such as nearby airports and competing hubs. Industry Convergence and Consolidation External industry factors often have significant impact on strategic decisions, particularly within the airport industry. Such factors may include: • Alternative modes of transportation, fluctuating price of gas, energy-efficient automobiles; • Communication technologies, social media maturation; • Globalization of economies and industries; and • Economic conditions.

Leadership Execution 125 Other components of an environmental scan may include: General Business Risk • Security risks heightened since September 11th, 2001 (9/11), unemployment rates, increasing costs for employing staff (benefits and so forth), sustainability, lower capacity in the aviation system, and economic conditions’ indirect effects. Innovative New Entrants/Models • Additional services to customers for experience, transition to the focus on non-aeronautical revenue models, larger number of carry-on bags, liquids issues, and discontinuance of regional jets. Market Globalization • World economy, increasing concerns on global terrorism, oil prices, and pandemic issues. It is the leader’s role to guide and monitor the environmental scan. In some smaller organiza- tions, it will be the leader’s role to actually perform the environmental scan. The categories dis- cussed previously are influences and factors affecting the direction and strategy of the business. Leaders must scan them frequently to create the strategic plan and then to adjust the plan, and its execution, as necessary. The SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis tool is used to analyze an organization for its strengths, weaknesses, oppor- tunities, and threats. Analysis of strengths and weaknesses focuses on internal operations and resources. Analysis of opportunities and threats focuses on external influences and resources. The tool is frequently used in conducting strategic planning sessions but can also be useful in team building, personal development, and other projects that need to be audited or reviewed for new direction or reengineering. An organization’s SWOT is an incredibly helpful tool in conducting a strategic planning ses- sion. It helps bring together multiple viewpoints in an organization and determines the current state of the organization with its current resources. A SWOT analysis should be conducted, at a minimum, each time strategic initiatives are developed, and more frequently if trigger events occur such as a change in leadership. It is the leader’s role to use the tool to assist in reviewing any program, team, process, or initia- tive that might need to be audited and adjusted to be directionally corrected or enhanced. The Strategy Map The strategy map shows the components to be put together in a simple strategic plan. This map is a one-page road map for the organization’s strategy and includes the vision, mission, and goals of the organization, as illustrated in Figure 11. These represent the what, why, and when of the strategic plan. The values represent the how. The resources of the organization are the who of the strategic plan. Once this one-page strategy map is created, the next step in the strategic planning process is to develop goals that apply throughout the organization so that every employee can answer the question, How does the work I do every day contribute to the overall organization strategy (or mission)? Being able to align oneself to the organization mission or strategy is the one item that employees repeat over and over as their key point for engagement.

126 Airport Leadership Development Program Goal Setting The goal setting process begins at the strategic planning level but goes beyond the strategic plan to cover every individual within the organization. Goals must be aligned from the top down and then be validated from the bottom up. People need to have the time and money available to complete the goals. As such, a key element of goal setting is keeping goals realistic as they cascade down and then to have adjustments made from the bottom up if they are not. Measures or metrics should not be established when completing goals until the top-down and then bottom-up process is complete. Most organizations establish goals at the top and never actually validate through the top-down and bottom-up process to know for certain that they have the resources to realistically complete them. This is why most strategic plan- ning fails. This process must occur before measures can be established and the strategy can be executed. The Four Stages of Organizations When working on the strategic plan, it is extremely important to determine what stage of busi- ness the organization is in. There are four primary stages of organizations, and each one equates to a certain amount of productivity, new initiatives, financial investments, or expectations that can be set for the limited resources available in the organization. Every organization has the three limited resources of time, people, and money. The four stages are: 1. Start-up: Major changes occurring – potential change in leadership; some chaos in the orga- nization; perhaps the result of a reorganization (high levels of exceptions and projects). 2. Growth: New air service, new terminal, capital projects; high energy, lots of change; must have high exposure, controls, management must be engaged. Focus on major initiatives – do one at a time, manage prioritization, do not do new initiatives until some complete. Figure 11. Strategy map. STRATEGY MAP • Defines the organization’s purpose in terms of the organization’s values- Who you want to be VISION • Defines the organization’s purpose and primary objectives- Why are you in business? MISSION GOALS M ea su re ab le Goal Measure ab le Goal Measure ab le Goal Measure ab le Goal • Describes the way in which you will perform business VALUES

Leadership Execution 127 (High-level projects focused on new developments; management focused on balancing a decrease in exceptions with increase in core services.) 3. Maintenance: Stabilization of growth, organizational maturity; great time to invest in development of people; things are in balance; work on increasing efficiency, add new talent; succession planning; develop bench strength (high levels of core services, projects focused on improvements, lower level exceptions) 4. Decline: Loss of air service, downsize due to economy, need to reduce redundancy (low proj- ects, low core service, higher exceptions). The Five Levels of Process Maturity Process maturity is embedded and yet separate from the stages of organizations. When imple- menting a strategy, it is important to keep in mind the stages of process maturity to manage the implementation. The five levels of maturity are: 1. Initial (chaotic, ad hoc, heroic): The starting point for use of a new process; the early stages of organizations. 2. Repeatable (project management, process discipline): The process is used repeatedly, busi- ness begins to gain traction. 3. Defined (institutionalized): The process is defined/confirmed as a standard business process; business is normalized. 4. Managed (quantified): Process management and measurement takes place; business begins to grow. 5. Optimizing (process improvement): Process management includes deliberate process opti- mization/improvement; business performs continuous improvement, innovates, and leads in industry. Business becomes the best in its class. Activity: Considering the Maturity Level of Your Organization. What is the level of business maturity of your airport organization? Topic: Developing an Organization’s Culture Culture has many components that work together and define it within an organization. Within this section, culture will be discussed, as will activities that are performed within an organization that influence the development and support of culture. Subtopics include: • Performance management, • Team building, and • Conducting meetings. A role of a leader is to monitor and coach performance, build teams, and use meetings to sup- port the underlying culture that the leader is attempting to develop. Without good leadership in these areas, the culture may not be able to support itself. This topic includes discussions about culture in an organization, how it is formed, and how a culture may be transformed through leadership.

128 Airport Leadership Development Program Culture Scenarios Activity #1. Consider the following story: Pike Syndrome A number of Northern Pike were placed in one half of a large table aquarium with numerous minnows swimming freely and visibly in the other half of the glass-divided tank. As the pike became hungrier, they made many unsuccessful attempts to obtain the minnows but only succeeded in battering their snouts against the glass divider. Slowly the pike learned that reaching the minnow was an impossible task and seemingly resigned themselves to their fate. When the glass partition was carefully removed, the pike did not attack the minnows, even though the minnows swam around them. This story represents a theory that if a culture is established that results in frus- tration on the part of the organization, it may be difficult for a leader to create effective change, even if barriers are removed, perhaps through leadership direc- tives. Even if new policies are put in place to facilitate organizational progress, the culture of the organization does not allow the facilitation to happen. Cul- ture moves into maintenance mode and does not permit discretionary energy to be put into the organization. Loyalty and productivity decrease. How might this story relate to your airport’s organizational culture? Culture Scenarios Activity #2. Consider the following story: Elephant Training A man was walking behind the scenes of a traveling circus and saw a fully grown elephant tied to a pole with a small rope. It was obvious this huge elephant could have broken free from this pole by just running a little. The man won- dered how such a small rope could hold such a massive animal. Curiosity getting the best of him, he asked a nearby elephant trainer about this strange scenario. The trainer told him that when elephants are small they use a rope this size to keep them tied. As small elephants they learn they cannot get away from the rope, and as they grow they stop trying. This story represents a theory that if a culture is established that results in stag- nation on the part of the organization, it may be difficult for a leader to create effective change, because middle management, and perhaps leadership itself, is not in the mindset to be proactive in finding better ways to run the organi- zation. The phrase “it’s always been done this way” becomes prevalent in the culture. How might this story relate to your airport’s organizational culture?

Leadership Execution 129 Culture Scenarios Activity #3. Consider the following story: Bucket of Crabs Any fisherman will tell you that a bucket full of crabs doesn’t need a lid—they simply won’t escape. Crabs will pinch and pull as they struggle to climb over one another to reach the top of the bucket to freedom. It’s not impossible for a crab to climb to the top, and if they worked together it would be quite easy. But crabs don’t work together. When one crab breaks away from the pack, reaching its pinchers toward the top of the bucket, the others promptly grab onto that crab, pulling it back down. The crab is then pushed to the bottom of the pile. Instinctively, crabs pull each other down. The crab mentality says, “If I can’t have it, then neither can you.” This story represents a theory that if a culture is established that results in stag- nation on the part of the organization, it may be difficult for a leader to create effective change, because individuals or groups within the organization will be out for themselves, perhaps competing with each other for recognition or resources, resulting in behavior that is suboptimal, or in fact detrimental, to the organization as a whole. How might this story relate to your airport’s organizational culture? Embedding Culture This section describes techniques to best embed a proper culture into an organization. Iden- tifying and defining culture are the beginning of the leader’s role. Embedding the culture relies on many of the fundamental leadership concepts described earlier. It relies on communicat- ing clearly and in an appropriate and timely way. Culture may embedded into an organization through: • Performance management, • Feedback, • Team building, • Motivations, and • Meeting strategies. Performance Management Leadership by way of performance management includes: • Setting clear expectations, • Defining capacity and capability for each role, • Rewarding demonstrated progress, • Creating a results focus, and • Creating an environment of accountability, which sometimes means making hard decisions about people. One of the biggest mistakes leaders make is allowing a poor performer to last too long in the organization. Good leaders will build a relationship with human resources and use the proba-

130 Airport Leadership Development Program tionary period of the hiring process to their advantage. Good leaders stay close to new hires to monitor behavior, scan the environment, and ensure that the new hire is a good culture and organization fit. Firing fast is a good leadership quality. Allowing poor performance affects pro- ductivity, engagement, loyalty, and the organization’s own leadership brand. Figure 12 illustrates what is known as a nine-box matrix of performance. The matrix is used to determine the overall performance and growth potential of an employee within the organiza- tion. The matrix determines an employee’s performance potential by providing a low, medium, or high evaluation of the employee’s current performance and growth potential. Within the figure are identifying outlines that help in categorizing employees, such as those that are “tal- ent to take care of” and groom for promotion and leadership, those that are “good solid talent” that will not inhibit organizational growth but are less likely to move up within the organiza- tion themselves, and of course those that may need to be relocated to enhance organizational performance. Feedback One of the more difficult responsibilities of the leader is to manage performance, or make difficult decisions about those who are demonstrating both low levels of performance and low growth potential, particularly in the case where an employee’s removal may be necessary. This may mean having difficult conversations with some poor performers. These conversations are often facilitated by providing continuous feedback on performance prior to formal review. Figure 12. Nine-box performance evaluation matrix.

Leadership Execution 131 There are four common methods of providing feedback to employees within an organization: • Silence • Criticism • Coaching • Reinforcement Table 10 summarizes the definitions, purpose, and impact of each feedback method. When providing feedback to employees as individuals or teams, it is important to be guided by the following suggestions: • Be specific when referring to behavior. • Consider timing. Use advice prior to an event, reinforcement after. • Consider the needs of the person receiving the feedback as well as the needs of the organiza- tion and leadership. Consider how the individual will interpret the feedback. • Focus on behavior the receiver can do something about. • Avoid labels and judgments by describing rather than evaluating behavior. • Define the impact on the unit, the team, and the company. • Use “I” statements as opposed to “you” statements to reduce defensiveness. • Check to be sure the message has been clearly received. • Give the feedback in calm, unemotional words, tone, and body language. Table 10. Feedback methods. TYPE DEFINITION PURPOSE IMPACT Silence No response provided Maintain status quo • Decreases confidence • Reduces performance • Produces paranoia • Creates surprises during performance reviews Criticism Identifies undesirable behaviors Stop undesirable behaviors • Generates excuses/blame • Decreases confidence • Leads to avoidance or escape • Can eliminate related behaviors • Hurts relationships Coaching Identifies results or behaviors desired and specifies how to incorporate them Shape or change behaviors or results to increase performance • Improves confidence • Strengthens relationships • Increases performance Reinforcement Identifies results or behaviors that were desired, up to or exceeding standards Increase desired performance or results • Boosts confidence • Heightens self esteem • Increases performance • Enhancesmotivation

132 Airport Leadership Development Program Team Building Part of a leader’s role in embedding culture in the organization is to develop high performing teams. High performing teams create environments that ensure the team is a place where individu- als can renew their commitment and participation in a shared vision, where they can be honest about reality, and where they can be authentic persons and professionals. In a high performing team: • Every team member feels respected and valued; • All team members have the opportunity to fully share their thoughts, feelings, and ideas; • The team uses the talents of each member; and • The team excels beyond individual talents. The key to a high performing team is alignment around expectations. High performance teams, especially in the airport environment, result in: • Quality improvement, • Cost-effectiveness, • Speed to customer, • Innovation (product, service, process), and • Growing human capital. Just as high performance teams are beneficial to an organization, dysfunctional teams can be disruptive. It is important to realize the five key elements of team dysfunctionality: 1. Absence of trust 2. Fear of conflict 3. Lack of commitment 4. Avoidance of accountability 5. Inattention to results (Lencioni, The Top Five Dysfunctions of a Team) The theory setting forth the reasons for team dysfunctionality is simple; however, the steps to overcome team dysfunctionality are difficult and require a level of discipline and persistence that few teams can meet. It is to be noted that the five elements of team dysfunction are not separate but are related; therefore, the dysfunctions cannot be dealt with in isolation. The five elements are interrelated; each serves as a condition that sets the stage for the next. Absence of trust: Stems from team members’ unwillingness to be vulnerable within the group. Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weak- nesses make it impossible to build a foundation of trust. Fear of conflict: A team that lacks trust is incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debate of ideas. Instead, they resort to guarded comments as opposed to meaningful, candid dialogue. Lack of commitment: Without having aired their opinions in the course of passionate and open debate, teams rarely, if ever, buy in and commit to decisions, although they may feign agree- ment during meetings. Avoidance of accountability: Without committing to a clear plan of action, even the most focused and driven people often hesitate to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team. Failure to hold one another accountable creates an environment where the fifth dysfunctionality can thrive. Inattention to results: Occurs when team members put their individual needs (such as ego, career development, recognition) above the collective goals of the team.

Leadership Execution 133 The costs of failure to achieve a high performance team are great: wasted energy; lack of focus, effectiveness, and efficiency; and an environment that is not conducive to a pleasurable workplace. Activity: Team Assessment. Consider teams or departments within your air- port organization. Are there any that you would consider high performance? Are there any that you would consider to have elements of dysfunctionality? Describe in some detail the operating characteristics of these organizational units. What may be done to reduce the dysfunctionality of those units that may not yet be considered high performance? Motivation Here are the top 10 employee motivators*: 1. Appreciation: People need to feel appreciated, especially by their managers. (That’s why employee recognition should go through the manager.) 2. Being in the know: Even if employees can’t affect company plans, they feel empowered when they have a full picture of what these plans are. 3. Understanding in crisis: Life happens. Managers need to work with loyal employees when problems crop up at home. 4. Job security: No job is completely secure, but employees need to know managers will do all they can to secure their jobs, as long as they perform. 5. Fair compensation: Note how far down the list this one is. But it’s still important. 6. Engaging work: Give top performers a chance to do additional, interesting tasks. 7. Growth opportunities: Same as #6. 8. Loyalty: Employees respond to leaders who support them. 9. Tactful discipline: Managers who can’t give negative feedback without humiliating the per- son need training. 10. A fun environment: People try harder when they like where they work. (*source: http://rapidlearninginstitute.com/hric/top-ten-employee-rewards/) Other concepts to consider when developing methods to motivate individuals or groups within the organization: 1. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in the reward systems. For example, their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. The leader could find more means to provide recognition—if that is what is important to the employees. The leader could develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with, for instance, more family time. 2. Have one-on-one meetings with all employees. Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. Get to know your employees, their families, their favorite foods, names of their children, and so forth. This can sound manipulative—and it will be if not done sincerely. However, even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your employees, it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them. 3. Cultivate strong skills in delegation. Delegation includes conveying responsibility and authority to your employees so that they can carry out certain tasks. However, you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Delegation can free up a

134 Airport Leadership Development Program great deal of time for managers and supervisors. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs, which usually means more fulfillment and motivation as well. 4. Reward it when you see it. A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee behaviors, not on employee personalities. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals, not on popularity of employees. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally, morally, and interpersonally) for focusing only on how you feel about your employees rather than on what you actually see. 5. Reward it soon after you see it. This helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you are currently seeing from your employees. Often, the shorter the time between an employee’s action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee that you prefer that action. 6. Implement at least the basic principles of performance management. Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if the goals are being met, ongoing attention and feedback about measures toward the goals, and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. Performance manage- ment can focus on organizations, groups, processes in the organization, and employees. 7. Establish goals that are smarter. Smarter goals are specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, timely, extending of capabilities, and rewarding to those involved. 8. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational results. Employees often obtain a strong feeling of fulfillment from realizing that they’re actually making a difference. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals, employee progress toward those goals, and celebration when the goals are met. 9. Celebrate achievements. This critical step is often forgotten. New managers and super- visors are often focused on getting a lot done. This usually means identifying and solving problems. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. Without ongo- ing acknowledgement of success, employees become frustrated, skeptical, and even cynical about efforts in the organization. 10. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external). Let employees hear cus- tomers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee. For example, if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal custom- ers) in the organization, then have other employees express their gratitude to the employee. If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers, then bring them in to express their appreciation to the employee. 11. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you do not like an employee. Man- agers and supervisors are people. It’s not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. That someone could, for example, look like an uncle you don’t like. In this case, admit to yourself that you don’t like the employee. Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee—for example, a peer, your boss, or your spouse. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don’t like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accom- plish a positive working relationship with the employee. It often helps a great deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else’s opinion about the situation. As noted, if you continue to focus on what you see about employee performance, you will go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable. Meeting Strategies Meetings and organizational culture go hand in hand. Many organizations have moved into a death-by-meeting mode because of the amount of work they are trying to process at any one time with the limited resources available. Meetings have changed over time as businesses have become less manufacturing-focused and more information-focused. Because of increased and

Leadership Execution 135 unmanaged technology advancements, meetings have taken on a life of their own. They are the greatest time consumer of many elements of organizations, particularly in the administrative components of airports. Establishing meeting strategies and guidelines as well as the types of meetings necessary for people in the organization to get work done often result in fewer, more productive meetings, rather than a more wasteful ad hoc practice of holding meetings just for the benefit of holding meetings. General guidelines for an effective meeting strategy are: • Establish a purpose and goals, • Set a defined agenda, • Determine attendees, • Send agenda and supporting material before meeting for review, • Stay on topic, • Stay on time, and • Recap action items and assign ownership with deadlines. Table 11 provides samples of effective meeting structures. Meetings Time Required Purpose/Format Keys to Success Daily check in 5–10 min Share daily schedules and activities • Don’t sit down • Focus on administrative • Don’t cancel Weekly tactical 45–90 min Review weekly activities and metrics Resolve tactical obstacles and issues • Don’t set agenda until after initial reporting • Postpone strategic discussions Monthly strategic 2–4 hours Discuss, analyze, brainstorm, and decide upon critical issues affecting long term success • Limit to one or two topics • Prepare and do research • Engage in good conflict Quarterly off site 1–2 days Review strategy, competitive landscape, industry trends, key personnel, and team development • Get out of office • Focus on work • Don’t over structure schedule Table 11. Effective meeting structures. Activity: Evaluating Meeting Strategies. Consider the meeting strategy at your airport. How often are meetings of various structures held? What are the pur- poses of these meetings? Consider strategies for meetings at your airport that may result in increased productivity.

136 Airport Leadership Development Program Figure 13 illustrates a structure of setting a meeting agenda that considers the styles and struc- tures for effective meetings as described previously. Topic: Relationship Building Relationship building is a critical skill for today’s leader. Leaders must know how to build relationships with people both external and internal to the organization. Power and influence are also key in building relationships. Along with building relationships is the ability to com- municate in times of crisis. Leaders who have built solid relationships will have them to rely on during a crisis. Relationship building pulls together concepts from communication and conflict styles, conflict resolution, negotiation, and culture development and strategy. Strong leaders recognize the impact of the use of their power of influence over others through their leadership skills. More effective use of power of influence will more likely result in desired responses from the followers. Each leadership style has a power of influence that results in a response. That influence may also have a possible cost associated with it, which is a trade-off in the result to consider. Power of influence requires a leader with strong sensory skills to monitor the environment for responses. Understanding your power of influence is critical in develop- ing the culture of followers you are looking for. Your power of influence, the follower response, and the trade-off made will result in the type of relationship that is established and defines the culture of the organization. Figure 13. Sample meeting agenda.

Leadership Execution 137 In the airport environment, there are key external and internal groups that leadership needs to have an excellent relationship with. Externally, the organizations and individuals include: • The FAA, • The Transportation Security Administration (TSA), • The EPA, • Local law enforcement, • The airport sponsor (such as authority board, city council, county commission), • Local community representatives and leaders, and • Airport tenants. Internally, groups and individuals include: • Employees, • Subordinates, and • Contractors. Figure 14 represents the levels of employees in the internal organization, showing that the low- est level is the farthest from the external relationships. The airport leader becomes the focal point and must balance the information coming in and going out. Keep in mind that the information that reaches a leader from the inside of the organization may vary from its initial message, par- ticularly if the source of the information originates from the lower levels of the organization. It is highly important to create these relationships as early in the leadership process as possible, before critical issues that require hard decisions or strong support occur. Key leaders at airports have commented on relationship building in the following ways: • Build relationships with people before you need something from them. • Find reasons to get to know external people as people, not as services. • Make sure you are giving to the relationship as much as you are taking from it. • Seek common interests. • Seek to understand the perspective of the individual you are trying to build a relationship with. Figure 14. Leadership is the focal point between internal and external constituents.

138 Airport Leadership Development Program Trust is the foundation of any relationship and is critical to any organization and effective leader. Emerging leaders working up through the internal chain of command should seek opportuni- ties to build external relationships at each level up the progression. Working within an airport’s local community by serving on local boards or frequently attending community events is equally as important. Attending industry conferences and participating in advisory groups are excellent ways of fostering external industry relationships. Power and Influence One role of a leader is to build relationships through the use of power of influence and build trust. This section is focused on bringing about a positive understanding of the use of power so that leaders can gain better control over the power they have. It is the leader’s responsibility to be aware of the power and influence that are attributed automatically by followers based on the title the leader holds in an organization. This power and influence follows leaders everywhere they go and is culturally understood to have a level of com- mand and authority regardless of the circumstances or situation. This results in leaders needing to be acutely aware of their environment and their surroundings at all times to use the power of their authority wisely. If used incorrectly, it can wield opposite and negative results quickly. There are six leadership styles that a leader can use to influence a relationship or a situation. Most leaders have a tendency to think they need to pick one and stick to it. Great leaders identify the style that is appropriate for the circumstances they find themselves in. The six common styles of implementing power and influence are: 1. Directive, 2. Engaged, 3. Coaching, 4. Democratic, 5. Affiliative, and 6. Expert. The directive style is characterized by driving—marshalling resources and directing energy toward achieving a goal. It is considered a dominating style, with the intent to control the thoughts and actions of others. The response of followers is often one of obedience. This style is most applicable with a workforce that has specific operational tasks or with new employees that need guidance or are working under critical time frames for work products. This style is also effective during times of crisis. Employing the directive style improperly, such as in every situa- tion, is often interpreted as micromanaging, so this style should be used carefully, consistently, and sparingly. The engaged style is characterized by motivating—identifying and addressing the desires of others. It is considered an influencing style, designed to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the distribution and sharing of information. The response of followers is often one of empowerment, resulting in independent action. This style is often most effective at the start of a new project, in soliciting new ideas, when celebrating milestones or successes, or simply when leading an already effective team. The coaching style is characterized by teaching—bringing others along a path of learning a new skill or domain. It is considered a counseling style, designed to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the exchange of questions and information. The response of followers is often one of receptiveness. The style is often most effective when mentoring an individual into taking on new responsibilities or engaging in a new opportunity.

Leadership Execution 139 The democratic style is characterized by collaborating—responding to others and building on their contributions with those of the leader him/herself. It is considered to be a consensus- building style, designed to bring together the thoughts and actions of others through building a shared point of view. The response of followers is often one of agreement and a sense of equality. This style is often most effective when sharing new ideas, gathering different perspectives, and resolving issues before they become detrimental to the organization. The affiliative style is characterized by empathizing—understanding the feelings and states of mind of others. It is considered to be a supporting style, designed to affect the thoughts and actions of others through understanding and working with their goals and beliefs. The response of followers is often one of team orientation. This style is often most effective when team build- ing is necessary or in post-crisis environments. The expert style is characterized by mastering—turning new knowledge into a domain of exper- tise. It is considered to be a demanding style, designed to affect the thoughts and actions of others through setting clear expectations based on mastery of a task. The response of followers is often one of gaining autonomy and self-direction. This style is most effective in succession planning and reporting to external constituents such as the airport sponsor or industry and community partners. These concepts are summarized in Tables 12 and 13. Crisis Communication This section discusses fundamental leadership communication skills applied during times of crisis. A crisis may be broader than simply an aircraft accident or a terror event. Crises can come Style Skills Power of Influence Follower Response Directive Driving; marshalling resources and directing energy toward achieving a goal Dominating; to control the thoughts and actions of others Obedience brings compliance Engaged Motivating; identifying and addressing the desires of others Influencing; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the distribution of information Empowerment brings independent action Coaching Teaching; bringing others along a path of learning a new skill or domain Counseling; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the exchange of questions and information Receptiveness brings openness Democratic Collaborating; responding to others and building on their contributions with your own Consensus building; to bring together the thoughts and actions of others through building a shared point of view Equality brings agreement Affiliative Empathizing; understanding the feelings and states of mind of others Supporting; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through understanding and working with their goals and beliefs Team orientation brings teamwork Expert Mastering; turning new knowledge into a domain of expertise Demanding; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through setting clear expectations based on mastery of a task Autonomy brings self direction Table 12. Power and influence styles.

140 Airport Leadership Development Program disguised as other events in an organization and require a similar prioritization and response. Some other types of crises are: • A sudden change in leadership; • An employee death or major injury; • A sudden reduction in workforce due to layoffs, strikes, and so forth; • A loss of air service; and • Financial trouble. As with individuals and their communication styles, crisis communication and the identifi- cation of crisis events have different meanings and different impacts for each individual in an organization. The role of leaders is to put themselves in the shoes of their followers as they imple- ments ideas, execute changes, or make big decisions, while being mindful of how communication is handled during the crisis. Crisis communication has six fundamental steps at its core: 1. Offer certainty. 2. Acknowledge uncertainty. 3. Show connection and authority. 4. Give others a way to contribute. 5. Act as a secure base. 6. Fulfill others’ needs for growth. Offer certainty: It is important to be honest and open with the entire organization about those facts of the situation of which the leader is absolutely sure. It is not necessary to divulge all information, particularly security or politically sensitive information, but the basic facts of any crisis situation should be openly communicated with certainty. Acknowledge uncertainty: As important as it is to communicate what is known, it is equally as important to communicate what is not known or what is uncertain. While seemingly counter- intuitive, this helps to comfort individuals because it gives them a sense of common knowledge, or lack thereof, and removes any suspicion that information is being withheld. It also prevents the creation and dissemination of false information, which can be detrimental to managing crisis situations. Table 13. Power and influence styles summary. Style Associated Use of Power Leadership Skill Used Follower Response Relationship Established Directive Dominating Driving Obedience Dependent Engaged Influencing Motivating Empowerment Interdependent Coaching Counseling Teaching Receptiveness Interdependent Democratic Consensus building Collaborating Equality Interdependent orindependent Affiliative Supporting Empathizing Team orientation Interdependent Expert Demanding Mastering Autonomy Independent

Leadership Execution 141 Show connection and authority: It is important for the leader to share his/her perspective and thoughts on the situation. This leads to the building of trust within the organization and offers the organization a sense as to how the leader will further handle the crisis. Give others a way to contribute: Crises can be amplified by individuals and groups with no sense of empowerment within the crisis. A leader can be effective in giving others the opportunity to contribute, whether by offering physical assistance or simply being keepers of information. Act as a secure base: A leader can act as a secure base by demonstrating a commitment to resolving the crisis. Making and keeping commitments is one of the main functions of a leader; leaders should create an environment of trust. Fulfill others’ needs for growth: A leader is someone who can show how individuals, the organization, and the community can be stronger upon resolution of the crisis. Activity: Crisis Communication Discussion. Consider the following crisis situations: 1. A commercial airliner crash lands at your airport, resulting in multiple fatali- ties, and closes your air carrier runway for several days. 2. The local community finds itself with a highly reduced budget due to decreas- ing federal support, a reduced tax base, and investments that have gone bad. As a result, you, as the airport leader, are asked to reduce your budget by reducing your workforce by 30% across the organization. Apply the six fundamental steps of crisis communication for these situations. How are the steps applied differently (or similarly) for each situation? Topic: Strategy Execution Strategy execution occurs when the strategic plan is aligned to resources within the orga- nization. Every goal developed should have a strategic owner assigned for accountability and responsibility for completion. Assigned resources should be held accountable to show progress, report issues, and deliver the results of strategic goals. Leaders must monitor progress, assist in resolving issues, prioritize work, and celebrate results. The key challenge to strategy execution is leading the organization through changes dictated in the strategic plan, as well as changes that may come about unexpectedly during strategy execu- tion. The next section will discuss the leader’s role in change management. Topic: Change Management Regardless of strategy execution, change is constant at all organizations. It is also one of the hardest factors for people at all levels to deal with. Even when there is a clear need for change, resistance, fear, uncertainty, and ambivalence are common responses. Leading during change is a significant responsibility of a leader. A leader’s words, actions, and reactions will set the pace of acceptance of change within an organization. Great leaders understand how their organizations handle change and use this to lead people from where they are to where they need to be.

142 Airport Leadership Development Program During transitions, people must let go of what they knew, cope with the unknown, and then come to terms with what is new. While some transitions move more quickly and easily than others, each is significant. The transition model illustrated in Figure 15 represents the three stages of change, or transition, that individuals and organizations move through. It starts with an ending where it is necessary to let go of the old way of doing things. Any ending implies a loss of some kind. All change means transition and giving something up. People make a new begin- ning only after they have first experienced an ending and spent some time in the neutral zone. Following are the top five change events that individuals go through in their personal lives. These personal events, in fact, may be equated to change events that happen in professional organizations. How well one copes with personal change reflects attitudes that may indicate how well one copes with changes in the organization. Top five life changing events: 1. Health crisis/death of a loved one 2. Divorce 3. Marriage 4. Relocation of residence 5. Change of job These personal, life-changing events may be equated to organizational changes through the following examples: Change of job: Organizational changes such as realignment of departments, revision of job descriptions, or promotions. Relocation: Change of office location, construction within work environment. Marriage: Addition of new team members, managers, or leaders. Divorce: Reduction in workforce, removal of leadership. Health crisis: Major organizational changes, buyouts, or closure of business. Understanding that organizational change is often equated to personal life changes is an important concept for leadership. This understanding allows leaders to further understand the behavioral reactions to change, since change, whether organizational or individual, becomes personal and emotional. The behavioral reaction to change is often shown as having seven possible faces: 1. Passive resistor: Agrees that change needs to happen but takes no action. 2. Fits and starts: Tries on different solutions but doesn’t stick with any. 3. Outgrown: Not interested. Happy with good old days. Sees no reason to change. Figure 15. The transition model. Adapted from Bridges, William, Managing Transitions, 2003.

Leadership Execution 143 4. Know-it-all: Analysis paralysis. Consumes time with alternative possibilities; will exaggerate. 5. Naysayer: Inflexible, reactive, quick to point out why change won’t work. 6. Aggressor: Accepts change and implements it diligently; focuses on precise execution of plan. Forces others to prefer the unresolved conflict. 7. Malicious compliance: Say they agree to the change but work behind the scenes to destroy it, avoid it, or become a barrier to its success. Remember that an important part of leadership is followership. It is easy to identify behaviors in others and harder to check one’s own behavior. It is important for a leader to recognize his/ her own behavior, and how well you support the changes to be implemented. Organizations will often be influenced by the leadership’s behavior. The dynamics of change can affect people in an intense and personal way. Some welcome it, some resist letting go, and still others vacillate between acceptance and resistance. Many almost instinctively react to change as a threat. People have predictable responses to change. Many of these normal responses are listed on the transition curve illustrated in Figure 16. Everyone goes through this transition process—the timing, speed, and depth of the neutral zone will differ depending on the person and the change. Adapted from Bridges, William, Managing Transitions, 2003. Figure 16. The emotions of transition change management. Activity: Considering the Environment of Change. Consider any environment of change within your airport, including recent changes in executive leadership or elected officials, new strategic executions, subcontracts, or changes in organiza- tional structure. How did you, or others in the organization, react to the change? How did the leadership react? Kotter’s Eight-Step Model to Change Management John Kotter, in his text Leading Change, describes a straightforward eight-step model for man- aging change. These steps are illustrated in Figure 17 and described in the following. Step One: Create Urgency For change to happen, it helps if the whole organization really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This helps spark the initial motivation to get things moving.

144 Airport Leadership Development Program This is not simply a matter of showing people poor operational statistics or talking about increased competition. Open an honest and convincing dialogue about what is happening in the organization. If many people start talking about the change proposed, the urgency can build and feed on itself. Creating urgency may be accomplished by identifying potential threats and developing sce- narios showing what could happen in the future, examining opportunities that should or could be exploited, starting honest discussions, and giving dynamic and convincing reasons to get people talking and thinking. Request support from customers, outside stakeholders, and people from outside industry to strengthen the argument for change. Kotter suggests that for change to be successful, 75% of a company’s management needs to buy in to the change. As such, step one is highly important, and it is highly worthwhile to spend significant time and energy building urgency before moving on to the next steps. Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible sup- port from key people within your organization. Managing change is not enough; people must be led through change. To lead people through change, there must be a coalition or team of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, including job title, status, expertise, and political importance. Once formed, this change coalition needs to work as a team, continuing to build urgency and momentum around the need for change. Forming a powerful coalition may be accomplished by identifying the true leaders in the organization and asking for an emotional commitment from these key people, working on team building within your change coalition, checking the team for weak areas, and ensuring that there is a good mix of people from different departments and levels in the organization. Figure 17. Eight-Step Change Management Model (source, Kotter, J., Leading Change, 1996).

Leadership Execution 145 Step Three: Create a Vision for Change When leaders first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember. A clear vision can help everyone in the organization understand why the leadership is asking them to do something. When people see for themselves what the leadership is trying to achieve, then the directives they are given tend to make more sense. This can be accomplished by determining the values that are central to the change, developing a short summary (one or two sentences) that captures what is envisioned to be the future of the organization, creating a strategy to execute that vision, and ensuring that the change coalition can describe the vision in 5 minutes or less. Step Four: Communicate the Vision How the vision is communicated will determine its success. The message will probably have strong competition from other day-to-day communications within the company, so frequent, powerful communication is necessary, and it should be embedded within everything associated with leadership activities. Do not just call special meetings to communicate your vision. Instead, talk about it every chance you get. Use the vision daily to make decisions and solve problems. When you keep it fresh on everyone’s minds, they will remember it and respond to it. It’s also important to walk the talk. What you do is far more important—and believable—than what you say. Demonstrate the kind of behavior that you want from others. What you can do: • Talk often about your change vision. • Openly and honestly address peoples’ concerns and anxieties. • Apply your vision to all aspects of operations, from training to performance reviews. Tie everything back to the vision. • Lead by example. Step Five: Empower Others If you have followed these steps and reached this point in the change process, you have been talking about your vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. Hopefully, your staff wants to get busy and achieve the benefits that you have been promoting. But is anyone resisting the change? And are there processes or structures that are getting in its way? Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for barriers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute your vision, and it can help the change move forward. What you can do: • Identify, or hire, change leaders whose main roles are to deliver the change. • Look at your organizational structure, job descriptions, and performance and compensation systems to ensure that they are in line with your vision. • Recognize and reward people for making change happen. • Identify people who are resisting the change, and help them see what is needed. • Take action to quickly remove barriers (human or otherwise). Step Six: Create Quick Wins Nothing motivates more than success. Give your organization a taste of victory early in the change process. Within a short time frame (this could be a month or a year, depending on the

146 Airport Leadership Development Program type of change), you will want to have results that your staff can see. Without this, critics and negative thinkers may hurt your progress. Create short-term targets, not just one long-term goal. You want each smaller target to be achievable, with little room for failure. Your change team may have to work very hard to come up with these targets, but each win that you produce can further motivate the entire staff. What you can do: • Look for surefire projects that you can implement without help from any strong critics of the change. • Do not choose early targets that are expensive. You want to be able to justify the investment in each project. • Thoroughly analyze the potential pros and cons of your targets. If you don’t succeed with an early goal, it can hurt your entire change initiative. • Reward the people who help you meet the targets. Step Seven: Build on the Change Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Each success provides an opportunity to build on what went right and identify what you can improve. What you can do: • After every win, analyze what went right and what needs improving. • Set goals to continue building on the momentum you’ve achieved. • Keep ideas fresh by bringing in new change agents and leaders for your change coalition. Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of the organization. The corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind your vision must show in day-to-day work. Make continuous efforts to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of the organization. This will help give that change a solid place in the organization’s culture. It is also important that the organization’s leaders continue to support the change. This includes existing staff and new leaders who are brought in. What you can do: • Talk about progress every chance you get. Tell success stories about the change process, and repeat other stories that you hear. • Include discussions of the change ideals and values when hiring and training new staff. • Publicly recognize key members of your original change coalition and make sure the rest of the staff—new and old—remember their contributions. • Create plans to replace key leaders of change as they move on. This will help ensure that their legacy is not lost or forgotten. The Forces of Change During the change process, individuals and organizations tend to feel four forces act upon them, which both positively and negatively affect the process. These forces are: 1. One’s current level of comfort (or discomfort); 2. The attractiveness of the vision of the future;

Leadership Execution 147 3. Previous success (or failures) with change; and 4. Support (or lack thereof) of peers, leaders, and subordinates. These forces of change determine how quickly individuals or organizations will work through the change process. No matter what benefits are aligned to the change, it is these forces that deter- mine an individual’s tolerance to and likelihood for moving through the process. As a leader works through the cycle of change, these four forces will be acting upon the orga- nization and the leader as well. The strength of any of these forces will determine how quickly or slowly anyone will work through the cycle. Each of these forces can be measured on a scale from negative to neutral to positive. The collective relativity of these forces is your change perspec- tive. One cannot predict someone’s reaction to change because of the relativity of the subjective perspective for these forces from each individual going through the change. These forces of change and the scale of perception applied to each force make up the value participants put on their need to change and will directly reflect how quickly they are able to process the change actions. This value of their need to change equates to change tolerance. Because each person’s perspective is unique and each change event is unique, keeping these change forces at the front of the mind is very important. When assisting someone in working through change, you cannot force them through the cycle but rather focus on which force is act- ing against them and help them work through it. Culminating Assessment Center #1: To complete the topics covered in this cur- riculum, perform the following comprehensive leadership challenge activities. These are best practiced in a group environment, with facilitated discussion. 1. Strategic thinking: You are the director of a small airport with 52 employees. Your staff is lean and you are operating the airport with only one person with knowledge in most critical areas. Next year you will start a major capital proj- ect to update the terminal building. You are looking at ways to operate more efficiently in order to keep the budget flat while developing staff for better coverage in case of emergency. Outline the strategic plan you would draft to share with your organization. Include performing an environment scan to justify and support the direction. Prepare a change management plan to include in the strategy execution. Prepare the following: environment scan, SWOT, strategy map, key commu- nication activities, change management plan. 2. Culture transformation: You are the vice president of administration in a medium hub airport with 356 employees. The staff has been with the organiza- tion for an average of 18 years, but most have only worked at this airport. You recognize that the organization seems busy but not capable of demonstrating the results of efforts. You determine that staff is spending the majority of its time in meetings that are not translating to desired and meaningful results. Outline the culture transformation for the organization. Include a vision for the culture you want. Create a meeting inventory of current meetings and a plan for changing the types and frequency of meetings in the new culture. Prepare a change management plan to include in the culture transformation. Prepare the following: vision for culture; meeting inventory—old and new, with purpose, frequency, and so forth; key transformation and communica- tion activities; change management plan.

148 Airport Leadership Development Program Culminating Assessment Center #2: To complete the topics covered in this cur- riculum, perform the following comprehensive leadership challenge activities. These are best practiced in a group environment, with facilitated discussion. 1. Crisis communication: You were the number two in charge at a small air- port with 85 employees. Within the past 6 months you lost a main air service provider, resulting in the downsizing of staff by 15 employees. Within the last week the director has been diagnosed with a serious illness and has left the organization suddenly. The board put you in charge in the interim. Outline the crisis communication for the organization. Include a strategy for the future and for what is next. Prepare a change management plan for the change in leadership as well as the change in business structure. Prepare the following: crisis communication plan; immediate goals and long-term goals for the organization; any organization realignment; change management plan. 2. Power and influence in relationships: You are the chief financial officer at a medium-sized airport with 275 employees, 125 of which are represented by unions. The most recent employee satisfaction survey results show that staff are feeling overworked and underappreciated. You decide you would like to work with your peers on how to use their power and influence to motivate their teams. This new energy must cascade through the organization to get to the line level where the burden is felt the highest. Through observations, you know you will need to provide feedback to some of your peers about their specific behaviors that are not motivating. Outline how you would educate your peers about power and influence. Include the translation of influence to motivations. Determine how you would provide feedback to them through the process. Prepare a change management plan to address the issue of satisfaction. Prepare the following: power and influence education for your peers; identification of the issues and desired results; essential action items; change management plan.

149 Section 2 is an annotated collection of presentation slides that may be used to accompany the Program Facilitator Guide when the curriculum is offered in a group setting. These slides are also provided in Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 format on the CD-ROM that accompanies this document. Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes S E C T I O N 2

150 Airport Leadership Development Program

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 151 Overview and Key Points: As part of the ticket for admission to this course, participants may have been asked to participate in a 360° feedback analysis and would have received a 360° feedback report. This is the beginning of the process of self awareness and leadership concepts. Par- ticipants should use the results of the feedback report as well as what they continue to learn in this course in order to better manage their own leadership abilities. This is a reminder that we can only change ourselves and as a result will change our situation and circumstances. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Self awareness is preparation for growth. Self management is the application of developmental opportunities for continuous improve- ment in your attitudes, abilities, skills, and knowledge. Demonstrating strong self management establishes your leadership style. Self management includes your willingness to accept and apply feedback. It means having a clear vision of your values and ethics and the ability to stay true to yourself regardless of influences around you. Self management also determines the boundaries for the way you will treat people and how people will treat you. We teach people how to treat us, and if you want to be treated differently, you must behave differently. In the journey of self awareness we will discuss how aware you are of your own strengths and weaknesses and what you can do about these. We will also talk about how aware you are of the external cues that are happening around you that may be indicators that your leadership style is working or not working. This is the beginning of your personal leadership journey. As a leader you are being watched. You have a responsibility to impart wisdom to others through behavior as well as words. Some key attributes of good leaders include the following: Lifelong learners Focus on continuous improvement Stay current and competent — personal competencies Build a network Look for opposite points of view Join organizations outside of organization Broaden perspective Read Learn from mistakes Find a trusted resource who will be honest with feedback — personal coach or mentor Listen We will continue to gain a better understanding of what we do well and what we can do better as leaders as we continue through this course. Take a minute to reflect back on your 360 feedback survey and think about the areas you might need to focus on and develop as we con- tinue through our content. (Be silent for a few minutes before moving to next slide.)

152 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: Establish the objectives for this section of materials. Actions: Reveal slide Script: Let’s take a look at the objectives for this module of the course. (Read slide) Overview and Key Points: Discuss the definition of leadership used to create the content in this course. Discuss the difference between leadership and man- agement. Talk about what leadership isn’t—it isn’t about your tech- nical expertise; it’s about your ability to draw that out in others. Don’t get stuck behind your technology devices—email and texts are not leadership. Technology should be used to manage. A leader must be present and act on a personal level to lead. Define leadership as

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 153 Overview and Key Points: Facilitate a brainstorm session to determine what the current indi- vidual and organization challenges are that are affecting the leaders in the session. Action: Reveal slide. Conduct brainstorm for individual challenges before revealing next slide. Script: Let’s brainstorm some of the current challenges you are dealing with from both a personal and an organizational perspective. We will try to address these challenges as we proceed through the course. Let’s start with individual challenges. What are your current personal challenges in leadership? What are the issues that get in your way of being a great leader? (Capture responses on chart paper to display in room for the dura- tion of the course.) the art of mobilizing others through power and influence to achieve shared aspirations. Actions: Display and read slide. Script: Leadership is an art, not a science. There are no equations to which you enter data and an answer is provided. Leadership involves the use of power and influence. Power is defined as the ability to influence. Influence is defined as altering people’s beliefs or behaviors. Effective leaders have three basic skill sets: technical (knowledge), administrative (skills), and interpersonal (behavior). Your role as a leader is to inspire, delegate, develop, and coach employees. Different situations require different leadership roles. On some occasions, leaders will need to provide specific instruc- tions and close supervision; on some occasions, leaders will need to explain their decisions and provide clarification; on some occasions, leaders will need to share ideas and facilitate decision making; and on some occasions, leaders will need to turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation to someone else. As we take this journey of learning about leadership, we will define our leadership brand and focus on what leadership legacy we want to leave to our employees. Ask: How many of you are aware of your leadership brand or know what leadership legacy you are leaving with your staff? Reflect on your 360 feedback results to be more aware of how you are perceived as a leader. This is part of the leadership brand you are projecting.

154 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: Begin to collect ideas from the class to understand their current ORGANIZATION challenges. You will be able to reference these challenges throughout the course. You may want to leverage these challenges in the assessment centers included in these materials. Actions: Brainstorm challenges, capture on chart paper, and display in classroom. After completion of the brainstorm, reveal slide. Read bullets. Overview and Key Points: Begin to collect ideas from the class to understand their current INDIVIDUAL challenges. You will be able to reference these chal- lenges throughout the course. You may want to leverage these challenges in the assessment centers included in these materials. Actions: Brainstorm challenges, capture on chart paper, and display in class- room. After completion of the brainstorm, reveal slide. Read bullets. Script: Now that we have your list of challenges, here are some that come up over and over. Let’s compare what you said to what the consis- tent responses are. (Read slide) Some additional responses may be: Easy to slip backwards into old comforts and concepts Changing too often so there is no norm Time is finite Individuals who are not utilized to fullest potential Working with different perspectives (Reconcile the responses. If any on slide are different, ask if the class has them, and add them to the chart paper.) Now let’s talk about organization challenges. What are your current challenges in your organizations? (Capture on chart paper)

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 155 Script: Now that we have your list of challenges, here are some that come up over and over. Let’s compare what you said to what the consis- tent responses are. (Read slide) Some additional responses may be: Critical thinking Old vs. new business expectations Business case classification Financial challenges as well as departmental budgeting Position incumbency Barriers in policies Politics, and city structures Staff with limited skill sets that are not adaptable Establish as leaders what is the right role for each individual Multitasking is not effective leadership, but when not able to pro- tect time and give 100 percent to either task or both, quality is being sacrificed. Creativity and critical thinking come from a break in the electronic process. It is our behavior that translates into the reduction of that critical thinking. “Respect,” “integrity,” “trust,” and “excellence” are four words to guide leadership focus. Leadership: There is not an app for that! All relationships can suffer from lack of technology or the overindul- gence of technology. Technology doesn’t fix something; sometimes it hinders tasks and could possibly become ineffective in problematic situations. Execution is not a cut-and-paste strategy. (Reconcile the responses. If any on slide are different, ask if the class has them, then add them to the chart paper.) These are excellent lists. We will refer to them as we work through the materials in this course. We will also come back to them at the end of the course and talk about the skills we have learned to apply to deal with these challenges. Overview and Key Points: Introduce idea of a personal leadership brand. Developing your brand goes beyond building upon your strengths—it identifies your brand as strengths that are actually of value to others. Use the handout as a reference to allow participants some time to think about and draft their brands. Think about what you already are and what you would like to be. What are your strengths and who are the audiences you are trying to serve? Evolve your strengths into the needs of your audiences—how do you want to be known by those you interact with? Are your strengths aligned to the needs of those you want to serve? Reference the 360 feedback report. Assess by environmental scan and self awareness—honesty by those around you, observe if you have followers and are receiving the responses you were expecting; are you creating followers? Actions: Reveal slide. Reference Program Participant Workbook worksheet to develop brand. Script: Each of you has a leadership brand, and as part of your self- awareness you need to identify and manage your personal leader- ship brand. If you are not thoughtful about your brand, you risk having your followers creating one for you. The leadership brand has been studied by Norm Smallwood, who has published many articles, blogs, and videos about creating your brand. Your leadership brand conveys your identity and distinctive- ness as a leader. It also communicates the value you offer. Think about those leaders around you; what leadership brands do you see being displayed? Some expected responses include: Energy Walk the talk Passion Clear communication Driven Hold people to high level of expectation Realistic Acknowledgement of all staff (team) Motivated team Cohesive team High performance whether leader is there or not There are clear steps to help us define our own leadership brand. Think about these questions as you begin to define your own brand:

156 Airport Leadership Development Program What results do you want to achieve in the next year? What do you wish to be known for? How do you define your identity? Use this fill in the blank guide to help: “I want to be known for being _____________________ so I can deliver ________________.” Developing your brand goes beyond building upon your strengths—it identifies your brand as strengths that are actually of value to others. Reference the 360 feedback report. Assess by environmental scan and self awareness—honesty by those around you, observe if you have followers and are receiving the responses you were expecting; are you creating followers? Let’s draft our own personal leadership brand. You have a worksheet in your Program Participant Workbook that will help you draft your brand. We will continue to revisit this as we progress through the course. I encourage you to commit to a brand and revisit it as you progress through your career. Overview and Key Topics: There are many leadership styles and differing opinions about leader- ship styles. For the purposes of this course, we have selected and will refer to the six on the next slide. Reference facilitator guide for definitions. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: This section of our introduction reviews the six leadership styles we will reference for use in this course.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 157 Overview and Key Points: There are many different leadership styles, theories, approaches, attributes, and skills. Each participant has probably read many books, been to other classes, and learned about the 3 Ps, 5 Cs, 4 steps, etc. This course uses the six core leadership styles as a foundation for the discussions and content of the materials. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: We are going to reference these six leadership styles for the pur- poses of the discussions and content of this course. We recognize that there are as many leadership style descriptions as there are leadership definitions. The point of identifying these leadership styles is to be able to talk about how you need to use different styles for different circumstances, and it is dangerous to categorize your- self as one specific type of leader. Typically an individual has a pri- mary leadership style along with multiple backup styles. Over time, your leadership style may grow to use all of the skills associated with each style for differing situations. Directive leadership demands immediate compliance Engaged leadership mobilizes people toward a vision Coaching leadership develops people for the future Democratic leadership builds consensus through participation Affiliative leadership creates emotional bonds and harmony Expert leadership expects excellence and self-direction Great leaders are capable of using a different leadership style for the current state of the environment and the situation in need of leading. Six Core Leadership Styles with Skills Style Directive Skills Driving; marshaling resources and directing energy toward achieving a goal Style Engaged Skills Motivating; identifying and addressing the desires of others Style Coaching Skills Teaching; bringing others along a path of learning a new skill or domain Style Democratic Skills Collaborating; responding to others and building on their con- tributions with your own Style Affiliative Skills Empathizing; understanding the feelings and states of mind of others Style Expert Skills Mastering; turning new knowledge into a domain of expertise We will continue to reference these styles in different circumstances as we continue through our course. It is important for you to remem- ber that there is no better or worse style. What is important is to match your style to the circumstance in order to create the followers you want to have. The worse style is the use of a mismatched style of leadership to the circumstance.

158 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: Introduce idea of leadership as a journey. Every opportunity we have to portray and display leadership is a step in the journey. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: This next section of information begins our discussion of leadership as a journey. Overview and Key Topics: This leadership journey depicts the continuous life cycle of leadership within an organization. This is the fundamental process of leadership that will be repeated over and over with strategic planning, initiatives, new information, changes, goals, and just operations for the organiza- tion. The skills you need to perform these functions are represented in the middle of the graphic.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 159 Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: As we go through the materials in this course, you will find that we keep this big picture in mind as we go into the specific fundamentals that are required for performing each phase. If you can lead using these phases and develop the fundamentals, you will be an excep- tional leader. In the current state of leadership and level of busyness we all have in our organizations, we have fallen into the habit of going from strategic vision to execution without giving our staff the courtesy of taking them through the socialization, commitment, and engagement of ideas. This results in addressing the flavor of the day and in fits and starts of strategic initiatives or changes we are trying to make. We also forget when we have gone through the process of strategic planning or the birthing of an idea, that we have gone through these stages ourselves and yet our expectation for others is to see the vision and begin executing immediately. We are setting our orga- nizations up for failure when we do not follow this journey. We are also establishing a pattern of behavior that is unproductive and dis- engaging for our employees. We simply need to slow down and move through each phase, and in the end we will be able to speed up because everyone will be on the same page, singing the same tune together. This journey is continuous, and you may be at a different phase with an idea, a strategy, or a change and need to lead from a different viewpoint for a different audience all day long. It’s YOUR job to figure that out—not your FOLLOWERS’ job. Use the socialization phase to your advantage in order to test ideas and flesh out objections early. It can help you recognize your trial or testing what-if phase. Someone in a previous class referred to this journey as similar to dating. This journey represents the difference between courting and shotgun wedding. If you move through the journey, you are courting. If you move from vision to execution, it’s a shotgun. It’s also similar to the sales process. As a leader you are also a salesperson. You are selling the organization, strategic priorities, ideas, and changes to your staff all the time. The organization goes through changes over time where old ways of working no longer fit new needs. Your job is to sell the organization that their old ways need to be replaced with new ways of doing things. Leadership hap- pens because the employees don’t recognize the need to replace old ideas as quickly as leadership typically does. They need to be sold on the new ideas. Moving staff through this process gets them through the recognition of need to do things differently and gains momentum for execution. What are your thoughts about this leadership journey? How will you apply it to your situation and current circumstances? (Open-ended questions to solicit understanding from participants. Gauge their understanding by the discussion that occurs. Review key topics to ensure understanding.) How do the results from your 360 help you understand how well you have been performing in this journey? Is there feedback in the report that can help you identify opportunities for growth? Overview and Key Topics: Leadership skills need to change for each passage we take in our leadership path. As we move from one leadership position to the next, it is critical to review what got us there and then figure out what we need to do differently from the new level of authority and span of control. One critical area of development for leaders all over the country is to differentiate the skills needed to lead successfully at each level of leadership we perform. This has not been an area that has been focused on for leadership development in the past. These passages are in reference to the book Leadership Pipeline by Ram Charan, Stephen Drotter, and James Neal. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference the manager’s coaching refer- ence in the Program Participant Workbook.

160 Airport Leadership Development Program Script: Many of us have moved into our current leadership position and have skipped some of the traditional passages we could have taken to get there. This is not a bad thing; however, it is a circumstance that we must acknowledge. Each passage we take broadens our experi- ences and brings different circumstances that require specific leader- ship skills. Skipping passages without self-awareness can cause us to operate as leaders in a level that is inappropriate for the level of authority necessary. Moving into a new role without self-awareness can also cause us to continue to perform as we always have, which is also inappropriate for the new level of authority necessary. The book What Got You Here Won’t Get You There by Marshall Goldsmith is a great reference for these passages and for identifying the need for continuous development of your leadership skills. In your participant materials you will find a coaching guide devel- oped using The Leadership Pipeline as a reference. This coaching guide defines the leadership skills needed for each level of authority and span of control for the leadership levels in an organization. It includes the definition of the role since we know that not every orga- nization uses the same language to represent titles. If the title of the role doesn’t match your organization, use the definition to help you determine which role it matches. It defines the responsibilities, the skills to develop, and the pitfalls or signs of trouble in performance of the role. This tool is meant to help discriminate and differentiate the leader- ship requirements for each position of leadership within the organi- zation to reduce redundant efforts and to keep individuals from being what can be termed “in the weeds.” Take a few minutes to review this guide and then let’s discuss what resonates for you from the materials. (Open the floor for discussion.) Overview and Key Points: Introduce idea of followership. Followership is a key aspect of lead- ership and is often forgotten or misunderstood. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: This section of material begins our discussion of followership.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 161 Overview and Key Points: Review the 10 rules of followership. Followership may be a new concept to some participants even though they have probably been acting as followers. The purpose of the quiz and the 10 rules is to continue the process of self awareness and identify opportunities for change. Followership is also what is known as “managing up,” which is a critical aspect of leadership. Participants should think about their own effectiveness as followers and whether they are creating the environment for their subordinates to be good followers. Actions: Give participants the followership quiz. Display slides, review 10 rules. Script: What is followership? How does followership integrate into leadership? (Allow discussion) Expected responses: Can’t have leaders without followers; we must be good followers to be good leaders; we must make sure we have followers to determine if we are being good leaders. I would like you to take a simple quiz to determine how effective your followership currently is in your relationship with your boss. I am not going to ask you to reveal your results; this is just something for you to think about after you finish this course. Pay attention to the items it asks you to score—these are definitions of being a follower. (Allow time for participants to take quiz.) Without revealing your results, did anything strike you while you were reading these statements? How in tune to your personal fol- lowership have you been? How well have you been leading to allow your followers to demonstrate effective followership to you? (Allow for participant dialogue to discuss questions.) Action: Read and discuss article “10 Rules of Followership.” Script: Take out the article “10 Rules of Followership.” Take a few minutes and read this article so we can discuss. (Allow time for participants to read. Reveal slides.) What thoughts or ideas struck you when you read the article? Which rule of followership do you feel is most important in your current role? Which rule of followership do you feel is most important for your subordinates to follow? Is there a difference? Will that change as dynamics change? What do you need to be doing better? How will you coach those below you to become better followers? (Allow for open discussion.)

162 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Perform a brainstorm activity to keep participants engaged and mon- itor the learning process. Action: Reveal and review slide. Script: We have been talking a lot about self-awareness and leaders. Self- awareness really transitions to better leadership concepts and dis- cipline. Let’s brainstorm a list of the key attributes of a self-managed leader. What does it take? (Capture on chart paper to display in the room for duration of the class.) Possible responses to include: Stand tall during times of challenge and turn them into opportunities. Understand that the job ultimately must get done even if you have to do it yourself. Secure the necessary resources. Be willing to make mistakes while trying rather than ensure failure by doing nothing. Give out before giving up. Keep calm. Stand up for what is right even when it is not popular or it is harder. Understand the road can be demanding, lonely, and frustrating but you are willing to accept the responsibility nonetheless. Stay true to your vision. Inspire leaders of tomorrow. Prepare others to follow and pass the baton to the new generation. Recognize the work and contributions of others first. Energy and stamina to persevere.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 163 Overview and Key Topics: As a commitment to action at completion of the course, participants need to have a personal development road map to reference. In summarizing what has been covered so far, also allow participants to draft a personal development road map to make a commitment to behavior change. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference personal development road map in the Program Participant Workbook. Script: So far we have discussed many aspects of self-management. We talked about the difference between leadership and management, your individual and organizational challenges, your leadership brand, an introduction to the six core leadership styles, the leadership journey, leadership passages, and effective followership. What ques- tions, comments, or ideas do you have about any of the information in this section so far? (Allow for questions and discussion.) Now I would like you to begin your commitment to action by creat- ing your own personal development road map. Use your 360-degree feedback and the information we have reviewed so far to begin drafting your road map. This is not information we will share with each other but an honest assessment of yourself and your personal goals in order to develop your brand. You have a form in your Program Participant Workbook to begin to draft the areas you would like to focus on devel- oping and the behaviors you would like to begin to change. Take a few minutes now to draft your road map. We will continue to finalize the road map throughout the course. (Allow time to complete form.)

164 Airport Leadership Development Program

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 165 Overview and Key Topics: This module represents all of the fundamental skills that are the foun- dation of leadership. These skills may have already been learned by the participants depending on the career path they took to be in the role they are currently performing. It is necessary to review all of the fundamentals to ensure that all the leaders in the class have the same common knowledge and can draw upon these fundamentals for the greater leadership needs. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: We are now beginning the next module of the training that will cover the fundamentals for leadership. There are many fundamental skills that we take for granted that are at the heart of leadership. These skills are learned or developed over time and include communica- tion, conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, develop- ing a business case, and negotiation. Great leaders use these skills every day and understand that through use of these skills there is a great influence on the people who are following. Having a solid foundation in the fundamentals is critical in the ability to expand upon these skills and use them for influencing, building culture, developing relationships, self-awareness, and managing change. Overview and Key Points: Establish the objectives for this section of materials. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Let’s take a look at the objectives for this module of the course. (Read slide.)

166 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Communication is more than just a conversation with another per- son. There are many factors to consider when you are communi- cating that include choice of words, delivery type, and style of the receiver. All of these aspects will be covered in this section. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Developing and fostering good communication skills takes intention, practice, and awareness of others. Communication is not just the words you say but also the tone, body language, method of delivery, and actions that follow. Good communication is the foundation of every organization and the basis of relationships, culture, and leadership. How you communicate is as important as what you communicate. Messages must be thoughtful and appropriate, and the state and style of the receiver must be considered. Exceptional leaders adapt their communication strategies to audiences, messages, and meth- ods for effective delivery of the meaning of the words. Good commu- nication results in desired responses from the audience. Messages are only meaningful when the receiver interprets the information in the way it was intended. Some of the primary purposes of communication are to set expec- tations, clearly articulate vision, build relationships, provide feed- back, apply course correction, and avoid surprises. Understanding your style and the styles of others will allow you to strengthen these areas. Overview and Key Topics: This is a facilitator-demonstrated activity. The purpose of the activ- ity is to demonstrate the difference between the message and the meaning using nonverbal cues. Be sure to practice the delivery of the nonverbal activity so you are comfortable delivering the mean- ing, not just the message.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 167 Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference participant guide for audience to fill in notes as you go through the material. Script: Slide Review and Discussion: 93% of meaning is interpreted from verbal and nonverbal cues in com- munication. Only 7% of meaning is interpreted from the actual words. Communication is more than just the words being said. It is a sum of the words, verbal cues, nonverbal cues, and interpretation of the delivery. The true meaning of a communication lies in the receiver’s interpre- tation of the words spoken. Greater meaning is also received from the follow-on actions. Eye contact Eye contact conveys your confidence in your message as well as your interest with your audience. Make direct eye contact to get clear messages across. Avoid looking over people or down at the floor. This will affect the intended message and reduce the receiv- er’s confidence in its meaning. If you are speaking to a group, avoid looking exclusively at one person—try to capture contact with as many members of the audience as possible. When trying to relay a message directly to key individuals, however, make eye contact with specific people at intended points to emphasize the meaning. Never roll your eyes in response to someone during a communica- tion exchange. Facial animation Your face displays your attitudes and emotions, so be sure your expressions match your content and intent. Use a trusted resource to give you feedback about your facial expressions in different cir- cumstances to increase your awareness of your delivery. Gestures Use gestures to emphasize and reinforce statements. Allow ges- tures to be natural. Be aware that nervous energy may increase and expand gestures that may not be the intention of a message. Excite- ment and enthusiasm may increase frequency and expansiveness of gestures. Match the enthusiasm to the message. Be aware of finger pointing or shaking of the finger as a gesture to avoid. Hands on hips, arms crossed, and other similar gestures make delivery a conflicting message. Stance Relax your stance, stand up straight and confidently, but avoid being rigid. Move in ways that complement the message. Random move- ment and awkward posture conveys nervousness and is distracting. Be aware of where you are holding your hands—keep them loose at your sides and visible in front of you but avoid the “fig leaf” stance where they are wrung or crossed in the front or placed in the pockets. Avoid standing in one place. Props Use props that support the meaning of the message; however, don’t hold a prop if you can’t manage it without it becoming a distraction. Your audience will pay more attention to the prop than your words. Nonverbal communication is the body language that supports the words delivered in communication. It is not just in the moment of delivery but also in the actions that occur after a communication is delivered. It becomes the story behind the story and can verify your words or undermine them. Be aware of and choose your non- verbal actions to enhance your words, in the moment and the days following. Facilitate Nonverbal Communication Demonstration: “I’m Not Mad” Now I am going to demonstrate how the same words can be deliv- ered differently and completely change the meaning. Make some notes about what you really think I am saying each time I deliver the words. This is your interpretation of the meaning of the words. Facilitator Notes: Say the following phrase: “I’m not mad” in 3 different tones, poses, and inflections to have the participants derive the following interpre- tations: you are truly not mad, you are a bit miffed but not damaged, you are seriously mad. The first time it should be said in a happy, normal, level voice, arms at sides or emphasizing a “not mad” delivery, slight smile on the face. The second delivery should be made with hands on hips, a firmer tone with emphasis on word “mad,” and a little louder with a stern face and stiff body. The third delivery should be made with arms crossed in front of the body, an angry look on the face, a loud, firm tone with emphasis on the word “not,” and even a slight stomp of a foot for emphasis. After completing the demonstration of communicating the same words three ways, ask the participants what actions they observed that changed the meaning of the delivery of the words. Possible responses include: • Arms crossed • Hands on hips • Tone of voice • Loudness of voice • Stiffness of body • Sharpness of words • Frown • Smile • Inflection • Emphasis on key words Alternative Approach to Nonverbal Activity Nonverbal Activity: Next, read the following sentences aloud, emphasizing the under- lined words. Ask the participants how the different inflected words change the meaning of the sentence: I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (Someone else told him.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I’m keeping the act a secret.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I only hinted at it.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I told everyone but John.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I said that someone around here was a bad supervisor. John figured out it was you by himself.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I told him you still are a bad supervisor.) I didn’t tell John you were a bad supervisor. (I merely voiced my conviction that you weren’t very bright.) If 93% of the meaning of our words in a communication are derived nonverbally, what is the probability that an e-mail will convey the true meaning of the message we are sending?

168 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: As e-mail and electronic communications have become the norm, we need to challenge the idea of our dependency on their use. Lead- ers should not use electronic communication as a leadership tool. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: We have gotten into the cultural norm using technology as a com- munication tool. A recent survey identified that 40% of the Millennial generation will accept less money for a position if they are allowed access to Facebook on the job. This doesn’t mean it is a good tool for communication in all circumstances. As we just learned, e-mail and texting are very common tools for communications and yet can provide only 7% of the meaning of a message. A good leader will determine when electronic communication is appropriate for the der- ivation of the meaning of a message and choose alternative delivery methods when necessary. If electronic communication is necessary, it is important that the receiver have a relationship with the sender to determine the tone of voice from the individual in the message to assist with interpretation. It is also good practice to follow-up elec- tronic communication with an alternative method to ensure correct interpretation. Overview and Key Topics: Lead participants through the self-style analysis quiz in their work- books. Have them plot their responses to the quiz on the matrix included in their Program Participant Workbook. This will guide them to the self selection of their individual communication style in the next activity.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 169 Actions: Reveal slide. Refer to the Program Participant Workbook for the self- style analysis quiz. Script: Now we are going to get more specific about communications and identify the four different communication styles for our discus- sions in this course. How many of you have been through a Myers- Briggs, HBDI, DiSC, or another form of self-style analysis? (Allow participants to acknowledge.) This quiz is far less scientific and complicated. It’s just a quick way for us to plot where we fall on the communication matrix. The idea is not that you get it right from the quiz but that you identify with a style and become aware of the other styles and how they all interact. It is very possible that you move through each style as you are working with different people since we tend to adjust based on the circumstances. Turn to the pages in your guide that have the self-style analysis. Mark your answers in the quiz and then total your responses on the lines at the end of the sheet. The greater of the two answers will be the number you plot on the matrix to determine your style. Go ahead and complete the quiz now. (Give time for completion.) (If participants are comfortable) Would anyone be willing to share where they identified on the matrix? (Allow responses.) Now let’s go through the descriptions of each style so we can vali- date our quiz. Remember, it’s not important that the quiz is correct; it’s more important to become aware of the four different styles and the interactions between them. Overview and Key Topics: Communication is completed through a collection of behaviors that we exhibit as we work through understanding the meaning of a mes- sage. There are four primary styles, and each will solicit a response from the other that will enhance or complicate the interaction. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: There are four main styles of communications: Relator—focused on harmony and relationships, good listener Socializer—loud, social, entertaining, typically in a group, talkative Analyzer—methodical, step-by-step, detail-focused, accurate, factual Driver—see themselves as correct, direct, may dictate, firm, clear, factual All of us can use any of the four main styles of communications or even blend the styles in different situations. However, we each have a primary type of communication that is our preference. No style is better or worse, stronger or weaker, more professional or less, or more desirable or less desirable in any way. Understanding the dif- ferent styles will help us deliver a more meaningful message to our audiences in our communication efforts. Keep in mind that it is easy to recognize behaviors in others and harder for us to look in the mirror and acknowledge our own behavior or be honest about our behaviors. It’s okay to identify the styles of others, but be sure you are identifying your own personal style as well. This will be a way to continue to address your leadership brand as well as your personal development road map. This also may explain some of the variations you found in your 360-degree feedback report. When you do identify behaviors in others or project the style you believe an individual to be, remember that you are making a judg- ment relative to where you are on the matrix and not based on something neutral. It is impossible for us to remain objective when we are viewing others because there is a direct interaction between the two people. Remember, it is all relative to our own view of ourselves, and the more honest we can be with ourselves, the more objectively we can view others. Okay, let’s review each style individually so we can validate our quiz results. Fill in your worksheet in your participant materials as we go along.

170 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Review the attributes of a relator. Actions: Reveal and read slide. Script: Let’s review the attributes of the relator. Be sure to fill in your work- sheet as we go along so you can reference it as we discuss inter- actions between the styles. (Read slide.) Overview and Key Topics: Review the attributes of a socializer. Actions: Reveal and read slide. Script: Let’s review the attributes of the socializer. Be sure to fill in your worksheet as we go along so you can reference it as we discuss interactions between the styles. (Read slide.)

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 171 Overview and Key Topics: Review the attributes of an analyzer. Actions: Reveal and read slide. Script: Let’s review the attributes of the analyzer. Be sure to fill in your work- sheet as we go along so you can reference it as we discuss inter- actions between the styles. (Read slide.) Overview and Key Topics: Review the attributes of a driver. Actions: Reveal and read slide. Script: Let’s review the attributes of the driver. Be sure to fill in your work- sheet as we go along so you can reference it as we discuss inter- actions between the styles. (Read slide.)

172 Airport Leadership Development Program Now we have completed all four. Go back to the results of your quiz. Do you agree with where it identified your results? When you think of others you work with, how does your style interact with others on your team? Remember, we judge others relative to where we believe we sit in the matrix. As you become more aware of the different styles, keep in mind the motivators and the weaknesses as you are delegating work and delivering praise to individuals on your team. Not everyone will be interested in the same actions. (Open class for discussion.) Overview and Key Topics: There are two types of conflict: Constructive: provides differing points of view to help group achieve a higher understanding and a better outcome Destructive: dysfunctional sharing of differing points of view focused on breaking down ability of others to achieve goals and objectives Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Conflicts develop between team members for many reasons. Con- flict can be an adversarial competition over resources, ideas, or other forms of collateral having real or imagined value to one or more of the parties involved, or it may simply be any situation in which your concerns or desires differ from those of another. It is important to remember that there is not just one way to resolve a conflict. A leaders’ reaction to conflict can, will, and should vary based on the circumstances of the conflict. Conflict management occurs when a leader can use personal awareness, communica- tion techniques, and environmental understanding to mitigate and resolve differences. Managing conflict and disagreements is one of the stressful aspects of leadership. Effectively working through conflict results in stronger working relationships and encourages creative solutions. Avoiding or ignoring conflict can damage relationships and inhibit the expres- sion of valuable opinions. Choosing to allow your followers to man- age conflict when they are not capable will have the same results as avoiding or ignoring the behavior.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 173 Overview and Key Topics: Personal Differences Arise from different motivations, needs, beliefs, values, perceptions, interpretations, and expectations Diverse points of view Lack of unified culture around a common purpose Information Different sources of information provided or different inter- pretations of the same information acted upon Different Objectives Individuals and groups can have different or incompatible purposes, goals, and objectives Conflicting and contradictory priorities Lack of clear direction Environmental Factors Competition for organizational resources, economic impacts on environment Attempt to break cultural norms in order to make the orga- nization better Actions: Solicit group discussion, then reveal and review slide Script: Why does conflict occur in your organization? (Allow participants to respond.) When we reduce conflict down to the source and get past the noise and symptoms, we typically find it has occurred because of one of four reasons. (Reveal and read slide.) Personal differences, perspectives, points of view, and conditioned behaviors can create conflict with others. What are the sources of conflict in personal differences? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses: attitudes, values, beliefs, religious/political affiliations, work ethics, priorities, work/life balance issues.) Information is another source of conflict. What do I mean by informa- tion? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses: information is not communicated the same way or as timely from one source to another, can be interpreted differently—refer to words vs. meaning from communication section.) Different objectives can also be a source of conflict. Different objec- tives can be that individuals and groups can have different or incom- patible purposes, goals, and objectives; conflicting and contradictory priorities; lack of clear direction in one area affects another. What else might be a different objective? How about getting things right or doing things fast? Definitely an opportunity for conflict. Finally, environmental factors can become a source for conflict. Competition for organizational resources, economic impacts on environment, and attempts to break cultural norms in order to make the organization better can create stress, which can result in conflict. These sources of conflict are difficult to diagnose since they are typically masked by behaviors that demonstrate there is a problem but don’t really help to identify the source of the problem. What are some behaviors you can observe that help you determine there might be conflict occurring? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include people not talking to one another, negative conver- sations about individuals or departments, avoidance, competition.) These are great examples of conflict behaviors. As leaders it is our job to remember that conflict behaviors simply identify that a conflict is occurring. They are typically symptoms of the sources of conflict, which is usually one of these four. It is our job as leaders to help get to the root of the problem and solve it at its source and not just address the symptoms. Let’s talk more about conflict resolution.

174 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Conflict is identified through behaviors and resolved by getting to the source. Reference the communication styles throughout this section to build on the previous knowledge. Actions: Reveal and review slide Script: Building on the communication matrix we previously discussed, let’s take a deeper look in using this knowledge to apply to conflict resolu- tion. There are four main styles of conflict resolution. Competing—take quick action, make unpopular decisions, stand up to vital issues, protect self Accommodating—show reasonableness, create goodwill, keep peace, maintain perspective Avoiding—leave unpleasant issues alone, reduce tensions, buy time, know your limitations Collaborating—integrate solutions, learn, merge perspectives, gain commitment, improve relationships The overuse of any of these styles may turn to unresolved or un- desirable conflict resolution as well. Conflict resolutions styles and overuse behaviors: Competing—lack of feedback, reduced learning, low empower- ment, create environment of “yes” people Accommodating—overlooked ideas, restricted influence, loss of contribution Avoiding—lack of input from top, decisions made by default, fester- ing issues, climate of caution Collaborating—too much time on trivial matters, diffused responsi- bility, focus on wrong solution You may need to use a different style for different circumstances as you are dealing with people. Remember people will come from any quadrant on the style matrix and are going to be motivated by different factors. Keep these tips in mind for when you should use each style: Collaborating: The concerns are too important to be compromised The objective is to learn Gain commitment Work through hard feelings impacting a relationship. Competing Emergencies, when quick and decisive action is vital When being right makes a real difference To protect yourself from opportunists. Accommodating You know you are wrong The outcome is more important to the other person than to you You are outmatched and you are losing Harmony is more important than disruption. Avoiding Trivial issues of passing importance No chance of satisfying your concerns When the cure is worse than the disease When you need more information When you are not dealing with the real issue. There are many formulas for conflict resolution but the real heart of resolution is identifying the right problem to solve. You must focus on getting to the root of the issue—the source of the conflict. This takes having solid relationships built before conflict arises or very astute ability to listen and respond to the individuals in the conflict. Be mindful if you are not receiving the response you were looking for, change YOUR approach. Remain objective and if you can’t be objective, remove yourself from the situation and get someone to assist in the resolution. Let’s talk more about the process of conflict resolution.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 175 Overview and Key Topics: Resolution techniques build on the previous content and continue to provide ability to manage conflict. Action: Reveal and review slide. Script: Once you have styles and symptoms identified, you must use tech- niques to get to resolution. On this slide you see the basic list of mediation techniques used in most conflict resolution programs. The most important technique is to listen. Listen and ask probing ques- tions to get to the source of the conflict. After asking a question, listen to the response and continue to probe until you have reduced all symptoms to the source. Depending on how long a conflict has festered and how big the conflict has become, you may need to peel back many layers through this listen/ask/listen process before you can get to the root of the problem. This also becomes therapeutic for the person involved in the conflict, so it is time well invested. It can also help in removing the personal elements and getting to the facts. When you listen, be sure to interpret and clarify tone for the meaning of the words the individual is using. Many times conflict begins with emotional, inflammatory statements that can be wrongly interpreted by the receiver. Again, we saw this demonstrated in the communica- tions section. Listen attentively to all parties and pay close attention to the method of delivery as well as the actual words used since this will inform you more clearly of the intent as well as the information. Take the focus away from who is right and who is wrong. Negotia- tions and compromise can only be achieved when both parties feel that they are being respected and that blame is not laid on either side. Remove the personal from the professional. Conflict can often result in personal emotions taking over where professionalism should be. Being able to make the conflict about the work and not the person is vital. Focus on the facts and keep clarifying statements to reduce the personal. This may mean you need to rephrase what the person is saying to make it professional so we are back to listening so you can interpret correctly! Deal with one thing at a time. Conflict is very difficult to work through and can be exhausting, so deal with one issue at a time and take breaks when required, particularly if you see that no progress is being made. Accept, forgive, and move on. There are times when letting go may be required. Accept that some situations are beyond your control and that you may be required to forgive and move on. Not having this ability can result in long and tiresome negotiations that may not lead to a resolution. This may be you or this may be the parties involved in the conflict. At the end of the mediated session, be sure to remind all of the participants what was agreed upon and that everyone needs to accept, forgive, and move on. It is not fair for conflict to be car- ried as a grudge or as baggage into a relationship moving forward. Everyone involved must commit to this clean slate. It’s in everyone’s best interest. If you can’t get to this point, you have not identified the real source of the conflict and you must begin again. There is extensive information on dealing with conflict in the work- place and how to achieve your aims. It is vital to ensure that the conflict is dealt with in order that it doesn’t escalate further. Having a good understanding of the conflict resolution procedures and meth- ods used will help to ensure that you remain in control and that a resolution is achieved that is mutually beneficial for both parties and where respect and teamwork can be maintained.

176 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Building on the previous discussions, unresolved conflict can turn into extreme behaviors. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: What we tolerate we validate! When conflict remains unresolved, either because the resolution was focused on symptoms or because it hasn’t been addressed, it can escalate into some extreme behav- iors that become embedded and will affect the organizational culture. What are other symptoms you have observed from unresolved conflicts? (Allow participants to respond.) Possible responses include: • Team places blame on others within the department or outside the department • Pouting • Silence or raised voices • Noncontributions • Small group cliques within department—whispering, secrets • One person constantly picked on or left behind • Isolation of self or by others (Review each of the symptoms and discuss the best response below—encourage discussion by participants to contribute ideas through specific experiences.) Anger/Intimidation Best response: Let employee vent. Paraphrase feelings. Do not back down from handling the matter. Tears/Emotional Despair Best response: Be respectful and assume that the response is genuine. Complaining/Blaming Best response: Name their behavior specifically. Silent Treatment Best response: Ask open-ended questions or ask them to comment. Stubborn/Not Willing to Resolve Best response: Do not abandon situation. Make expectations clear, close meeting, and reschedule. Conflict management and conflict resolution are fundamental in our leadership skills. We will discuss these ideas further in relationship building and developing culture. Communication and conflict are critical fundamentals that will show up again and again in our dis- cussions. They are powerful and within our control if we are aware of ourselves and others. Conflicts are best addressed quickly and diagnosed to the root of the problem. Take a few minutes and think about your conflict style and your motivation style based on the style matrix and think about what areas you may need to develop to be better at conflict resolu- tion. Look back at the challenges we brainstormed and think about the results of your 360-degree feedback report. Are there scores or comments that may lead you to believe you need to work on some of these areas? Does the application of some of this knowledge match the opportunities you see for yourself to change? Take a few minutes to reflect and update your leadership brand and your road map.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 177 Overview and Key Topics: Perform an assessment center. Use the materials in the facilitator guide to give groups an assessment to gauge learning so far in the course. Scenarios: You have just finished a 3-month redesign of the organization. Just as you are ready to announce it to the staff, some uncharacteristic and unethical information is shared with you about one of the leaders you were going to promote. What do you do? You have two colleagues who do not get along and work hard in order to avoid each other and even ensure they do not provide assis- tance to each other’s areas. This is becoming a barrier to everyone in the organization because these two do not get along. What do you do? You hired someone you thought was going to be a stellar employee and now you find the employee does not get along well with others. It is beyond the probationary period. What do you do? You have had a great relationship with your board until the recent change in board chair. You are struggling to build a rapport with your new chair, and it seems the chair catches you off guard every time you talk. What do you do? An individual in your team is a direct communicator and can be per- ceived as dominating others on the team. You consistently see this individual take over ideas and stop others from contributing. It is beginning to affect morale. What do you do? One of your peers shares information with others that may be pre- mature or incomplete. It typically results in drama or chaos being cre- ated and work being interrupted. This is consistent behavior. What do you do? Actions: Form groups with participants, 3-4 per group is a good number. Hand out assessment scenarios to each group. Provide directions. Script: Let’s break into groups to work through a communication issue or conflict that needs resolution using all of the skills and knowledge we have learned so far. Each group will receive a scenario that might be typical of your environment. It is your job to discuss the way you would approach resolving the issue and how to present it to the rest of your class. Use your worksheets in your Program Participant Workbook to capture your discussion. Once you are finished, you will need a spokesperson to deliver the highlights to the class. (Break into groups; allow time to work.) Okay, now that your discussions are complete, let’s hear the results. Each group will tell us the scenario, the high points of the discus- sion, and the resolution. The rest of you in the class, be prepared to provide feedback for alternatives to consider as well as whether you believe it would really work. Who would like to go first? (Allow each team to present; when each team is complete, ask for class to provide feedback.) Well done! Note: while presentations are being delivered, pay attention to any trends in missing or misunderstood information and refer back to that content for review.

178 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Critical thinking is the ability to analyze issues in a clear, consistent, and objective manner. Critical thinking is a foundation for negotia- tion and decision making. It is a fundamental skill for a leader. The key to analyzing issues is the process you use to examine facts, obtain information, and expand your thinking beyond your nor- mal assumptions, experiences, and beliefs. Successful analytical thinking involves developing the ability to separate emotions, pre- conceived beliefs, assumptions, and personal bias from the issue at hand to probe for answers beyond the obvious and to tactfully involve colleagues, direct reports, and key stakeholders in evaluat- ing and resolving issues. Actions: Reveal slide. Refer to critical thinking assessment in the Program Participant Workbook. Script: We are now moving our discussion to a skill we hear needs to be developed or is missing in employees. It is also a skill that has multi- ple definitions depending on the individual. The good news is that it can be taught and practiced in order to get better at it. The greatest challenge is taking the time to slow down and do it. Let’s talk about critical thinking. What is it? Why is it important? How do you do it? (Open for participant responses.) How good at it are you? There is a quiz in your participant materials. Please turn to it and take the quiz. It’s fairly simple and should only take a minute or two. This quiz represents many of the steps and keys to critical thinking. This would be a great tool to discuss with your staff or others who continue to need to develop critical think- ing skills. Again, the quiz isn’t really about how well you do; it’s to develop an awareness of the capabilities associated with critical thinking and to get you to think about incorporating them into your regular day-to-day processes. That is how you will become better at critical thinking. It’s referred to as mindful practice. Practice makes perfect, right? (Allow participants to take quiz.) What did you take away from the content of the quiz? (Allow participants to discuss.) So, back to our initial questions. What it is, why is it important, and how do you do it? What: Critical thinking is the process or method of thinking that ques- tions assumptions. Why: It is important because we typically think with our own biases and assumptions, which may lead us to make the wrong decision, diagnose a situation incorrectly, or project our own beliefs on others, creating conflict. How: You do it by focusing on being more objective, using viewpoints different from yours, and gathering data and information to analyze. Being able to think critically is a fundamental skill of a leader and a critical skill to be performing as a role model for others.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 179 Overview and Key Topics: This slide contains activities to practice in order to become a better critical thinker. Try to map these concepts back to conflict resolution because there are many similarities. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: On this slide are key actions for critical thinking. These are not nec- essarily steps to follow, but they are things to consider as you work to add critical thinking as a leadership skill in your toolbox. If you begin to incorporate these behaviors into the way you approach initiatives, problems, decisions, and conflict, you will be strengthening your abil- ity to think critically. Let’s look at each one. Break down problems into manageable parts Focus on the most critical information you need in order to under- stand problems or situations Look beyond symptoms to identify causes of problems Identify and test assumptions Become more open to ideas and perspectives Analyze issues from different points of view Apply accurate logic in solving problems Recognize the broad implications of issues Integrate information from a variety of sources to arrive at optimal solutions Define reasonable alternatives to resolve problems or make decisions Model this behavior by doing this within your team, with your staff, or in specific meetings to teach others to think critically. This is a skill that is often sought after, yet we don’t allow time to practice within our organizations. Each one of us needs to set time aside for thinking criti- cally about problems, issues, and strategies and model the behavior with others to increase use, gain exposure, and increase confidence in the results. Use the language in this slide as you work through issues or problems. Include these bullets on agendas for meetings to focus discussions on testing assumptions or identifying multiple per- spectives. These are some of the ways to incorporate critical thinking into daily operations. What are some other ways you can think of? (Allow participants to discuss.) Let’s now take a look an another important and related skill, decision making.

180 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: In the continuation of building topics, decision making builds on com- munication styles, conflict techniques, and critical thinking in order to get to making a decision. Review the types of decisions, approaches for decisions, and roles for decision making. Be prepared to address open dialogue about how decisions are made and how to apply all of the content so far to help the organization make better decisions. Most times, identifying the key people in the process and the right issue to make the decision are the key points to apply and do better. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Critical thinking and decision making go hand and hand. When you use critical thinking techniques, often the decision needed appears through the process. Identifying decision-making criteria and then using critical thinking will move you quickly through the decision process. Making good decisions takes an investment of time to collect data and include the right people in the process. Too often decisions are made quickly without the necessary perspectives or a logical approach, or decision making takes too long and too many opinions are included in the process, which complicates the solutions. Differ- ent situations require different types of decision-making processes. As a leader, it is your responsibility to use the right decision-making process for the type of decision required. Types of Decisions Strategic, risk-based, complex, or long-term Simple, short-term, tactical Approaches for Decision Making Tactical: You make the decision. In this case, you are taking the initiative and responsibility for the decision. This level is used when directing new employees or in situations where corrective actions or decisions have to be made immediately. You delegate the responsibility for making the decision to the employee who should own the decision. There are one or few solutions for the decision. Strategic: You ask for input from stakeholders, and then you make a decision on what to do in a particular situation. You weigh cost, benefit, and likelihood in making the decision. There are many possible solutions to the decision process. Roles in Decision Making Owner Owns the responsibility and accountability for the decision, provides corrective action, gets key people involved in the process as needed, or makes decision themselves. Sponsor Supports the owner by providing guidance, being a sounding board, providing historical lessons, removing barriers, or influencing others. Endorses decisions, keeps progress in line with strategy, and pro- vides course correction if necessary. Stakeholder Has influence or is affected by the results of the decision. How are decisions made in your organizations? (Allow participants to discuss.) How can you apply some of this knowledge to affect the decision- making styles in your organization? (Allow participants to discuss.) Next we will dig deeper into criteria we can use to help us make risk- based decisions.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 181 Overview and Key Topics: Pull all of the information about critical thinking and decision mak- ing together and focus on the key activities to incorporate into daily activities to change focus of behaviors. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Let’s review some of the behaviors and activities we can incorporate into our daily schedules in order to build our ability to be better role models and decision makers for our organization. Start with lessons learned from past practices. What were similar situations and results from previous decisions? Clarify the actual decision to be made; set clear goals for decisions; determine time frame for decision to be made. Determine criteria for decision making (risk or opportunity, likelihood, impact); eliminate possibilities by setting standards and criteria; what items are non-negotiable? Identify stakeholders—anyone with influence or who will be affected by the decision Gain perspectives from stakeholders and experts for possible solu- tions; seek inspiration, innovation, and creative ideas; be aware of biases. Brainstorm scenarios resulting from possible solutions. Quantify the cost/benefit of the solutions. Make a timely decision; not too fast, not too slow. Execute. Monitor progress; adjust as necessary; debrief the process for les- sons learned. How are these activities similar to our critical thinking behaviors? (Allow participants to respond.) As we return to our responsibilities in our organizations, it will not be important that you are keeping track of incorporating a critical think- ing activity vs. a decision-making activity into your daily routines; it is just important that you incorporate newly learned behaviors for either or both! You do not need to keep track; you just need to be different!

182 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: This table is a sample of a tool they can use when actually going through the decision-making process. It can be customized to the organization or the circumstances for the decision. It can also be used in conjunction with other tools. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference the Program Participant Work- book where the tool resides. Script: This is a sample of a tool you can use when going through the decision-making process. You can customize this tool for your orga- nization or for the circumstances surrounding the decision. You can also use this in conjunction with other tools. Look in your Program Participant Workbook for this tool as well as a sample of another version. You can use one or both. Overview and Key Topics: Building a business case may be the next step after resolving a conflict, critically thinking, and making a decision. Continue to build on these concepts as you begin the discussion of business cases.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 183 Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Along with critical thinking, conflict resolution, and decision making, the ability to build a business case is a critical skill for a leader. When you think about the leadership journey, you will need your business case to be able to socialize an idea to a specific audience. It is the structure for the due diligence to work toward a solution using cost/ benefit analysis (risk-based decision-making criteria), anticipating objections (conflict resolution), and critical thinking (testing assump- tions). The business case brings it all together in a more formal, thoughtful deliverable to present to different audiences to gain com- mitment and engagement. Overview and Key Topics: This slide reviews the reasons, roles, goals and outline of a busi- ness case. Actions Reveal and review slide. Script: The most obvious reason for putting together a business case is to justify the resources and capital investment necessary to bring a change project to fruition. However, this implies that the business case is simply a financial document. While all business cases should include financial justification, this should not be the only purpose of the document. The business case is the one place where all relevant facts are docu- mented and linked together into a cohesive story. This story tells people about the what, when, where, how, and why. • Why is the project needed (issues and opportunities)? • How will the effort solve the issues or opportunities facing the organization? • What is the recommended solution(s)? • How does the solution address the issues or opportunities (benefits)? • What will happen to the business if the business case develop- ment effort is not undertaken (the do-nothing scenario)? • When will the solutions be deployed? • How much money and time, and how many people, will be needed to deliver the solution and realize the benefits? What are the three roles of a business case? The writing of the business case forces the team to sit back and reflect on all of the work they have completed. It is far too easy for the team to continue to plug away toward the end result and fail to docu- ment the work they’ve already accomplished. This is especially true during the concept and design stages of any project. Therefore, the business case serves as a wake-up call to the team, causing them to capture the knowledge they’ve developed about how the business will function both with and without the final solution. The second role of the business case is to verify that the solution substantiates or meets the needs of the business and is the vehicle for receiving funding and approval to move forward. It provides a vehicle for the team to step back and review their facts and assump- tions. In addition, it is vital that the team document what would hap- pen to the business if the project were not undertaken. This base case or do-nothing scenario is the foundation upon which all benefits from the effort are derived. By documenting everything together in one story, it is easy to link the issues to the solution and the benefits and identify where the business would be without the project. The development of the overall business case simplifies the development of the financial justification and will usually identify holes or problems with the solution. Moreover, you now have a way to measure your success. This analysis also is useful for your leadership team to prioritize this project against the many other initiatives in the business that may require capital investment. The final important role that the business case plays is to provide a consistent message to many different audiences. It is a high-level view of the entire project and enables all parties affected by the effort

184 Airport Leadership Development Program (such as customers, management, operations, research and devel- opment, service, sales, accounting, finance) to be knowledgeable about the project. Who should write the business case? The business case should be viewed as a story—your team’s story. Therefore, everyone on the team should contribute to its develop- ment. This does not mean that everyone will write a section of the business case. In fact, only one or two people should actually write the final document. However, all of the information used in the busi- ness case should come from team members themselves. The business case writers should be team members who have an overall understanding of the entire project and can synthesize the multiple and varied plans into one document. Keeping the actual writers of the case to a minimum ensures a consistent style through- out the document. When should the business case be written? A project life cycle typically provides some break points where a business case can be completed. The figure in the previous slide shows the steps leading up to the writing of the business case (see design phase). Overall goals While one of your primary goals may be to get funding, your chances of success will be greater if you keep the following goals in mind as well: Make it interesting; remember someone will have to read it. Keep it clear and concise. Minimize jargon and conjecture. Communicate all facts as part of the overall story—you’ve done your homework; here is the chance to prove it. Provide the reader with a picture or vision of the end state. Demonstrate the value the project brings to the organization, cus- tomer, and financial bottom line of the company. When your team is done, you should throw a business case party. The entire team should feel a wonderful sense of accomplishment. After all, the business case contains a complete record of the great work the team has completed and demonstrates the value of the work yet to be done. The benefits obtained by your team by writing the business case are many, but at a minimum they will have gained: Organization of thoughts, activities, and knowledge An objective review of the ideas and facts of the project. The ability to identify holes, inconsistencies, or weaknesses in the effort. An improved ability to communicate the purpose of the project. Financial justification for their effort. A great sense of accomplishment. Let’s work on pulling together all of our skills and knowledge to this point and practice a real-life application for building a business case! Overview and Key Topics: Perform the assessment center. Use the materials in the facilitator guide to give groups an assessment to gauge learning so far in the course. Business Case Scenarios: The operations team wants to change the rotating schedule to cover 24 hours a day 7 days a week all year from using a seniority choice to a more evenly distributed scheduling. Write the business case to justify the change. The staff want the airport to purchase laptops and mobile devices for receiving e-mail and staying connected while being mobile. The airport employees are in three different facilities on airport property. Write the business case to justify the request.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 185 The younger generation in the workforce would like IT to install chat technology so that they can ask questions of their colleagues in an instant messaging format. The airport’s current system has the capability, but it needs to be turned on and maintained. Write the business case to justify the use. The marketing department wants to buy a new copier to create mar- keting material, board presentations, and public relations communi- cations in-house rather than sending them out. Write the business case to justify the purchase. The IT department would like to institute a project management office (PMO) to implement consistent language, processes, and manage- ment of the airport’s project load. The PMO would require a new head count. Write the business case to justify the creation of the office. Actions: Form groups with participants; 3-4 per group is a good number. Hand out assessment scenarios to each group. Provide directions. Script: Let’s break into groups to develop our own business cases using all of the skills and knowledge we have learned so far. Each of your groups will receive a scenario that might be typical of your environ- ment. It is your job to write the business case to present to the rest of your class and receive feedback to determine if you made a com- pelling case for moving forward with your idea. Use your worksheets in your Program Participant Workbook to capture your plan. Once you are finished, you will need a spokesperson to deliver the plan to the class. (Break into groups. Allow time to work.) Okay, now that your plans are complete, let’s hear the results. Each of you will deliver the plan as if you were presenting it to stakeholders for buy-in. The rest of you in the class, be prepared to provide feed- back for alternatives to consider as well as whether you would buy in to the plan. Who would like to go first? (Allow each team to present. When each team is complete, ask for class to provide feedback.) Well done! Note: while presentations are being delivered, pay attention to any trends in missing or misunderstood information and refer back to that content for review. Overview and Key Topics: A negotiation strategy is one in which each party attempts to reach agreement with other parties while relinquishing as little as possible of what is important. Negotiated settlements are most effective when the following condi- tions exist: Both parties believe they will benefit from the outcome. There is a belief that the other party will live up to agreed terms. Neither party possesses or wishes to use power to force a solution. At least one party is willing to initiate the process with a proposal. There is proper authority to negotiate by each party. It is accepted that getting all one wants is not probable; general sat- isfaction in coming out with the best that was possible. Sufficient information is available to each party before, during, and after the negotiation process. Both parties are open and receptive to innovative alternatives. Win-lose strategy is a struggle for dominance. It may be a fast or expedient way of coping with conflict, but the conflict will manifest itself in another way. The danger in this strategy is its long-term effects: Lower levels of trust. Increased defensive or counter-aggressive behaviors. Decreased quality of long-term relationships. Decreased levels of commitment to the other party or to the organization. Win-win behaviors include: Constructive assertiveness by each party. Active listening skills and effective questioning techniques.

186 Airport Leadership Development Program High level of commitment and persistence in seeking positive out- comes for each party involved. Being receptive to exploring underlying concerns and issues. Tips for successfully negotiating a win-win outcome Begin by mentally preparing for a new paradigm (thinking outside the box). Create a collaborative atmosphere (location, timing, welcoming). Focus on needs, not positions. Use questions to probe for better understanding of values, beliefs, assumptions. No personal attacks (attack the problem, not the person). Avoid emotional responses, even if insulted. Throughout, help all participants save face. Use active listening and paraphrase in order to confirm understanding. Focus energy on gaining consensus on high-priority needs. If stalled, return to fundamental points where there is common ground and agreement. Identify, explore, and clarify the range of options. Take time in pre-planning to anticipate a full array of potential out- comes and consequences. Discuss how options can be creatively refined to meet priorities and needs. Consider interim options (or postponement) if undesirable outcome is likely or key information is missing. Summarize what was agreed upon and next steps. Thank the other person/party. Common mistakes in negotiating Weak knowledge of other party’s key motivation. Inadequate exploration of alternatives. Failure to fully acknowledge concerns of others. Impatience or poor timing. Allowing emotions to escalate. Negotiating with someone not empowered to decide. Ineffective attempt to close the deal. Use Office Politics to Your Advantage No matter what your company, you’ve probably encountered orga- nizational politics. One of the most frequent complaints that I hear from managers is how difficult it is to get things done in the face of conflicting agendas, misaligned priorities, pursuit of personal goals, and unresolved issues—all often lumped under the umbrella of “poli- tics.” Recently, for example, a health care manager told me about a proposal she had made that had the potential to generate millions in new revenue and provide a critical service to customers but was shot down because other groups were lobbying for the status quo. “It’s a shame that politics got in the way of doing something that made so much sense,” she said. But is it really possible to put politics aside? Is there an organiza- tion in which everyone’s personal interests are perfectly aligned with functional, business unit, and corporate interests? Put simply, politics aren’t going away any time soon. In fact, instead of complaining about politics and fantasizing that they will magically disappear, perhaps instead we should learn how to embrace them and manage them more effectively, for two reasons: First, the emergence of politics can be a warning flag for your project—a sign that your stakeholders have concerns about moving forward. The last thing you should want as a manager is for these concerns to go underground and surprise you later. The second reason is that politics stimulate public debate. We’re all familiar with candidate forums during election season. If you put aside the theater and posturing, the debate is an effec- tive way of educating the electorate and moving toward a public consensus. Creating this kind of transparency is critical for demo- cratic societies (even if it doesn’t work perfectly), and it’s the same for organizations. Without robust debate, leadership teams can easily become rubber-stamp forums for the most powerful peo- ple, which can cause organizations to go down paths without full consideration of the consequences. A classic example was the Time-Warner merger with AOL that was decided by the two CEOs (Jerry Levin and Steve Case) without the usual internal debates. The absence of politics sped up the decision, but certainly not for the better. Even if you can embrace politics, managing them is not an easy process. Here are three guidelines that might get you started: Draw a political map. Whenever you want to make some sort of change, create a map of the different stakeholders and then analyze them from a political perspective. Who do you think will be affected by the change, positively or negatively? Who needs to be involved in the decision? Who might influence the decision? Who will be your strong supporters and who will resist? Hold a debate. Engage the different stakeholders in dialogue, not only with you but with each other. Organize a meeting to discuss what you’re trying to do, or invite people with different views to lunch. Do whatever is necessary to make the conflicting views more transparent. Come to a compromise. Once you’ve mapped the political terrain and opened up the dialogue, create a targeted plan for building align- ment. Talk to people who would object and figure out ways to modify your proposal so that you respond to their concerns. Talk to people who are strongly in your camp and ask them to proactively influence others who may be less enthusiastic. The key here is to remember that politics is the art of the possible, not the perfect. You may not be able to get full alignment and support for your original proposal, but if you engage with the stakeholders on the map you’ve created, you may be able to shape enough buy-in to move forward with the most essential parts. And if these initial steps achieve results, you may be able to align these same stakeholders around more ambi- tious change. It’s easy to use “politics” as an excuse for a lack of achievement or an outlet for your frustration. But it may be a lot more effective to use it as a way to get things done. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: We are now going to build on all of our other concepts with one final big one, negotiation. How many of you have been involved in a nego- tiation of some sort in your current or a previous role? (Encourage participants to raise hands.) What were the situations for those negotiations? (Allow participants to respond.) Along with conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, and building a business case, the ability to negotiate is a fundamental skill of any leader. Negotiations occur commonly in your daily opera- tions in small ways as well as in big ways in the responsibilities that you carry. What are some of the negotiation techniques that you have used successfully or not so successfully in your experiences? (Allow par- ticipants to discuss. Use items from the list above as reference.) We heard some of these small and big situations in your responses; let’s talk in greater detail about how and when we negotiate in our environments.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 187 Overview and Key Topics: The discussion of negotiation is built on all of the previous topics and has similarities to them all. Although we address it separately here, it is important that participants link all of these skills together because they will not apply them individually but will blend them in all situations. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Many of you are currently using successful negotiation techniques, and you will probably find the information on this slide is very similar to the other concepts we have addressed so far. It is really important that you link together all of the behaviors and actions across these concepts—conflict resolution, critical thinking, decision making, and building a business case—because it is not always clearly a “critical thinking” situation that you will need to lead through or a “conflict res- olution” issue that you can pull out your checklist to address. Leader- ship is having all of this knowledge at your fingertips and applying actions and behaviors in a confident, predictable, and practiced way to get the responses you want from your followers. Now, negotiation techniques—these look like a blend of conflict reso- lution, decision making, and critical thinking. (Review slide.) Let’s discuss these in greater detail. Begin by mentally preparing for a new paradigm (thinking out of the box). Create a collaborative atmosphere (location, timing, welcoming). Focus on needs, not positions. Use questions to probe for better understanding of values, beliefs, assumptions. No personal attacks (attack the problem, not the person). Avoid emotional responses, even if insulted. Throughout, help all participants save face. Use active listening and paraphrase in order to confirm understanding. Focus energy on gaining consensus on high-priority needs. If stalled, return to fundamental points where there is common ground and agreement. Identify, explore, and clarify the range of options. Take time in pre-planning to anticipate a full array of potential out- comes and consequences. Discuss how options can be creatively refined to meet priorities and needs. Consider interim options (or postponement) if undesirable outcome is likely or key information is missing. Summarize what was agreed upon and next steps. Thank the other person/party. There are some specific areas where your organization performs major negotiation practices. We believe these are worth discussing as well. Let’s take a look at these areas. Many of you have already suggested these.

188 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Review these and any additional ideas that came from previous dis- cussions. Skip any of these negotiation situations that may not be appropriate, or apply them directly to the level of your participants. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: These are some areas for major negotiations typical in our environ- ments. Let’s talk about how you are currently performing the tech- niques in each of these areas. Who would like to talk about how you are using negotiation tech- niques in collective bargaining? How successful are you? What opportunities for improvement might you have? How about with board members? Airline contracts? TSA? Others? (Allow participants to share success stories and opportunities to improve. Build on previous discussions and other course content as you manage the discussions.) Overview and Key Topics: Perform the assessment center. Use the materials in the facilitator guide to give groups an assessment to gauge learning so far in the course. Negotiation Scenarios: Labor Relations You are an operations director who was recently promoted into this position. You are responsible for the labor relation negotiations that

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 189 begin in one month. It is the organization’s position that contract negotiations will not result in benefits for represented employees that would be an overall greater benefit than non-represented employ- ees. The union representative that will be part of the negotiations was your peer prior to your promotion and also applied and inter- viewed for the position you currently hold. When he did not receive the promotion he filed a grievance with the union for unfair practices. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What is the anticipated perspective of the bargaining unit, and what is management’s perspective during the negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? Role play both sides of the negotiation process. Airline Contract Your current air service contract has been in place for 15 years. The trend in contracts is to negotiate for a 5-year commitment, which can provide some flexibility. Airlines are feeling the constraints of the tight economy and the reduction in traveling public and see a benefit in a shorter contract term. However, airports are feeling uncertainty regarding grant money and PFCs and are trying to find new innova- tive ways to generate revenues that can support capital development. The current contract includes provisions for majority in interest approval by air carriers for capital projects; this has been in some instances limiting, although air carriers have recently been some- what more amenable to not disapprove of the use of PFCs for proj- ects so that the cost will not be allocated to their rate base. The current issues most likely to be negotiated include air carriers’ desire to have some share of revenue generated by airline-related activities, including parking and concessions. The air carriers do not want the burden of constructing or maintaining baggage systems or technology that is not air-carrier-specific. The air carriers also want to look for means to reduce their customer service expenses. The airport wants to have more flexibility with the projects it prioritizes and does not want to get airline approval. The airport wants to assign unused space at its discretion and wants the air carriers to pay for common-use equipment and capital and operating expenses for baggage systems. The airport would like to update its facilities, and the air carriers are comfortable with existing accommodations. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? Role play both sides of the negotiation process. Employee Performance An employee who reports to you has shown a considerable decrease in performance over the past 6 months and has a poor attitude toward the completion of work. The employee seems to be busy and yet there are no scheduled appointments on the employee’s calendar and few results or accomplishments to his credit. You inherited this employee from a reorganization 18 months ago. He is a long-term employee with the organization and seems to have been passed from manager to manager over the course of his tenure. You pull all of his previous performance reviews and find that all reports have a satis- factory rating for performance overall; however, each one shows the same recommendations for improvement that you can make. Each of the overall ratings has shown decreasing results over the past 5 years even though they are still within the satisfactory range. The employee thinks he is well qualified for the work performed and is well liked throughout the organization. He feels he is performing fine since he continues to receive satisfactory ratings. You decide to have a performance conversation with the employee that will result in a performance plan. You can expect the employee will negotiate the plan. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? Role play both sides of the negotiation process. Board Relations You are the CEO of a small hub airport with a city-appointed board. Three months prior, the new appointments of the board and board chair were made. At the last board meeting the board chair announced that he has taken a look at the budget and that the air- port needs to reduce expenses by 20%. This news took you by sur- prise in the meeting. He is asking for you to put together a proposal that will be discussed and negotiated in the next board meeting. The board is pushing to cut the capital funded projects that are slated to develop new opportunities to generate revenues within 5 years. You think personnel is going to be one of the areas where you will need to reduce; however, you know the board will be uncomfortable with the message it sends to the community. How will you prepare for this negotiation session? What are the perspectives of both sides of this negotiation? What are you willing to negotiate? Role play both sides of the negotiation process. Actions: Form groups with participants; 3-4 per group is a good number. Hand out assessment scenarios to each group. Provide directions. Script: Let’s break into groups to perform a negotiation using all of the skills and knowledge we have learned so far. Each group will receive a scenario that might be typical of your environment. It is your job to write down the negotiation process that might take place to present to the rest of your class and receive feedback. Use your worksheets in your participant guide to capture your plan and to create your role play. Once you are complete, you will need a participant to deliver the role play to the class. (Break into groups; allow time to work.) Okay, now that your negotiations are complete, let’s hear the results. Each of you will deliver the role play as if it were really happening in your environment. The rest of you in the class, be prepared to provide feedback for alternatives to consider as well as other circumstances you might know of that could occur in the situation. Who would like to go first? (Allow each team to present; when each team is complete, ask for class to provide feedback.) Well done! Note: while presentations are being delivered, pay attention to any trends in missing or misunderstood information and refer back to that content for review.

190 Airport Leadership Development Program

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 191 Overview and Key Topics: Executing leadership follows the leadership journey using the fun- damental skills in Part 1. Be sure all participants have been through Part 1 before moving into Part 2. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Building on the skills from Part 1 of leadership fundamentals, we will now focus on executing leadership, which can be seen in strategic planning, defining and building culture, relationship building, and strategy execution. Overview and Key Points: Establish the objectives for this section of materials. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Let’s take a look at the objectives for this module of the course. (Read slide.)

192 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: The topics in this module include strategic planning, developing cul- ture, relationship building, strategy execution, and change manage- ment. It will be important to build on all of the fundamental skills and continue to refer to them as you move through this part of the course. Also be sure to continuously touch on the leadership journey and incorporate how to continue to define the leadership brand and draft personal development road map. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: The topics we will cover in this part of the course include strategic planning, developing culture, relationship building, strategy execu- tion, and change management. As we move through each section we will identify the objectives we will meet. Overview and Key Topics: Return to this touchstone to allow participants an opportunity for reflection and to refine the draft of organization commitments on their organization road maps. Actions: Reveal slide, refer to organization road maps.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 193 Script: As we begin to talk about strategic planning, note that it is separate from strategy execution, which we will discuss later in the course. Sometimes organizations confuse or combine strategic planning with strategy execution and miss all of the activities that need to occur in the middle. The strategic plan is the vision where this jour- ney begins. Before we can get to execution, there is some additional work to do. We will talk through each of those sections individually before we pull it all together at execution. Overview and Key Topics: Strategic Thinking Today’s business challenges are complex. The world is changing at a faster pace than in the past. It is critical that today’s leaders keep a strategic focus while balancing tactical execution to lead an organization successfully. Effective leaders bring cross-disciplinary knowledge, a view of competitive differentiators, and an understand- ing of current legislative and regulatory issues to balance with a deep understanding of the current state of the organization’s capabilities and customers’ needs. Strategic Planning The strategic plan for the organization begins with the organization’s purpose and mission. After clarifying the purpose for the organization to be in business, strategies or goals must be developed. In order to make goals achievable, an effective leader must have a deep understanding of the capability and capacity of the current workforce. Defined goals must take into account the current demand on the avail- able resources and be achievable along with the workload already in place. Goals should focus on innovative ideas or improvements to existing services that are aligned to the mission and purpose of the organization. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: How many of you have a strategic plan? (Allow participants to raise hands.) How many of you are executing to that strategic plan? (Again, allow raised hands.) How many of you are successful at planning and execution? (Allow raised hands.) Who can share thoughts, ideas, or examples of successes or oppor- tunities? (Allow discussion.) Note: Use key points above to address successes and opportunities. Let’s look at creating a strategic plan and the leader’s role in doing so.

194 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: Reference ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Indus- try, available on the TRB website. Familiarize yourself with it as a resource for this section of materials. ACRP Steps to Strategic Planning and Execution: Evaluate and understand the organization; determine capacity for work and appetite for change Define mission, vision, values: Mission = your purpose for being in business. Vision = who you want to be and what you want to make happen. Values = how you want work performed. Scan the environment for external influences and indicators; identify critical drivers; conduct SWOT analysis. Identify goals and long-term objectives (a vital few) with performance measures and success factors; define roles and responsibilities within the goals and long-term objectives. Formulate short-term objective and action plans to demonstrate progress toward goals; define roles and responsibilities within the objectives and action plans. Document, communicate, and execute. Monitor, evaluate, and modify. Key items to keep in mind during the strategic planning process: Have the right people participate in the planning meetings. Allow for contrary points of view to challenge status quo. Be realistic about what the organization can accomplish with the limited skills and resources available. Celebrate milestones and successes along the way. Course correct quickly if necessary. Maintain flexibility within the plan. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: In thinking about the leader’s journey and the role of the leader in the strategic planning process, we will cover the following objectives in the strategic planning section. (Read slide.)

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 195 Overview and Key Topics: Reference the ACRP guidebook for the step by step of creating a strategic plan. Focus discussion on the role of the leader in the plan- ning process. Actions: Reveal and review slide Script: In order to determine where it is going, the organization needs to know exactly where it stands, then determine where it wants to go and how it will get there. The resulting document is called the “stra- tegic plan.” It is the leader’s role to initiate and guide the develop- ment of the strategic plan, and to keep it realistic for the resources available to complete the activities outlined in the plan. Strategic plans quickly become meaningless if the objectives are consistently never achieved and the activity becomes more of a routine habit than a meaningful act of commitment. Realistic to resources available mean time, people and money. The strategic plan sets the tone for the goals that will be set cascading through the organization to align work and efforts to the strategy. If this is not the case it is simply a “busy” activity and NOT productive. Overview and Key Points: Strategic plans should be quantifiable in order to be monitored and measured for productivity and effectiveness. This sets the tone for accountability throughout the organization. This is dependent on how realistic the strategic plan is for the finite resources (time, peo- ple, and money) available to complete the strategy.

196 Airport Leadership Development Program Actions: Reveal and review the slide. Script: To keep your strategy realistic, you should quantify it as a part of the process. By establishing objectives, measures, targets, and met- rics you will know if you have enough of the finite resources (time, people, and money) to complete the strategy as it is defined. The most frequent mistake made in strategic planning is to establish a plan that is too lofty for the organization to complete and leaves the resources (people) feeling like they have failed. It is better for a leader to set a simple, achievable strategy that resources can accomplish and gain a feeling of success than a lofty, high set of goals that are unattainable. If you create a strategy that year after year is never reached, you are teaching your employees that they are not capable or that the process is not a serious or thoughtful one. The strategic plan will become a “flavor of the month” type of initiative that the employees of the organization will not invest in, commit to, or engage in. ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry contains a section on setting measures, targets, and metrics as part of the strategic plan. Overview and Key Points: Review the scope and definition of each of the categories included in the environmental scan. Information Technology: Investment in technology, use of current technology—modules to expand, skills to expand. Automate processes that are documented and validated. Determine how tech savvy the organization is. Human Capital Aging workforce—Generation X is the smallest generation; must get younger generation ready to take on leadership roles sooner. Do you have the pipeline for the human capital you need? Are you a workplace of choice in your area? (culture, pay, benefits, being competitive) Succession planning—not just focused on retiring workforce, must focus on retaining institutional knowledge. Know when to promote and when to hire externally. Capital Funding Modifications to PFCs, revenue bond rating and interest, grant avail- ability, earmarks discontinued. Alternative sources of funding. Diversify revenue sources. Regulatory Environment DOT funding, FAA Modernization, EPA, cap and trade, ARFF, building codes, cargo security, use fees implementation, health care benefits. Market-Based Competition Nearby airports; adjacent states. Industry Convergence Alternative modes of transportation, fluctuating price of gas, energy- efficient automobiles. Industry Consolidation Airline bankruptcies and mergers; reduced flights—direct and connecting. General Business Risk Security risks heightened since 9/11, unemployment rates, increas- ing costs for employing staff such as benefits, sustainability, lower capacity in the aviation system, economic conditions’ indirect effect. Innovative New Entrants/Models Additional services to customers for experience, transition to the experience economy, larger number of carry-on bags, liquids issues, discontinuance of regional jets.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 197 Market Globalization World economy, increasing concerns on global terrorism, oil prices, pandemic issues. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Use the descriptions above to review each category. Script: It is the leader’s role to guide and monitor the environmental scan. In some smaller organizations, it will be the leader’s role to perform the environmental scan. Much as we must learn to pay better attention to the cues and clues of the behavior of those around us (as we learned in Part 1 of this course), we must also learn to scan the environment that affects the business that we perform. The cat- egories included on this slide are influences and factors affecting the direction and strategy of the business. We need to scan them frequently to create the strategic plan and then to adjust the plan as we execute it. (Review each category using references above.) Overview and Key Topics: The “SWOT” in the SWOT analysis tool stands for strengths, weak- nesses, opportunities, and threats. Analysis of strengths and weak- nesses focuses on internal operations and resources. Analysis of opportunities and threats focuses on external influences and resources. The tool is frequently used in conducting strategic planning sessions but can also be useful in team building, personal develop- ment, and other projects that need to be audited or reviewed for new direction or reengineering. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: An organization’s SWOT is an incredibly helpful tool in conducting a strategic planning session. It helps bring together multiple viewpoints in an organization and determines the current state of the organization with its current resources. A SWOT analysis should be conducted, at a minimum, each time strategic initiatives are developed, and more frequently if trigger events occur such as a change in leadership. Once the leader learns how to use a SWOT, it’s the leader’s role to use the tool to assist in reviewing any program, team, process, or initiative that might need to be audited and adjusted to be directionally corrected or enhanced. You can also use a SWOT as a personal coaching tool, especially after a 360-degree feedback report has been conducted.

198 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: A strategy map can be used to display the strategic plan. Strategic plans do not need to be pretty, colorful, long documents. They can simply be a road map on a page. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: This strategy map shows the components you would put together in a simple strategic plan. This map is a one-page road map for your strat- egy and includes the vision, mission, and goals of the organization. These represent the what, why, and when of the strategic plan. The values represent the how. The resources of the organization are the who of the strategic plan. Once you have this one-page strategic plan, you will need to move goals all the way down through the organization in a cascading pro- cess so that every employee can answer the question “How does the work I do every day contribute to the overall organization strat- egy (or mission)?” Being able to align oneself to the organization mission or strategy is the one thing employees can use as their key point for engagement. Overview and Key Topics: Goal setting starts with the strategy map (strategic plan) and must move throughout the organization down to the individual contributor. Tie this concept to the leadership journey. Once the map is socialized, commitment and engagement are gained through establishing goals to the individual level. Execution occurs once all goals are complete and communicated.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 199 Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: The goal setting process begins at the strategic planning level but goes beyond the strategic plan to every individual within the orga- nization. Goals must align from the top down and then be validated from the bottom up. People need to have the time and money avail- able to them to complete the goals, which should be a criterion for keeping goals realistic as they cascade down, and then adjustments are made from the bottom up if they are not. Measures or metrics should not be established when completing goals until the top-down and bottom-up processes are complete. Most organizations estab- lish goals at the top and never actually validate through the cascade process to know for sure that they have the resources to realistically complete them. Again, this is why most strategic planning fails. This cascade process must occur before measures can be established and the strategy can be executed. How many of you are aligning goals to the individual level based on your strategic plans? (Allow participants to respond.) How can you implement a new way of set- ting goals? (Allow open discussion.) What can you do differently? (Allow open discussion.) Overview and Key Topics: Knowing the stage of the business will affect the level of perfor- mance that can be expected, and therefore the strategic plan should take this into account. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: When working on the strategic plan, it is extremely important to determine what stage of business the organization is in. There are four primary stages of business, and each one equates to a cer- tain amount of productivity, new initiatives, financial investments, or expectations that can be set for the limited resources available in the organization. Every organization has three limited resources: time, people, and money. How would you describe each of these stages in airport management terms? Start-up: major changes occurring—potential change in leadership; some chaos in the organization; perhaps the result of a reorganization (high levels of exceptions and projects). Growth: new airline, air service; new terminal; capital projects; high energy; lots of change; must have high exposure, controls, and man- agement engaged. Focus on major initiatives—do one at a time; manage prioritization; don’t do new initiatives until some complete. (High-level projects focused on new developments, management focused on balancing a decrease in exceptions with increase in core services.) Maintenance: great time to invest in development of people; things are in balance; work on increasing efficiency; add new talent; suc- cession planning; develop bench strength (high-level core services, projects focused on improvements, lower-level exceptions). Decline: loss of air service, downsize due to economy, reduce redun- dancy (low projects, low core service, higher exceptions). What is the leader’s role in understanding and applying these stages of business to a strategic plan? What is important to keep in mind and translate to a plan? (Allow open discussion.)

200 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Knowing the levels of maturity of your organization will also affect the level of performance that can be expected, and therefore the strategic plan should take this into account. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Process maturity is embedded in and yet separate from the stages of business. When implementing a strategy, it is important to keep in mind the stages of process maturity to manage the implementation. 1. Initial (chaotic, ad hoc, heroic): the starting point for use of a new process; the early stages of business. 2. Repeatable (project management, process discipline): the pro- cess is used repeatedly; business begins to gain traction. 3. Defined (institutionalized): the process is defined/confirmed as a standard business process; business is normalized. 4. Managed (quantified): process management and measurement take place; business begins to grow. 5. Optimizing (process improvement): process management includes deliberate process optimization/improvement; business performs continuous improvement, innovates, and leads in indus- try. Business becomes best in class. What is the leader’s role in understanding and applying these levels of maturity to a strategic plan? What is important to keep in mind and translate to a plan? What level of maturity do you think your business is in? (Allow open discussion.)

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 201 Overview and Key Topics: Reminder about the difference between leadership and manage- ment. Many times the actions are blended. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: As a quick reminder, the leadership team in any organization has a distinct purpose. It is to collaboratively steer and govern the limited resources of the organization. Although we are specifically focused on leadership skills, there is some management overlap that cannot be avoided. You perform both leadership and management synchro- nously on most occasions. The simplest reminder of the differentia- tion is that we lead people and manage work. Since it’s the people who are performing the work, this is where the conundrum begins. Some key areas where we merge leadership and management are: Reinvention; change in behaviors. Managing limited resources: time, people, money. Capacity vs. capability. Prioritization of goals. Categorization of work. Clear and consistent communication. We have been discussing skills to help us develop our ability that will affect both our leadership and management effectiveness. This is good news since this is really our job! Overview and Key Topics: Culture can be defined as what your people do when you are not looking. Actions: Reveal slide. Perform activity to get participants to think about describing their culture.

202 Airport Leadership Development Program Script: I would like each of you to write a word or a phrase to describe your organization’s current culture. (Capture on sticky notes and have them post to a chart paper or board. Read postings.) We are going to talk about culture in an organization, how it is formed, and how you can transform a culture through leadership. Culture can be defined as what your people do when you are not looking. It is also typically the shadow of the leader. As we continue through our journey in developing our leadership skills, it is time to take an objective look at our culture and determine how much of it is a reflection of our own behaviors; the responses we are getting are directly a reflection of the leadership we are demonstrating. Overview and Key Topics: Review the objectives for the module. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: This module has a number of objectives. Let’s take a look at what we are going to cover. (Read slide.)

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 203 Overview and Key Points: Begin discussion about culture. Focus on the leadership styles that create the different types of culture. Actions: Reveal slide. Refer to participant guide for individual stories. Review “crab,” “pike syndrome,” and “elephant” training stories to begin discussion of culture. Script: Let’s look at the words you used to talk about the culture in your orga- nizations. What other types of cultures exist? (Brainstorm discussion about culture. Let’s list types of culture that exist in organizations— good and bad. Responses may include learning, development, innovative, enterprising, nurturing, results-focused, fun, creative, maintaining, punitive, bureaucratic, autonomous, interdependent, independent, dependent, competitive.) How do you develop culture? (Role models, act swiftly with culture misfits, do not tolerate bad behavior, activities in line with culture development, meetings, performance, conversations all connect to culture—walk the talk.) How do you assess culture? (Culture surveys, observations, water- cooler talk.) Culture is the shadow of the leader. Through words and actions, leaders influence what people do (strategy, transformation initia- tives, process design) and how they behave (culture, collaboration, openness, trust, level of accountability). These shadows are cast by leaders as individuals and collectively as a team. Use the strengths of the organization, current state of business, and future vision to define the culture. Use the weaknesses of the orga- nization to develop the culture.

204 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: This visual represents the fact that culture will eat strategy on any day. If you develop an amazing strategy and your culture does not accept, embrace, commit, and engage to perform it, your execution will fail. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Follow the inputs to the outputs left to right. Script: This visual represents the failing of many great strategies through the jaws of culture. If you have created strategies in the past and have not executed them to success, you may have allowed your culture to eat them. If you have created strategies that are not realistic for the resources in the organization, you have allowed your culture to eat them. If you have created a culture of competition and mismatched priorities, you have created a culture that will eat strategy. A leader’s role is to create a realistic strategy and then manage and develop culture to define performance. Let’s look at some different types of cultures and the leadership that may have created them. Overview and Key Points: The following stories all represent different types of cultures that could be represented in organizations. The discussion should be focused on the type of leadership that generates these types of cul- tures and what you can do to transform them.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 205 Actions: Reveal slides and refer class to the participant guide. Break class into groups. Script: I am going to break you into three teams to read and discuss one of the stories you see on the slides and in your participant guide. After you have read the story, I would like you to discuss the type of culture that is described. What does this look like in an organization—what specific behaviors would you see from employees? What type of leadership influences this type of culture? What behav- iors need to be changed? How can you change them? (Post questions on chart paper.) Be prepared to discuss the responses to these questions with the class. (Allow time for discussions.) Now that your teams have discussed the stories, I would like your spokesperson to read the story out loud to the group and then tell us the answers to the questions. Expected responses for this story: They keep trying, get frustrated, and eventually lose the will to keep trying even if the barrier is gone. The leader is the glass. Perhaps the leader didn’t move through the appropriate passage and is still behaving at a level lower than necessary. Culture moves into main- tenance mode and does use any discretionary energy for the orga- nization. Loyalty and productivity decrease. Let’s look at some different types of cultures and the leadership that might have created them. See previous slide notes. Expected responses for this slide: We’ve always done it this way. The status quo is never challenged. No more risks/innovation. The staff is not challenged or rewarded for exceptional performance. Assumptions; limiting beliefs on ourselves, our staff, and peers.

206 Airport Leadership Development Program See previous slide notes. Expected responses for discussion: Someone who ignores/encourages these behaviors. The leader who hires less experienced/knowledgeable people so that they can exert control over them. How can you change them? Coaching people out? If you promote people from this sort of group, how will they react? Be able to make changes or continue this culture? (Example: collective bargaining units.) – Every time you’re promoted, it’s time to self-reflect and see if your leadership brand needs to be adjusted for your new role. (What was appropriate then might not be appropriate now.) – People often don’t notice incremental changes in leadership style, so even if you are changing, it’s possible that no one will notice/care. Overview and Key Topics: This graphic represents a transformation in both culture and strategy. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: If you create a realistic strategy and align and set achievable goals, the culture will transform and become synchronized to deliver results. The focus will be on realistic work—the organization moves out of busy mode and into productive mode and begins operating more efficiently.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 207 Overview and Key Topics: Wrapping up and summarizing the culture topic. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Identifying and defining culture is the beginning of the leader’s role. Embedding the culture relies on many of the concepts we discussed in Part 1 of this course. It relies on clearly communicating in an appro- priate and timely way. We are going to talk about some of these ways to embed culture through performance management, feedback, team building, motivations, and even the meetings we conduct. Overview and Key Topics: Performance management should include both work progress and personal development. Actions: Reveal slide.

208 Airport Leadership Development Program Script: Let’s talk about performance management. As a leader, it is your responsibility to steer and govern the limited resources in the orga- nization. Steering and governing include managing performance. Here is one of the areas where leadership and management overlap. Leadership in performance management includes: Setting clear expectations Defining capacity and capability for each role Rewarding demonstrated progress Creating a results focus Creating an environment of accountability. This sometimes means making hard decisions about people. One of the biggest mistakes leaders make is allowing a poor per- former to last too long in the organization. Good leaders will build a relationship with human resources and use the probationary period of the hiring process to their advantage. Good leaders stay close to new hires to monitor behavior, scan the environment, and ensure that the new hire is a good culture and organizational fit. Firing fast is a good leadership quality. Allowing poor performance affects produc- tivity, engagement, loyalty, and your leadership brand for all of your followers. We validate what we tolerate. The hardest part is identifying the poor performers in order to do something about them. Our performance matrix will help you do that. Overview and Key Points: This 9-box matrix is a standard performance measurement tool in industry. Review the matrix and be familiar with its use. It should be used to score individuals and place them in a box for performance management. Note that this is a fluid process. With new roles, responsibilities, or even as time passes, every individual should move in this matrix. No one should stay in one box. Action: Reveal and review slide. Reference performance management pages in participant guide. Script: How many of you have seen or used the 9-box performance matrix before? (Allow raised hands.) This is a great tool to use, although it is also extremely controversial. There are organizations that use it confidentially where individuals being scored have no idea they are being scored. There are orga- nizations that use it transparently where everyone knows exactly which box they are in. There are organizations in between. This 9-box matrix is created from the GE model of performance manage- ment where they were annually scoring individuals with the intention of eliminating the bottom 20% of performers. We are not advocating that you all use it for those purposes. We are simply suggesting it is a good tool to quantify performance objectively for individuals to determine the next steps in promotion or development. The idea with the 9-box matrix is that you score individuals on a scale of 1 to 3 for potential and 1 to 3 for performance and then locate which box they would be in to determine what to do with them next. Depending on where individuals fall in performance and poten- tial, they may be identified as immediately promotable or requiring action. This process should be tied to development. As leaders in organizations, it is your job to help your staff increase performance and potential by putting them into positions where they can be challenged and successful and still provide meaningful con- tributions to the organization.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 209 Reference to conflict resolution in Part 1 of this course. Feedback is directly correlated to conflict resolution! Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference to participant guide for worksheet. Script: While we are discussing performance management, note that an individual’s performance or lack thereof should never be a surprise to him or her at the performance review. If you are struggling with an individual’s performance and getting results out of them, there are others in the department being affected by those circumstances. It is the leader’s job to remove the barriers from all of your people’s ability to do good work. This may mean having difficult conversations with some poor performers. If you go back to your 360-degree feedback as well as your communication style, you may need to reflect if this is an area where you need to develop some new skills. Let’s talk about giving feedback. If you are someone who avoids conflict, your silence may actually be interpreted as having a differ- ent meaning from what you expect. TYPE: Silence DEFINITION: No response provided PURPOSE: Maintain status quo IMPACT: Decreases confidence, reduces performance, produces paranoia, and creates surprises during performance reviews When poor performance irritates you, you may find yourself being critical of the individual. This can be interpreted differently from what you mean. TYPE: Criticism DEFINITION: Identify undesirable behaviors PURPOSE: Stop undesirable behaviors IMPACT: Generates excuses/blame, decreases confidence, leads to avoidance or escape, can eliminate related behaviors, hurts relationships It is best to focus on coaching performance. TYPE: Coach DEFINITION: Identify results or behaviors desired and specify how to incorporate them PURPOSE: Shape or change behaviors or results to increase performance IMPACT: Improves confidence, strengthens relationships, increases performance Once you are seeing the response you desire, reinforce. TYPE: Reinforcement DEFINITION: Identifies results or behaviors that were desired, up to or exceeding standards PURPOSE: Increase desired performance or results IMPACT: Boosts confidence, heightens self-esteem, increases per- formance, enhances motivation Nine Tips for Providing Effective Feedback Be specific when referring to behavior. Consider your timing. Use advice prior to an event, reinforcement after. Consider the needs of the person receiving the feedback as well as your own. Ask yourself what the receiver will get out of the information. Focus on behavior the receiver can do something about. Avoid labels and judgments by describing rather than evaluating behavior. Define the impact on you, the unit, the team, and the company. Use “I” statements as opposed to “you” statements to reduce defensiveness. Check to be sure your message has been clearly received. Give the feedback in calm, unemotional words, tone, and body language.

210 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: High Performance Teams High performing teams create environments that ensure the team is a place where individuals can renew their commitment and participa- tion in a shared vision, where they can be honest about reality, and where they can be authentic persons and professionals. In a high performing team: Every team member feels respected and valued. All team members have the opportunity to fully share their thoughts, feelings, and ideas. The team uses the talents of each member. The team excels beyond individual talents. The key to a high performing team is alignment around expectations. Business Reasons for Teams Quality improvement Cost-effectiveness Speed to customer Innovation—product, service, process Growing human capital Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Part of a leader’s role is to develop high performing teams. You must manage individual performers before you can create high performing teams. If you do not have equal or respected contributors, you will never create a high performing team. Who has experience creating a high performing team, and what leadership attributes did you use to do it? (Allow participants to contribute.) What do high performing teams look like? (Allow participants to con- tribute; use items from above to expand responses.) How do you lead high performing teams? (Allow participants to con- tribute; use items from above to expand responses.) Who has a performance issue with a team that they feel comfortable discussing? (Allow participants to contribute.) What do we do when our teams are not high performing? This conversation will draw upon some of the topics addressed in Part 1 of this course; we need to diagnose the symptoms to get to the root of the problem or in this case, the dysfunction. Let’s take a look at the dysfunctions of a team and what we can do about them.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 211 Overview and Key Topics: Five Dysfunctions of a Team The theory setting forth the reasons for team dysfunction is simple; however, the steps to overcome team dysfunctionality are difficult and require a level of discipline and persistence that few teams can meet. It is to be noted that the five dysfunctions of a team are not separate but are related; therefore, the dysfunctions cannot be dealt with in isolation. The five dysfunctions are interrelated; each serves as a condition that sets the stage for the next dysfunction. Absence of trust: Stems from team members’ unwillingness to be vulnerable within the group. Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weaknesses make it impossible to build a foundation for trust. Fear of conflict: A team that lacks trust is incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debate about ideas. Instead, they resort to guarded comments as opposed to meaningful, candid dialogue. Lack of commitment: Without having aired their opinions in the course of passionate and open debate, TMs rarely, if ever, buy in and commit to decisions, though they may feign agreement during meetings. Avoidance of accountability: Without committing to a clear plan of action, even the most focused and driven people often hesitate to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team. Failure to hold one another accountable cre- ates an environment where the fifth dysfunction can thrive. Inattention to results: Occurs when team members put their indi- vidual needs (ego, career development, recognition, etc.) above the collective goals of the team. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Cost of failure to achieve a team are great: wasted energy, lack of focus, lack of effectiveness, lack of efficiency, and an environment that does not result in a great deal of satisfaction or fun. Given all of the information we have discussed so far in the program, I am going to break you into teams to discuss the following: What are the behaviors we will see in the organization when there is: An absence of trust? A fear of conflict? Failure to commit? Avoidance of accountability? Lack of focus on results? (Put on chart paper—assign individual topic to each group or all topics to all groups.) Let’s talk about what you came up with. (Participants contribute responses.) Expected responses: Absence of trust: Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another. Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback. Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility. Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitude of others with- out attempting to clarify them. Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills and experiences. Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect. Hold grudges. Dread meetings and find reasons to avoid spending time together. Fear conflict: Have boring meetings. Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive. Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success. Fail to tap into all the opinions and perspectives of team members. Failure to commit: Create ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities. Watch windows of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay. Breed lack of confidence and fear of failure.

212 Airport Leadership Development Program Revisit discussions and decisions again and again. Encourage second-guessing among team members. Avoids accountability: Create resentment among team members who have different stan- dards of performance. Encourage mediocrity Miss deadlines and key deliverables. Place an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline. Not focused on results: Stagnate/fail to grow. Rarely defeat competitors. Lose achievement-oriented employees. Encourage team members to focus on their own careers and indi- vidual goals. Is easily distracted. In the same groups, I now want you to discuss what leadership solu- tions will overcome the symptoms. (Allow participants to talk in groups.) What did you come up with? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: Method to achieve trust Individuals sharing unique personal attributes or experiences with the team. Example: number of siblings, hometown, unique challenges of childhood, first job, hobby. Identify the single most important contribution that each peer con- tributes to the team as well as one area they must improve upon or eliminate for the good of the team. Personality and behavioral preference profiles. Example: Myers- Briggs type indicator. Method to overcome fear of conflict: An effective method to promote productive conflict is to mine for unrecognized conflict within the team and bring up the issues for recognition, discussion, and resolution. Create safe environment. Practice resolution—ensure closure to situations. Methods to overcome lack of commitment: Cascading messaging—at the conclusion of a meeting, the team explicitly reviews the key decisions made during the meeting and agrees on what needs to be communicated to whom. Deadlines—set clear deadlines regarding the action steps to be accomplished. Conduct contingency and worst-case scenario analysis. Methods to overcome team’s avoidance of accountability Publication of goals and standards. Clear and regular progress reviews. Team rewards. Methods to overcome no focus on results Realign organization. Clearly articulate work responsibilities. Define goals and prioritize actions. Now that we know better how to reduce dysfunction and create high performing teams, let’s talk about motivating employees. Source: Jim Barker, Barker Design and Illustrated Ltd. Overview and Key Topics: Motivations are tied to the communication styles in Part 1 and are determined on an individual, case-by-case basis. The point of the video is to think differently about the motivations your organization is using and even audit them to determine if they are truly working.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 213 Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference to motivation quiz. Video about motivation by Dan Pink: http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_ motivation.html. Script: How many of you have internal employee motivation programs? (Participants raise hands.) What are they? (Allow participants to respond. Likely responses include bonuses, raises, employee incen- tive programs, recognition awards, and recognition programs.) Some of you may be familiar with this quiz. I would like you to turn to your participant guide and rank the motivational items as you believe they motivate employees. 1 is the lowest motivator, 10 is the highest. (Give time to complete.) In participant guide, rate the motivations as you believe an employee would rate what is important to them. Job security Fun environment Fair compensation Tactful discipline Engaging work Growth opportunities Appreciation Management’s understanding that life happens to us sometimes Being in the know Loyalty What were your responses? What did you rank as the #1 motivator for employees? (Allow participants to discuss.) Employees Here are the Top 10 employee motivators: 1. Appreciation: People need to feel appreciated, especially by their managers. (That’s why employee recognition should go through the manager.) 2. Being in the know: Even if employees can’t affect company plans, they feel empowered when they have a full picture of what these plans are. 3. Understanding in crisis: Life happens. Managers need to work with loyal employees when problems crop up at home. 4. Job security: Okay, no job is 100% secure. But employees need to know that managers will do all they can to secure their jobs, as long as they perform. 5. Fair compensation: Note how far down the list this one is. But it’s still important. 6. Engaging work: Give top performers a chance to do additional, interesting tasks. 7. Growth opportunities: Same as #6. 8. Loyalty: Employees respond to leaders who support them. 9. Tactful discipline: Managers who can’t give negative feedback without humiliating the person need training. 10. A fun environment: People try harder when they like where they work. Now these latest survey results are from 2009, but they have remained constant for over 20 years. (Survey referenced at http://rapidlearninginstitute.com/hric/ top-ten-employee-rewards/) Now that we know what motivates our employees, let’s watch a video by Daniel Pink, the author of Drive, who is going to talk about what motivates employees and more importantly what programs we cur- rently use that are demotivators for employees. Key Points from Video: Difference in motivators from past and present. Instead of asking why, we need to be asking why not? Gives us the outside the box, vision, and execution theme. Autonomy, mastery, and purpose philosophy. Speaks to building talent (coaching, development, and engagement) Reviews many different scientific scenarios that prove hypotheses So, what were your thoughts as you were watching the video? (Allow participants to discuss.) Are you using any of the motivational tech- niques that Daniel referenced? (Allow participants to discuss.) What can you do differently? (Allow participants to respond.) Here are some ideas to consider in motivation: 1. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in your reward systems. For example, their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. You might find more means to provide recognition, if that is important to them. You might develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time. 2. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee. Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. Get to know your employees, their fami- lies, their favorite foods, the names of their children, and so on. This can sound manipulative, and it will be if not done sincerely. However, even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your employees, it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them. 3. Cultivate strong skills in delegation. Delegation includes convey- ing responsibility and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. However, you leave it up to your employ- ees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Skills in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs, which usually means more fulfillment and motivation as well. 4. Reward it when you see it. A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee behaviors, not on employee personalities. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals, not on popularity of employees. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally, morally, and interpersonally) for focusing only on how you feel about your employees rather than on what you actually see. 5. Reward it soon after you see it. This helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you’re currently seeing from your employees. Often, the shorter the time between an employee’s action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee that you prefer that action. 6. Implement at least the basic principles of performance man- agement. Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if the goals are being met, ongo- ing attention and feedback about measures toward the goals, and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achiev- ing the goals when necessary. Performance management can focus on organizations, groups, processes in the organization, and employees. 7. Establish goals that are smarter. Smarter goals are specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, timely, extending of capabili- ties, and rewarding to those involved. 8. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organiza- tional results. Employees often feel strong fulfillment from real- izing that they’re actually making a difference. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals, employee progress toward those goals, and celebration when the goals are met. 9. Celebrate achievements. This critical step is often forgotten. New managers and supervisors are often focused on getting a lot done. This usually means identifying and solving problems. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as impor- tant as the solution itself. Without ongoing acknowledgement

214 Airport Leadership Development Program of success, employees become frustrated, skeptical, and even cynical about efforts in the organization. 10. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external). Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee. For example, if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal customers) in the organization, then have other employ- ees express their gratitude to the employee. If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers, then bring them in to express their appreciation to the employee. 11. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don’t like an employee. Managers and supervisors are people. It’s not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. That someone could, for example, look like an uncle you don’t like. In this case, admit to yourself that you don’t like the employee. Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee—for example, a peer, your boss, or your spouse. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don’t like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accom- plish a positive working relationship with the employee. It often helps a great deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else’s opinion about the situation. As noted previously, if you continue to focus on what you see about employee perfor- mance, you’ll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable. Let’s move on now and talk a little bit about meetings. Overview and Key Topics: Discussing meetings is important because much of the performance management, team dynamics, and cultural attributes of an organi- zation are displayed through the meetings that are standard in an organization. It is one of the cultural norms that people must learn on their own when joining an organization since it is typically not covered in new employee orientation. Meetings are often organically defined, and organizations that are more busy than productive may suffer from so-called “death by meeting.” Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Meetings and organizational culture go hand in hand. Many orga- nizations have moved into a “death-by-meeting” mode because of the amount of work they are trying to process at any given time with the limited resources available. If you stop and audit the meetings your organization is having, you can probably cut them by about 50%, or at least reduce the participation of some members sig- nificantly. Meetings have changed over time as businesses have become less manufacturing-focused and more information-focused. Because we have also had increased and unmanaged technology advancements, meetings have taken on a life of their own. They are the greatest time consumer and, I would bet, the greatest time waster as well. It is time to demonstrate true leadership by taking back control of the meetings within our organizations. If you establish meeting guide- lines as well as the types of meetings necessary for people in your organization to get work done, you will find that the number of meet- ings can be reduced. Let’s talk about meeting guidelines.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 215 Overview and Key Topics: Review guidelines for meetings as well as establish rules of conduct for meetings. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Let’s talk about meeting guidelines. How many of you have standard guidelines for conducting meetings? (Allow participant discussion.) (Review slide.) You should also establish rules of conduct in meetings. Some stan- dard rules of conduct in meetings are: Start every meeting with someone sharing good news. Have an agenda and take minutes that will be published. Give everyone the benefit of the doubt; assume that the intentions of others are positive. Approach others with respect and sensitivity. Listen for differences in beliefs and values, learning, and communication styles, and chal- lenge yourself to suspend judgment. Let everyone have a turn to talk. Honor the right to confidentiality, privacy, and the liberty to participate or not. Work at staying mindful and open to new information and different points of view.

216 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Recommend a meeting audit. Review the types of meetings the organization is having and suggest it take a mindful approach to audit and change the types and frequency of meetings. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Determine the types of meetings that are necessary for the state of business and the type of culture you are trying to develop. Do not have meetings for the sake of meeting or because you have always done it that way! Determine what meetings are needed and only have those meetings. Review slide and discuss the purpose of each of the meetings listed. Add types of meetings to the list that may be missing. Discuss the purpose of the meetings, when those meetings are needed, and what culture develops using the meetings identified. Discuss when to review the amount of meetings and types of meetings being held. Break bad habits! Recurring, set agenda. Decision Purpose: To make a decision and take action. Attendees: Decision maker(s)/stakeholders Solution providers Facilitator (if not decision maker) Approach: Identify stakeholders for decision making and support- ing process Clarify purpose for the meeting Clearly define decision to be made Share agenda and supporting material in advance Agenda Items: Statement of original problem Alternative solutions, including impacts, costs, benefits Clear statement of decision to be made Result: Decision made Action items assigned Align next steps to appropriate person through appro- priate alignment/channels Communication of decision to necessary audiences Status Purpose: To review progress of projects/initiatives/goals Provide forum for presenting and resolving large issues that cross groups Attendees: Team leader and functional project/initiative leads responsible for major work blocks Selected leadership from affected departments Team representatives from groups with involvement or dependencies on project Approach: Schedule recurring meetings on a timely basis (weekly, biweekly, monthly) Functional project or initiative leaders provide progress update on status items Leadership contributes insight, resolution, and endorse- ment of progress to date

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 217 Agenda Items: Review previous meeting’s action items Review accomplishments against plan or stated accomplishments from last meeting Present barriers to progress and recommended solutions Present and approve scope or priority changes Review and agree on action item assignment Agreement on communication to necessary audiences Result: Continued momentum of tasks, escalation and resolu- tion of issues, communication of progress to necessary audiences Our next slide references a handout in your participant materials. Overview and Key Topics: Reference tool to take back and audit meetings to recommend changes. Can be customized to each environment. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference participant materials. Script: This slide is also a tool in your materials. Use this as a guide to audit your current state of meetings and to make recommendations for the types and frequency of meetings appropriate to your current state of business, your organization’s strategy and goals, and the work you are trying to complete.

218 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Relationship building pulls together concepts from communication and conflict styles, conflict resolution, negotiation, and culture devel- opment and strategy. Use concepts from those sections to enhance the discussions in this section. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Strong leaders recognize the impact of the use of their power of influ- ence over others through their leadership skills. The more effectively leaders use power and influence, the more desired responses from followers will result. Each leadership style has a power of influence, which results in a response. That influence may also have a possible cost associated with it, which is a trade-off in the result to consider. Power of influence requires a leader with strong sensory skills to monitor the environment for responses. Understanding your power of influence is critical in developing the culture of the followers you are looking to achieve. Your power of influence, the follower response, and the trade-off made will result in the type of relationship that is established and defines the culture of the organization. The key strategy to use in influencing is to predict and anticipate responses and reactions of others by putting yourself in their shoes.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 219 Overview and Key Topics: Brief brainstorm activity to begin to identify with whom relationships need to be built. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Let’s do a quick brainstorm. Just shout out the answers to my ques- tions. (As participants call out, be sure to repeat them so they are validated and the whole class hears them.) What are the external groups to build relationships with? Expected responses: FAA TSA Board Community Government offices Tenants What are the internal groups and individuals to build relationships with? Expected responses: Followers Subordinates Peers Managers Tenants

220 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: This graphic represents the levels of employees in the internal organization; the lowest level is the farthest from external relation- ships. The airport leader becomes the center point of the graphic and must balance the information coming in and going out. Keep in mind that information flow may change with the distance from the middle. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Let’s talk about the building of internal and external relationships. When we asked aviation leaders for advice about how to build rela- tionships external to the organization, key leaders said things like “Build relationships with people before you need something from them.” “Find reasons to get to know external people as people, not as services.” “Make sure you are giving to the relationship as much as you are taking from it.” “Seek common interests.” “Seek to under- stand the perspective of the individual you are trying to build a rela- tionship with.” Trust is the foundation of any relationship and is critical to any organi- zation and effective leader. You must build trust to build relationships. The external focus includes relationships with the board, community, legislators, FAA, TSA, EPA, congressmen, mayor, airlines, custom- ers, and passengers. The internal focus includes all levels of the organization. The farther you get from the center of the hourglass, the less you think externally. It’s leadership’s responsibility to manage the flow of information and build relationships through the process. As an emerging leader working up through the internal chain of command, seek opportunities to build external relationships at each level. Start by working within your local community and find a board to sit on—local YMCAs, youth programs, and nonprofits usually have board positions or board committee positions available. Volunteer to speak at one of your local colleges or universities in a subject where you have expertise. Most professors love to have community speak- ers who can bring real-world experience to the classroom. Begin to attend conferences and get involved with the committees and asso- ciations presenting at them. A role of a leader is to build relationships through the use of power of influence and build trust. Let’s talk more about your power and influence.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 221 Overview and Key Topics: Power and influence are misunderstood and underused unless they are being misused. This section is focused on bringing positive understanding of the use of power so that leaders can gain better control over the power they assume. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Reference participant guide for additional information to guide discussion. Script: It is a leader’s responsibility to be aware of the power and influence that are attributed automatically by followers based on the title held in an organization. This power and influence follows leaders every- where they go and is culturally understood to have a level of com- mand and authority regardless of the circumstances or situation. This results in leaders needing to be acutely aware of their environment and surroundings at all times to use their power of authority wisely. If used incorrectly, it can wield opposite and negative results quickly. As we have discussed before, there are six leadership styles that a leader can use to influence a relationship or a situation. Most leaders have a tendency to think they need to pick one and stick to it. Great leaders identify the style that is appropriate for the current circum- stance they find themselves in. Let me share a simple story with you to demonstrate: There was a classroom of participants learning a new technology that was to be implemented within an organization. The participants were from all levels of authority within the same organization, and the CEO hap- pened to be one of them. The software was a great tool that was going to have a positive impact on the organization, and this was the last class to receive the training. Almost all of the staff had already started using the software and were thrilled with how much easier it made communicating progress on their work efforts. The CEO, however, was not as technically savvy and was frustrated with the learning process. Halfway through the instruction, she stood up and said “This system is stupid and complicated. I am not going to learn it.” She threw down her pen and left the room. What do you think happened after that? (Allow participants to respond.) The instructor was able to save the class, but the use of the system took a turn after word got out that the CEO said it was stupid and complicated. All of the people who thought it was easy and making their processes move more quickly soon began to believe it was actually more complicated, and after about 6 months, use of the technology had stopped completely. That is power and influence. What could the CEO have done differently? (Allow participants to discuss.) What other ways do powerful people influence decisions, direction, and culture in an organization? (Allow participants time to think and discuss.) Let’s review how power and influence are used for the good of the company and why you need to move through each type of style for different circumstances. Look at the reference in your participant guide that describes the style, skills, power, and response. Remem- ber, if we are not getting the response we are seeking, we are using the wrong leadership style! We need to change, not our followers. Style: Directive Skills: Driving; marshalling resources and directing energy toward achieving a goal Power of influence: Dominating; to control the thoughts and actions of others Follower response: Obedience brings compliance What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: Performance management issues. This is micromanagement, and while most of us would attest that we do not strive to be microman- agers, there is a time and place for micromanagement. It is a valid leadership technique. You can also use this style with new employees that need guidance, in critical timeframes for work products, and in times of crisis.

222 Airport Leadership Development Program Style: Engaged Skills: Motivating; identifying and addressing the desires of others Power of influence: Influencing; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the distribution of information Follower response: Empowerment brings independent action What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: At the start of a new project, in soliciting new ideas, when celebrating milestones or successes Style: Coaching Skills: Teaching; bringing others along a path of learning a new skill or domain Power of influence: Counseling; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through the exchange of questions and information Follower response: Receptiveness brings openness What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: Someone taking on new responsibilities or a stretch opportunity. May need to move to a new role in the organization. Style: Democratic Skills: Collaborating; responding to others and building on their con- tributions with your own Power of influence: Consensus building; to bring together the thoughts and actions of others through building a shared point of view Follower response: Equality brings agreement What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: When you are socializing a new idea, when you want to hear different perspectives and possible objections so you can resolve them early, when you need to bring a team together that may not have worked together before Style: Affiliative Skills: Empathizing; understanding the feelings and states of mind of others Power of influence: Supporting; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through understanding and working with their goals and beliefs Follower response: Team orientation brings teamwork What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: When you need to build a team, when you have had a crisis and you are bringing the team back together as a result Style: Expert Skills: Mastering; turning new knowledge into a domain of expertise Power of influence: Demanding; to affect the thoughts and actions of others through setting clear expectations based on mastery of a task Follower response: Autonomy brings self-direction What are the circumstances that might require us to use this style? (Allow participants to respond.) Expected responses: Mentoring someone to replace you—succession planning As you may notice through our descriptions of these styles, there is a link between the leadership journey and conflict resolution, deci- sion making, and the negotiation processes that are embedded and intertwined with the power and influence matrix. These are all con- nected concepts. It’s important to become self-aware and manage your power and influence to get the responses you desire from your followers. Again, be monitoring follower responses to ensure that you are using your powers for the good! Overview and Key Topics: This section changes the definition of crisis to being broader than just a crash or a terror event. Crises can come disguised as other events in an organization and require a similar priority and response.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 223 Overview and Key Topics: Crisis communication follows some simple steps. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Let’s walk through the six steps for crisis communication and put them into words that would apply to a real-life circumstance. As we walk through the steps, let’s create a communication as if you were announcing a reduction in force to your employees. Keep in mind that there is no right or wrong; there is only truth and appropriate commu- nication for the circumstance and the audience. Sometimes, because many of us are in a public organization where all communication can be shared, we overshare information with our employees. They don’t always want to know or need to know all of the details up front. Step 1: Offer certainty. Be honest with them about the things of which you are absolutely sure. “Here is what we know for sure.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) Step 2: Acknowledge uncertainty, which demonstrates that you are open, honest, and grounded in reality. “Here’s what we don’t know.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) Step 3: Show connection and authority. You are allowed to tell us your opinion. People want to know what leaders really believe. “This is what I think.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) Step 4: People need to contribute; they need to feel that they are making a difference. There’s nothing worse than having to sit around and be idle. Having a job makes employees feel instrumental in their own destiny, quells panic, and reduces rumors. “Here’s what you can do.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Let’s do a quick brainstorm. Just shout out your answers to my ques- tion. What are the types of crisis that occur in your environment that require crisis communication? (Allow participants to shout out answers. Repeat them as they say them so the whole class can hear them.) Possible responses: New leadership Crash Death on staff Reduction of force Major change Strategic failure Loss of airline I am going to broaden your thinking about crisis communication and ask you to think about it from your followers’ perspective. Think back to Part 1 of this course where we talked about the different styles each person has and what the motivators and stressors are for each style. Crisis communication and the identification of crisis events have different meanings and different impacts for each individual in your organization. Your role as a leader is to put yourself in the shoes of your followers as you implement ideas, execute changes, or make big decisions and be mindful of how you communicate the news.

224 Airport Leadership Development Program Step 5: Act as a secure base. Making and keeping commitments is one of the main functions of a leader and creates an environment of trust. “This is my commitment to you.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) Step 6: Fulfill others’ need for growth. Define a larger purpose that makes the pain worth enduring. “Here’s why this is worthwhile.” What could you say about a reduction in force? (Allow participants to respond.) That was awesome! I hope you will use these simple steps in your communications going forward. Sometimes crisis communication is simply sharing some bad news. These steps help to make it a little less stressful and more forgiving for the receiver.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 225 Overview and Key Topics: Good leaders show their vision and then determine where their fol- lowers are. They go back and take them by the hand to move them toward the vision. Actions: Reveal slide. Script: Change is constant in organizations today. It is also one of the hard- est factors for people at all levels to deal with. Even when there is a clear need for change, resistance, fear, uncertainty, and ambivalence are common responses. Leading through change is a significant responsibility of today’s leader. Your words, actions, and reactions will set the pace for acceptance of change in your organization. Great leaders understand how their organizations handle change and use this to lead people from where they are to where you need them to go. This is a significant part of the leadership journey. Change occurs in an organization in order to do one of the following actions: • Alter perspective • Break mental or physical habits • Generate alternatives • Start something new • Stop something old Overview and Key Topics: Objectives of section. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: Let’s review the objectives for this section of material. (Read slide.)

226 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: This graphic will be repeated as we build on the concepts of change management. Reference other content of the course such as motivation, styles, and conflict resolution as you discuss change management. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: During transitions, people must let go of what they know, cope with the unknown, and then come to terms with what is new. While some transitions move more quickly and easily than others, each one is significant. The transition model represents the three stages that people move through. It starts with an ending where it is necessary to let go of the old way of doing things. Any kind of ending by defini- tion implies loss of some kind. What is an example of a good change you have experienced? What was the loss; what did you give up? (new baby – loss of sleep; new job – loss of feeling competent; get- ting married – loss of independence) Many of the losses we react to are not concrete. It is what they rep- resent to us that is the loss. For example, if I have to move my office, am I losing status? If my job is changing, do I now lack meaning? If I am on a new team, am I losing friendships? The point is that our experience is the same regardless of what the change is; all change means transition and giving something up. People make a new beginning only after they have first made an ending and spent some time in the neutral zone.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 227 Overview and Key Points: Compare top five life change events to the workplace. Actions: Reveal and review slide Top five life change events: Job Move Marriage Divorce Health crisis or death Script: These are the top five change events that we go through in our per- sonal lives. Yet when you think about it, these also equate to change events that happen in our professional lives. How well we cope with personal change will affect our attitudes for how we cope with profes- sional change. What type of professional or organization change equates to each of these events? Job? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include new role, new position, new technology.) Move? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include office move, construction within physical location, change of physi- cal location.) Marriage? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include new boss, new coworkers, new work team, new peers.) Divorce? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include someone leaving organization, change in work team, old boss leaves.) Health crisis/death? (Allow participants to respond. Expected responses include end of a process, merger/acquisition, transforma- tion of culture, replacement of something old, stopping something.) These are very similar in the way we would approach our response to these changes because they become very personal to us. Let’s look at what can happen to our behaviors in times of change.

228 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Points: Connect to unresolved conflict from Part 1. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: When someone is stuck in a phase in the cycle it is due to the increasing pressure of one of the four forces (discussed in a later slide: Forces Affecting Change), and the behavior can turn negative. It is likely to be displayed in one or a combination of these faces. Passive resistor Agrees change needs to happen but takes no action. Fits and starts Tries different solutions but doesn’t stick with any. Outgrown Not interested. Happy with good old days. Sees no reason to change. Know-it-all Analysis paralysis. Consumes time with alternative possibilities; will exaggerate. Naysayer Inflexible, reactive, quick to point out why change won’t work. Aggressor Accepts change and implements diligently; focuses on precise exe- cution of plan. Forces others to accept back to unresolved conflict. Malicious compliance Say they agree to the change but work behind the scenes to destroy it, avoid it, or become a barrier to its success. How many of you have seen these behaviors in others as you have tried to lead a change? (Allow participants to respond.) How many of you could recognize this behavior in yourself? (Allow reflection.) Remember that an important part of leadership is followership. It is easy to identify behaviors in others and harder to put a mirror in front of ourselves to check our own behavior. Think about your own behavior and how well you support the changes your leader is trying to implement. How do you respond? Your followers are observing your followership behavior too, and that sometimes has greater influ- ence over them than your actual leadership. Be mindful of your own change behaviors.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 229 Overview and Key Points: Connect back to communication and conflict behaviors from Part 1 of this course. There are two models included in these notes. If you choose to include the alternative, you may need to prepare an additional handout. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: There are many change models available to follow when trying to manage change. Kotter’s 8-step model is simple and straightforward. Let’s review it one step at a time. Step One: Establish Urgency For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving. This isn’t simply a matter of showing people poor sales statistics or talking about increased competition. Open an honest and convinc- ing dialogue about what’s happening in the marketplace and with your competition. If many people start talking about the change you propose, the urgency can build and feed on itself. What you can do: Identify potential threats, and develop scenarios showing what could happen in the future. Examine opportunities that should or could be exploited. Start honest discussions and give dynamic and convincing reasons to get people talking and thinking. Request support from customers, outside stakeholders, and industry people to strengthen your argument. Kotter suggests that for change to be successful, 75% of a compa- ny’s management needs to buy in to the change. In other words, you have to really work hard on step one and spend significant time and energy building urgency before moving on to the next steps. Don’t panic and jump in too fast because you don’t want to risk further short-term losses; if you act without proper preparation, you could be in for a very bumpy ride. Ste p Two: Form a Powerful Coalition Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within your organiza- tion. Managing change isn’t enough—you have to lead it. You can find effective change leaders throughout your organization; they don’t necessarily follow the traditional company hierarchy. To lead change, you need to bring together a coalition or team of influ- ential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, includ- ing job title, status, expertise, and political importance. Once formed, your change coalition needs to work as a team, con- tinuing to build urgency and momentum around the need for change. What you can do: Identify the true leaders in your organization. Ask for an emotional commitment from these key people. Work on team building within your change coalition. Check your team for weak areas and ensure that you have a good mix of people from different departments and different levels within your company. Step Three: Create a Vision for Change When you first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember. A clear vision can help everyone understand why you’re asking them to do something. When people see for themselves what you’re try- ing to achieve, then the directives they’re given tend to make more sense. What you can do: Determine the values that are central to the change. Develop a short summary (one or two sentences) that captures what you see as the future of your organization. Create a strategy to execute that vision. Ensure that your change coalition can describe the vision in 5 min- utes or less. Practice your “vision speech” often. Step Four: Communicate the Vision What you do with your vision after you create it will determine your success. Your message will probably have strong competition from

230 Airport Leadership Development Program other day-to-day communications within the company, so you need to communicate it frequently and powerfully and embed it within everything that you do. Don’t just call special meetings to communicate your vision. Instead, talk about it every chance you get. Use the vision daily to make deci- sions and solve problems. When you keep it fresh on everyone’s minds, they’ll remember it and respond to it. It’s also important to walk the talk. What you do is far more important— and believable—than what you say. Demonstrate the kind of behav- ior that you want from others. What you can do: Talk often about your change vision. Openly and honestly address peoples’ concerns and anxieties. Apply your vision to all aspects of operations, from training to perfor- mance reviews. Tie everything back to the vision. Lead by example. Step Five: Empower Others If you follow these steps and reach this point in the change process, you’ve been talking about your vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. Hopefully, your staff wants to get busy and achieve the benefits that you’ve been promoting. But is anyone resisting the change? And are there processes or structures that are getting in its way? Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for bar- riers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute your vision, and it can help the change move forward. What you can do: Identify or hire change leaders whose main roles are to deliver the change. Look at your organizational structure, job descriptions, and perfor- mance and compensation systems to ensure they’re in line with your vision. Recognize and reward people for making change happen. Identify people who are resisting the change, and help them see what’s needed. Take action to quickly remove barriers (human or otherwise). Step Six: Create Quick Wins Nothing motivates more than success. Give your company a taste of victory early in the change process. Within a short time frame (this could be a month or a year, depending on the type of change), you’ll want to have results that your staff can see. Without this, critics and negative thinkers may hurt your progress. Create short-term targets, not just one long-term goal. You want each smaller target to be achievable, with little room for failure. Your change team may have to work very hard to come up with these tar- gets, but each win that you produce can further motivate the entire staff. What you can do: Look for sure-fire projects that you can implement without help from any strong critics of the change. Don’t choose early targets that are expensive. You want to be able to justify the investment in each project. Thoroughly analyze the potential pros and cons of your targets. If you don’t succeed with an early goal, it can hurt your entire change initiative. Reward the people who help you meet the targets. Step Seven: Build on the Change Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Launching one new product using a new system is great. But if you can launch 10 products, that means the new system is working. To reach that 10th success, you need to keep looking for improvements. Each success provides an opportunity to build on what went right and identify what you can improve. What you can do: After every win, analyze what went right and what needs improving. Set goals to continue building on the momentum you’ve achieved. Learn about kaizen, the idea of continuous improvement. Keep ideas fresh by bringing in new change agents and leaders for your change coalition. Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of your organization. Your corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind your vision must show in day-to-day work. Make continuous efforts to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of your organization. This will help give that change a solid place in your organization’s culture. It’s also important that your company’s leaders continue to support the change. This includes existing staff and new leaders who are brought in. If you lose the support of these people, you may end up back where you started. What you can do: Talk about progress every chance you get. Tell success stories about the change process, and repeat other stories that you hear. Include the change ideals and values when hiring and training new staff. Publicly recognize key members of your original change coalition, and make sure the rest of the staff—new and old—remembers their contributions. Create plans to replace key leaders of change as they move on. This will help ensure that their legacy is not lost or forgotten. Stage 1: Awareness/Identification (Socialization) Trigger event occurs and change actions are identified; this typically happens in some sort of event like kick-off meetings, announcements, acquisitions or mergers, roll out of a new policy, courageous conver- sations, information sessions, rah-rah sessions, or road shows. Behaviors: Participants in the change have an emotional reaction, which can include shock, an adrenaline rush, heightened curiosity, excitement, anxiety, fear, or fight or flight reaction; they begin to think about new behaviors and immediately start applying the forces of change along with identification of their perspective relative to the scale of how they attach value to the change. People have a ten- dency to behave from a release of the initial energy, which can result in rumors, gossip, partnering up, whispering, or acting out of typical character. Start talking about need to change, take a class, read, learn some- thing, trigger event, identify something to stop, start, or change, begin to think about new behavior, inventory, or audit. What leadership tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Leadership tactics: Be prepared for an emotional reaction and allow it to happen, have tolerance and patience, put yourself in their shoes receiving information, coach/mentor, be visible, communicate clear expectations, keep the end goal in sight, and expect some level of chaos. What participant tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Participant tactics: Identify release of energy and allow it to hap- pen appropriately. Realistically identify and objectively review the actual change and what is being asked of you. Determine the scale An alternative model for change management is similar to the grieving process. This follows the leadership journey as well.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 231 of forces of change and determine your current level of tolerance for change. Place realistic value on change. Stage 2: Resistance/Anger (Socialization) Behaviors: Why me, feel sorry for self, that’s not the way we did it before, focus on past, it’s a stupid idea, throw out barriers, it won’t work, it’s not fair, emotional reaction, I don’t have to, you can’t make me, I hate it, temper tantrum, finger pointing, avoidance, ignoring, passive resistance. What leadership tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Consistency, clear messages, patience, allowing time to pass for cooling off, discussions. What participant tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Work through the emotion, focus on the positives. Stage 3: Negotiation (Socialization) Behaviors: Negotiation—If I do that, what will you do for me? Do some of the new behaviors but not all—just enough. Go through motions for function but no engagement. Look for alternatives, distractions, other choices or options. Participants come up with grandiose ideas for new projects or alternatives, spending time on distractions or coming up with other things to do rather than what the actual change should be. This is the hardest phase! This phase is where the leader must hold true to the goal and not negotiate or the change will fail. Talk around the water cooler: distractions, alternatives; distractions from the change; all talk, no action; if I do this, what will you do for me? bargain; do some, not all; do bare minimum; go through motions; fake it; do it only when you are looking; look for alternative choices and options, practice. Be aware of malicious compliance. This may look like acceptance but isn’t lasting; where most changes fail; requires the most energy. What leadership tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Leadership tactics: Be prepared for change hijackers. Be clear about consequences for not performing the changes. Do not negotiate expectations to the lowest performer on the team because they are not willing to change. Do not allow guilt about change or impacts of change; negotiate vision for future. Use discipline, counseling, and feedback to move through this phase. Still have a high level of engagement, interaction, and visibility. This phase is critical for leadership because it directly influences the participants’ belief in the forces of change. If a change is negoti- ated, it will actually affect a participant’s belief and perspective of change tolerance by validating the value placed on the forces of change. What participant tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Participant tactics: Identify again the value and perspective placed on change tolerance and the forces of change. Gain a clear under- standing of the value of the vision of the change. Engage positive support. Stage 4: Acceptance (Commit) Behaviors: Practice, let go of the old, incorporating as a habit, just- do-it attitude. Participants’ behaviors—doing the newly changed behaviors with no crying, moaning, or groaning. It is becoming part of the normal routine. Internalization of the change. Talk around the water cooler: funny stories about old habits, positive reactions to the new changes, stories about how it is making a dif- ference, just do it, make the change and stick to it, incorporated as a habit, Let go of the old, talk stops, barriers stopped. What leadership tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Leadership tactics: Become less engaged and let momentum take its course. Training wheels come off and individuals need to begin performing on their own. Need touch points to be sure team is on track. Become a guide and use course correction that is directionally correct. Pay attention and observe rather than be directly engaged. Use champions to communicate to you. What participant tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Participant tactics: Perspective on change is different. Increased per- spective on previous success with change. Feeling of accomplish- ment and success. Begin to have a healthy respect for change. Can become a champion for change in the future. Stage 5: Implementation (Engage) Behaviors: Share stories with others, teach others how to make changes too, assist in creating the next cool thing to implement. Continuous improvement opportunities. Participants have auto- mated behavior, champion efforts to show continued progress, and tell stories about successes. Externalization (sharing with others) of the change. Talk around the water cooler: the next change to implement or how you can teach it to others to reap additional benefit. Work toward a goal, internalized, see the value, see the vision, become a champion for others, share success stories, use the lan- guage, teach others, assist in the direction, leadership. What leadership tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Leadership tactics: Communication of change—tell stories of suc- cesses, advocate for employees in the best interest of the organi- zation, make the change repeatable and scalable through lessons learned and identification of transferrable skills, mentor others through process. What participant tactics are appropriate for these behaviors? Participant tactics: Engaged; energized; looking for new opportuni- ties to apply changes; identifying transferrable, scalable, repeatable ways to use what was learned; environment of continuous improve- ment; a supportive team working together. Identify your change tolerance and the tolerance of your followers to help you manage yourself and others through change.

232 Airport Leadership Development Program Overview and Key Topics: Link forces of change to faces of change and the change cycle. Bring all of the concepts together through discussions. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: These forces of change (read slide) determine how quickly one will work through the change process. No matter what benefits are aligned to the change, it’s these forces that determine an individu- al’s tolerance and likelihood for moving through the process. This explains why heart attack survivors leave the hospital and don’t quit smoking or don’t lose weight. Their current level of discomfort has passed, and the attractiveness of the vision of the future is not great enough to motivate. They may not have had previous success or may not have a good support group as well. As you work through the cycle of change, these four forces will be acting upon you. The strength of any of these forces will determine how quickly or slowly you or anyone will work through the cycle. Each of these forces can be measured on a scale from negative to neutral to positive. The collective relativity of these forces is your change perspective and will be different depending on what trigger event and change action has happened. The relative points on the scale for the collective sum of these forces makes up your perspective of the change. You can not predict someone’s reaction to change because of the relativity of the subjective perspective for these forces from each individual going through the change. These forces of change and the scale of perception applied to each force is the value participants put on their need to change and will directly reflect how quickly they are able to process the change actions. This value of their need to change equates to change tolerance. Because each person’s perspective is unique and each change event is unique, keeping these change forces in the front of your mind is very important. Use this slide and this scale to help yourself through awareness. When assisting someone in working through change, you cannot force them through the cycle but rather focus on which force is acting against them and help them work through it.

Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes 233 Overview and Key Topics: Perform an assessment center. Use the materials in the facilitator guide to give groups an assessment to gauge learning so far in the course. Culminating assessment scenarios: Strategic Thinking You are the director of a small airport with 52 employees. Your staff is lean, and you are operating the airport with only one person with knowledge in most critical areas. Next year you will start a major cap- ital project to update the terminal building. You are looking at ways to operate more efficiently in order to keep the budget flat while devel- oping staff for better coverage in case of emergency. Outline the strategic plan you would draft to share with your organi- zation. Include performing an environment scan to justify and sup- port the direction. Prepare a change management plan to include in the strategy execution. Prepare the following: environment scan, SWOT, strategy map, key communication activities, change management plan Culture Transformation You are the vice president of administration in a medium hub airport with 356 employees. The staff has been with the organization for an average of 18 years, but most have only worked at this airport. You recognize that the organization seems busy but not capable of dem- onstrating the results of efforts. You determine that staff is spending the majority of its time in meetings that are not translating to desired and meaningful results. Outline the culture transformation for the organization. Include a vision for the culture you want to exist. Perform a meeting inventory of current meetings and a plan for changing the types and frequency of meetings in the new culture. Prepare a change management plan to include in the culture transformation. Prepare the following: vision for culture; meeting inventory—old and new, with purpose, frequency, etc; key transformation and communi- cation activities; change management plan. Crisis Communication You were the number two in charge at a small airport with 85 employ- ees. Within the past 6 months you have lost a main air service pro- vider, resulting in the downsizing of staff by 15 employees. Within the last week the director has been diagnosed with a serious illness and has left the organization suddenly. The board put you in charge in the interim. Outline the crisis communication for the organization. Include a strat- egy for the future and for what is next. Prepare a change manage- ment plan for the change in leadership as well as the change in business structure. Prepare the following: crisis communication plan; immediate goals and long-term goals for the organization; any organization realign- ment; change management plan. Power and Influence in Relationships You are the chief financial officer at a medium-sized airport with 275 employees, 125 of which are represented by unions. The most recent employee satisfaction survey results show that staff are feeling over- worked and underappreciated. You decide you would like to work with your peers on how to use their power and influence to motivate their teams. This new energy must cascade through the organization to get to the line level where the burden is felt the highest. Through observations, you know you will need to provide feedback to some of your peers about their specific behaviors that are not motivating. Outline how you would educate your peers about power and influ- ence. Include the translation of influence to motivations. Determine how you would provide feedback to them through the process. Pre- pare a change management plan to address the issue of satisfaction. Prepare the following: power and influence education for your peers; identification of the issues and desired results; essential action items; change management plan. Actions: Form groups; 3-4 per group is a good number. Hand out assessment scenarios to each group. Provide directions.

234 Airport Leadership Development Program Script: Let’s break into groups to perform a culminating assessment using all of the skills and knowledge we have learned. Each group will receive a scenario that might be typical of your environment. It is your job to write all of the steps that might take place to implement the scenario, then present it to the rest of your class to receive feedback. Use your worksheets in your participant guide to capture your plan. Once you are completed, you will need a spokesperson to deliver the results to the class. (Break into groups; allow time to work.) Okay, now that your scenarios are complete, let’s hear the results. Each team will deliver the information, including the original sce- nario. The rest of you in the class, be prepared to provide feedback for alternatives to consider as well as other circumstances you may know would occur in the situation. Who would like to go first? (Allow each team to present; when each team is complete, ask for class to provide feedback.) Well done! Note: while presentations are being delivered, pay attention to any trends in missing or misunderstood information and refer back to that content for review. Overview and Key Topics Summarize and close the class. Actions: Reveal and review slide. Script: We have now finished the course content. I would like to give you a few minutes to go back and review some of the information in Part 1 of the materials, including the challenges that were captured in the first section of the course. Take some time to identify skills, strate- gies, and knowledge you will use to apply to managing through these challenges going forward. Now I would like you to revisit your personal leadership brand. Final- ize your draft. Commit to behaviors moving forward. Find an account- ability partner. Review your 360-degree feedback report. What behaviors do you commit to changing? Update your personal development road map. Celebrate your successes! Remember followership. Finally, review your commitment to changes for your organization on your organization road map. What are the things you would like to implement from this class? What are the opportunities to increase socialization, commitment, engagement, and execution in your organization? Please fill out the evaluation for this class. We are interested in your feedback to make us better at what we do. Thank you all for your participation in this course. You have a right to be a leader. Go out there and lead!

235 SECTION 3: PROGRAM PARTICIPANT WORKBOOK Introduction This participant workbook is a supplement to the curriculum materials found in the Program Facilitator Guide of the Airport Leadership Development Program. The workbook is intended to be used by participants as they progress through the material found in the curriculum. It includes figures, charts, and activities for the participant to use along with the instruction. S e c t i o n 3 Program Participant Workbook

236 Airport Leadership Development Program 2 Leadership The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task

Program Participant Workbook 237 3 Leadership Concepts Self-Management Leadership styles• • • Leadership journey Personal development road map

238 Airport Leadership Development Program 4 Self-Management Self awareness is preparation for growth. Self-management is the application of developmental opportunities for continuous improvement in your attitudes, abilities, skills, and knowledge. Demonstrating strong self-management establishes your leadership style. Self-management includes your willingness to accept and apply feedback. It means having a clear vision of your values and ethics and the ability to stay true to yourself regardless of the influences around you. Self-management also determines the boundaries for the way you will treat people and how people will treat you.

Program Participant Workbook 239 5 Challenges Individual Challenges Leadership Challenges Organizational Challenges

240 Airport Leadership Development Program 6 Draft Your Leadership Brand Think about these questions as you begin to define your own brand. What results do you want to achieve in the next year? What do you wish to be known for? What words or phrases define your identity? Use this fill-in-the-blank guide to help: “I want to be known for being _____________________ so I can deliver ________________.” Personal Leadership Brand Draft

Program Participant Workbook 241 7 Leadership Styles Six Core Leadership Styles, with Skills Style Skills Directive Driving; marshalling resources and directing energy toward achieving a goal Engaged Motivating; identifying and addressing the desires of others Coaching Teaching; bringing others along a path of learning a new skill or domain Democratic Collaborating; responding to others and building on their contributions with your own Affiliative Empathizing; understanding the feelings and states of mind of others Expert Mastering; turning new knowledge into a domain of expertise

242 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 8 107 Leadership Journey STRATEGIC VISION STRATEGY EXECUTION COMMITMENT CULTURE MONITOR AND CORRECT

Program Participant W orkbook 243 9 Leadership Passages Reference: The Leadership Pipeline by Ram Charan, Stephen Drotter, and James Neal

244 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 10 SUPERVISOR Description: Individual contributions are still part of the job description for a first-line manager, but they must be balanced with management of others. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Motivate and coach. Selection of people. Delegate work and empower frontline employees. Culture setting (by example: positive attitude, core values). Relationship building up, down, and sideways for team’s benefit. Communication. Management Plan work: projects, budget, workforce within span of control. Minimize doing. Manage to plan and budget. Measure work of others. Set priorities for team. Frontline employee performance monitoring and accountability. Current, immediate, and short-term focus. Current and near-term focus. Manage boundaries that separate units that report directly and with other parts of the business. Begin to think beyond department into strategic issues to support overall business. Coaching and mentoring. Fails to reallocate time from doing work to getting work done through others. Cannot allocate all of their time to putting out fires, seizing opportunities, and handling tasks themselves. Stress among individual contributors. Available capacity in individual contributors. Fixing mistakes of others rather than teaching. Focus on past. Suggested development opportunities: DiSC (or other personality profile), goal setting, performance management, communication styles, time management, resource planning, coaching and mentoring, project management.

Program Participant W orkbook 245 11 MANAGER Description: Where the company’s management foundation is constructed. Managers must become pure management, taking responsibility for managing existing tasks, projects, or cultures, but not leading cultural or strategic change. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Selecting people to become first-line managers. Measure progress and coach first supervisors and superintendents. Collaborate and support other managers when opportunities occur. Manage boundaries that separate units that report directly and with other parts of the business. Begin to think beyond department into strategic issues to support overall business. Return first-line managers to individual contributors if appropriate. Current and near-term focus. Management Assign managerial and leadership work to supervisors and superintendents. Hold supervisors and superintendents accountable for managerial work. Participate in teams with directors. Participate in business meetings. Work with directors outside functional area. Increased managerial maturity—thinking like a director instead of manager. Adopt a broad, long-term perspective. Future focus; sustainable competitive advantage. Spend more time listening. Review plans and proposals from a functional ability to get things done. Focus on what can get done. May have skipped first-line management. Tries to retain individual contributions, which instills the wrong values and confusion in team. Inability to differentiate with those who are expert contributors and those who can lead. Difficulty delegating. Single-minded focus on getting work done. Failure to build a strong team. Poor performance management. Choosing clones over contributors. Suggested development opportunities: Leadership development, serve on internal committees, external relationships (within organization), goal alignment, performance management, program management, special project assignments, mentoring.

246 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 12 DIRECTOR Description: Manage areas outside their own experiences; must penetrate two layers of management to communicate to individual contributors. Receive a significant level of autonomy within own division. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Report to multifunctional general managers and need to become skilled at taking other functional concerns into consideration. Team play with other functional managers. Proficient strategist to align functional business to organization strategy. Adopt a broad, long-term perspective. Future focus; sustainable competitive advantage. Long-term thinking. Stop doing things every second and reserve time for reflection and analysis. Awareness of the state of the art. Complete understanding of business model. Factors all aspects of function into strategy. Ability to make trade-offs within the function that support business strategy, profit rather than just the function’s success. Spend more time listening. Focus on what can get done. Management Develop business case justifications to compete for resources based on business needs. Participate in business team meetings. Work with other functional managers. Increased managerial maturity: thinking like a functional leader instead of functional member. Begin to manage up strategically. Review plans and proposals from a functional ability to get things done. Participate in teams with vice presidents. Participate in enterprise- level business meetings. Work with vice presidents outside functional area. Strategic and cross- functional. Review plans and proposals from a profit perspective. Long-term view. Working with wide variety of people. Sensitive to functional diversity issues. Balance future goals and present needs to make trade-offs between the two. Failure to make the transition from an operational project orientation to a strategic orientation. Poor sense of how business operates. Lack of long-term thinking. Lack of a functional strategy that ties functional activities to business goals. Ignores corporate functional standards, needs, policies, and programs. Inability to manage and value work that is unfamiliar or of relatively little interest. Shows bias toward familiar areas. Immaturity in leader—manager skills. Suggested development opportunities: Master self-leadership, serve on external local committees and boards, business analytics, external relationships (outside organization), strategic thinking and execution, goal alignment to strategy, portfolio management, mentoring.

Program Participant W orkbook 247 13 VICE PRESIDENT Description: Value the success of their own business. Receive a significant level of autonomy across functional areas. Must focus on integrating functions instead of understanding and working with other functions. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Strategic and cross-functional. Review plans and proposals from a profit perspective. Long-term view. Skills in working with wide variety of people. Sensitive to functional diversity issues. Balance future goals and present needs to make trade-offs between the two. Focus on how business will grow. Considerations of external factors and influences—ability to perform environmental scans. Be highly visible internally (up and down hierarchy) and externally. Management Clear link between efforts and marketplace results. Meet quarterly profit, market share, product, and people targets while planning for goals 3 to 5 years in the future. Learn to ask the right questions, analyze the right data, and apply the right corporate perspective to understand which strategy has greatest probability for success. Manage the business’ portfolio strategy. Astute about assessing capabilities of resources; make difficult decisions. Factor in complexities about running the business. Risk-based decision making; take on calculated opportunities. Not valuing staff functions. Must trust, accept advice, and receive feedback from all functional managers. Must think differently about the business. Too much focus on products or systems and not enough on people. Uninspired communication. Inability to assemble a strong team. Failure to grasp how to generate revenue. Problems with time management. Neglect of soft issues. Suggested development opportunities: Executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, master of change management, serve on industry committees and boards, culture transformation, crisis communication, enterprise management, mentoring.

248 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 14 CxO Description: This position values the success of other people’s businesses. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Evaluate strategy for capital allocation and deployment purposes. Learn to ask the right questions, analyze the right data, and apply the right corporate perspective to understand which strategy has greatest probability for success. Develop business managers. Be astute about assessing capabilities of resources; make difficult decisions. Factor in complexities about running the business. Risk-based decision making; take on calculated opportunities. Develop systems that drive performance in tune to long-term strategy. Management Manage the business’ portfolio strategy. Move from operational to global perspective. Manage an enterprise in totality. Well-developed external sensitivity. Set enterprise vision and culture. Authority is being usurped. Not properly supported. Not operating at peak performance. Adversarial relationship with organization. Suggested development opportunities: Individual development plan, executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, master of change management, serve on industry committees and boards, culture transformation, crisis communication, enterprise management, mentoring.

Program Participant W orkbook 249 15 CEO/PRESIDENT OF ORGANIZATION Description: Executive-level position. Focus changes to values rather than skills. Must be long-term visionary thinkers. Responsibilities Skills to Develop Pitfalls/Signs of Incorrect Focus Leadership Set enterprise vision and culture. Well-developed external sensitivity. Proactively identify external influences and impacts. Set 3 or 4 mission-critical priorities and focus on them. Move from operational to global perspective. Assemble a team of high performing and ambitious direct reports. Develop a successor. Responsible to multiple constituencies: board, workforce, regulators, direct reports, local community. Highest level of visibility. Management Ability to manage external constituencies. Manage an enterprise in totality. Development of others. Clear understanding of power and influence of position. Simplification of complex issues. Motivational and inspirational. Release internal control—focus on the external and the future. Failure to let go of the pieces and focus on the whole. Misunderstanding the power/influence of the position. Inability to set a clear enterprise direction. Inability to deliver consistent, predictable top- and bottom-line results. Inability to shape the soft side of the enterprise (culture). Inability to maintain an edge in execution. Inability to manage conflicting advice from boards. Ignorance about how the organization gets work done. Too much time spent on external relationships. Skipped too many levels. Suggested development opportunities: Value-based focus, visionary thinking, motivational and inspirational speaking, power and influence, individual development plan, executive coaching, 360-degree feedback process, serve on industry committees and boards.

250 Airport Leadership Development Program 16 Effective Followership Select a present or past manager and answer each question about your behavior using the following scale. 5 _____ 4 _____ 3 _____ 2 _____ 1 _____ I do this regularly I do not do this _____ 1. I offer my support and encouragement to my manager when things are not going well. _____ 2. I take initiative to do more than my normal job without having to be asked to do things. _____ 3. I counsel and coach my manager when it is appropriate, such as with a new, inexperienced manager, and in unique situations in which the manager needs help. _____ 4. When the manager does not have a good idea, I raise concerns and try to improve the plans, rather than simply implement a poor decision. _____ 5. I seek and encourage the manager to give honest feedback rather than avoiding it and acting defensively when it is offered. _____ 6. I try to clarify my role in tasks by making sure I understand my manager’s expectations of me and my performance standards. _____ 7. I show my appreciation to my manager, such as saying thanks when he or she does something in my interest. _____ 8. I keep the manager informed; I don’t withhold bad news. _____ 9. I would resist inappropriate influence by the boss; if asked, I would not do anything illegal or unethical. Add the numbers on lines 1 to 9 and place your score here ________ and on the continuum that follows. 9 ______ 15 _______ 25 _______ 35 ________ 45 ________ Ineffective follower Effective follower The higher your score, generally the more effective you are as a follower. However, your manager also has an effect on your followership. A poor manager can affect your followership behavior; however, make sure you do try to be a good follower. (Material adapted from Mastering Self-Leadership: Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence by Charles Manz and Christopher Neck.)

Program Participant Workbook 251 17 Key Attributes of Self-Managed Leaders Brainstorm Activity Reflections

252 Airport Leadership Development Program 18 Personal Development Road Map Self Awareness Energy: Where do you get your energy? Vision: What is your personal mission? Abilities: How you see yourself Goals and Values: What matters to you? Perceptions: How others see you Growth: Development opportunities Leadership Brand: Who am I, and how do I want to be known by those we serve? Leadership Legacy The leader you want to be to create the environment you want to lead in

Program Participant Workbook 253 19 • • • • • Leadership Fundamentals Communication styles Conflict resolution Unresolved conflict Critical thinking Decision making

254 Airport Leadership Development Program 20 Communication Eye contact Facial animation Gestures Stance Props Electronic Communication E-mail and texting are very common tools for communication and yet words alone provide only 7% of the meaning of a message. A good leader will determine when electronic communication is appropriate for the meaning of the message and choose alternative delivery methods when necessary. If electronic communication is necessary, it is important that the receiver have a relationship with the sender to hear the tone of voice from the individual in the message to assist with interpretation. It is also good practice to follow up electronic communication with an alternative method to ensure correct interpretation.

Program Participant Workbook 255 21 Self-Style Analysis Instructions: This is an informal survey designed to determine how you usually interact with others. This survey tries to provide a clear description of how you see yourself, so please be as candid as possible. Circle the one letter for each set of statements that best describes you most of the time, in most situations, and with most people. Please make a choice for every set of statements: Key: I = Introvert E = Extrovert P = Slow A = Fast 1. E Easy to get to know personally in business or unfamiliar social environments. I More difficult to get to know personally in business or unfamiliar social environments. 2. I Focuses conversations on issues and tasks at hand; stays on subject. E Conversation reflects personal life experience; may stray from the business at hand. 3. P Infrequent contributor to group conversations. A Frequent contributor to group conversations. 4. P Tends to adhere to the letter of the law. A Tends to interpret the spirit of the law. 5. I Makes most decisions based on your goals, facts, or evidence. E Makes most decisions based on your feelings, experience, or relationships. 6. P Infrequently uses gestures and voice intonation to emphasize points. A Frequently uses gestures and voice intonations to emphasize points. 7 A More likely to make emphatic statements like “this is so” and “I feel.” P More likely to make qualified statements like “according to my sources.” 8 E Greater natural tendency toward animated facial expressions or observable body responses during speaking and listening. I More limited facial expressions or observable body responses during speaking and listening. 9 I Tends to keep important personal feelings private; tends to share only when necessary. E Tends to be willing to show or share personal feelings more freely. 10 I Shows less enthusiasm than the average person. E Shows more enthusiasm than the average person.

256 Airport Leadership Development Program 22 11 A More likely to introduce self to others at social gatherings. P More likely to wait for others to introduce themselves at social gatherings. 12. E Flexible about how his or her time is used by others. I Disciplined about how his or her time is used by others. 13 I Goes with his or her own agenda. E Goes with the flow. 14 A More naturally assertive in behavior. P More naturally reserved in behavior. 15 A Tends to express his or her own views more readily. P Tends to reserve the expression of his or her own opinions. 16 A Tends to naturally decide more quickly or spontaneously. P Tends to naturally decide more slowly or deliberately. 17 I Prefers to work independently or dictate the relationship conditions. E Prefers to work with others or be included in relationship. 18 P Naturally approaches risk or change more slowly or cautiously. A Naturally approaches risk or change more quickly or spontaneously. Total number circled: I______ E______ P______ A_______

Program Participant W orkbook 257 23 Communication Self-Style Analysis Graph I E P A RELATOR SOCIALIZER ANALYZER DRIVER

258 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program Behaviors:_______________________________ Motivators:______________________________ Conflict Style:________________________________ RELATOR Strength:________________________________ Weakness:_______________________________ Effective:________________________________ I N D I R E C T Comparing the Characteristics of Four Different Communication Styles PEOPLE D I R E C T Behaviors:_______________________________ Motivators:______________________________ Conflict Style:________________________________ SOCIALIZER Strength:________________________________ Weakness:_______________________________ Effective:________________________________ Behaviors:_______________________________ Motivators:______________________________ Conflict Style:________________________________ ANALYZER Strength:________________________________ Weakness:_______________________________ Effective:________________________________ Behaviors:_______________________________ Motivators:______________________________ Conflict Style:________________________________ DRIVER Strength:________________________________ Weakness:_______________________________ Effective:________________________________ TASK

Program Participant Workbook 259 Communication Tips FACTORS SOCIALIZER DRIVER RELATOR ANALYTICAL How to recognize: They get excited. They like their own way; decisive and strong viewpoints. They like positive attention, to be helpful, and to be regarded warmly. They seek a lot of data, ask many questions, behave methodically and systematically. Tends to ask: Who? (the personal dominant question) What (the results- oriented question). Why? (the personal non- goal question). How? (the technical analytical question). What they dislike: Boring explanations wasting time with too many facts. Someone wasting their time trying to decide for them. Rejection, being treated impersonally, uncaring and unfeeling attitudes. Making an error, being unprepared, spontaneity. Reacts to pressure and tension by: Selling their ideas or argumentative. Taking charge, taking more control. Becoming silent, withdrawing, becoming introspective. Seeking more data and information. Best way to deal with: Get excited with them. Show emotion. Let them be in charge. Be supportive; show you care. Provide lots of data and information. Likes to be measured by: Applause, feedback, recognition. Results, goal- oriented. Friends, close relationships. Activity and busyness that leads to results. Must be allowed to: Get ahead quickly. Likes challenges. Get into a competitive situation. Likes to win. Relax, feel, care, know you care. Make decisions at own pace, not be cornered or pressured. Will improve with: Recognition and some structure with which to reach the goal. A position that requires cooperation with others. A structure of goals and methods for achieving each goal. Interpersonal and communication skills. Likes to save: Effort. They rely heavily on hunches, intuition, feelings. Time. They like to be efficient, get things done now. Relationships. Friendship means a lot to them. Face. They hate to make an error, be wrong, or get caught without enough info. For best results: Inspire them to bigger and better accomplishments. Allow them freedom to do things their own way. Care and provide detail, specific plans, and activities to Structure a framework or track to follow. be accomplished.

260 Airport Leadership Development Program 27 Conflict Resolution There are two types of conflict: constructive and destructive. Constructive: provides differing points of view to help group achieve a higher understanding and a better outcome. Destructive: dysfunctional sharing of differing points of view focused on breaking down ability of others to achieve goals and objectives. Reasons for Conflict 1. Personal differences a. Arise from different motivations, needs, beliefs, values, perceptions, interpretations, and expectations. b. Diverse points of view. c. Lack of unified culture around a common purpose. 2. Information a. Different sources of information provided or different interpretations of the same information acted upon. 3. Different objectives a. Individuals and groups can have different or incompatible purposes, goals, and objectives. b. Conflicting and contradictory priorities. c. Lack of clear direction. 4. Environmental factors a. Competition for organizational resources; economic impacts on environment. b. Attempts to break cultural norms in order to make the organization better.

Program Participant Workbook 261 28 Communication and Conflict Resolution Assessment Center What is the communication issue? What is the conflict? What are the symptoms? What is the resolution?

262 Airport Leadership Development Program 29 Critical Thinking Evaluate your critical thinking skills: Do you look for multiple ways to define problems? YES NO Do you look for more than one option or solution? YES NO Do you look for implications and effects of behaviors, solutions, and actions? YES NO Do you anticipate people’s concerns? YES NO Do you usually see connections and interrelationships between things? YES NO Do you approach work from a systems- and process-oriented point of view? YES NO Do you figure out ways to get your ideas accepted? YES NO Do you plan for reactions and responses from others? YES NO Do you ask for the assumptions that underlie strategies and plans? YES NO Are you curious about why others see things differently? YES NO Do people see you as open to the ideas and perspectives of others? YES NO Do others give you feedback that you are flexible and adaptable? YES NO Do you regularly change your mind when you are given new information? YES NO

Program Participant Workbook 263 30 Decision Making Making good decisions takes an investment of time to collect data and include the right people in the process. Too often decisions are made quickly without the necessary perspectives or a logical approach, or decision making takes too long and too many opinions are included in the process, which complicates the solutions. Different situations require different types of decision-making processes. As a leader, it is your responsibility to use the right decision-making process for the type of decision required. Types of Decisions Strategic, risk-based, complex, or long term Simple, short term, tactical Approaches for Decision Making Tactical: You make the decision. In this case you are taking the initiative and responsibility for the decision. This level is used when directing new employees or in situations where corrective actions or decisions have to be made immediately. You delegate the responsibility for making the decision to the employee who should own the decision. There are from one to only a few solutions for the decision. Strategic: You ask for input from stakeholders, and then you make a decision on what to do in a particular situation. You weigh cost, benefit, and likelihood in making the decision. There are many possible solutions to the decision process.

264 Airport Leadership Development Program 31 Decision Making with Consensus 1. Decide what we are trying to accomplish (ask yourself “why?” at least five times for clarity). 2. Identify the key stakeholders in successfully achieving the goal(s) and what their points of view are likely to be. 3. Which of these stakeholders are more influential in the success of the goal? 4. As applicable, identify what bases of power and/or influence might be used, and by whom, to persuade each stakeholder to become more supportive? 5. What are the various strategies and/or tactics to use toward achieving the goal(s)? 6. Choose a course of action and get it done!

Program Participant W orkbook 265 32 Consensus Worksheet Program/Project Weight 1–3 Perspective A Perspective B Agreement Comments Statutory impacts Safety Security Environmental Legal Strategic priority alignment Business driver Impact on human capital Impact on facilities or processes, including internal technology needs Financial benefit Generated revenue Estimated savings Sustainability Funding requirements Initial Ongoing maintenance Preservation/replacement Risk Customer or community impact Pros Cons Social responsibility Public image/perception

266 Airport Leadership Development Program 33 Risk-Based Decision Making Cost/benefit involved in the outcome of the decision is included in the analysis. Possible scenarios are determined and impact and likelihood of each scenario are calculated to assist in the decision-making process. Impact is determined by either the risk or the opportunity. Select a category of impact respective of the scenarios identified through the decision-making process. Use this along with the likelihood category to help make the decision. Impact Scale Risk Opportunity Catastrophic Destructive Considerable Material Minimal High value Significant Moderate Minimal None Likelihood Scale Almost certain (90% chance) Likely (~75% chance) Possible (~50%) Unlikely (~25%) Remote (<5%)

Program Participant Workbook 267 34 Decision-Making Question Model Where did the issue arise? Where does it have an impact? Is the “where” important? If so, why? What are the problems I am trying to solve? What exactly do I want to achieve and what are the deliverables? What are the symptoms and the facts? What would happen if no decision was made or solution found? What do I need in order to find a solution? Why do I want to achieve a solution or take advantage of an opportunity? Why did the problem or opportunity arise? Why do I need to find a solution or way forward at all? Why not? How will the situation be different? How relevant is the information I am gathering? How can I find out more? How can I involve relevant people? How will I know if I am successful? Who is the audience or customer? Who is affected, initially and in the long-term? Who is involved (information, help, action, sustaining)? Who do I need perspective, buy-in, or approval from? Who needs to be informed? When did the issue arise? When do we need to act? By when must it be resolved? WHAT WHY HOW WHERE WHO WHEN How much is the initial investment in resources? (hard and soft cost) How much is the total cost of ownership? How much are the life expectancy and replacement costs? How much time will be invested? How much are we generating and/or how much are we losing if we don’t do it? HOW MUCH • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

268 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 35 Decision-Making Table Issues/Problem/Decision Statement: Solutions Likelihood Impact-Cost Impact-Benefit StakeholderSupport Stakeholder Resistance

Program Participant Workbook 269 36 Business Case Assessment Worksheet Why is the project needed? (issues and opportunities) How will it solve issues or take advantage of opportunities in the organization? What is the recommendation? What are the benefits? What will happen if it is not done? When could it be implemented? What dependencies does it have? What resources are needed to complete? (time, people, money)

270 Airport Leadership Development Program 37 Negotiation 1. A negotiation strategy is one in which each party attempts to reach agreement with other parties while relinquishing as little as possible of what is important. 2. Negotiated settlements are most effective when the following conditions exist: a. All parties believe they will benefit from the outcome. b. There is the belief that the other party will live up to agreed terms. c. Neither party possesses and wishes to use sufficient power to force a solution. d. At least one party is willing to initiate the process with a proposal. e. There is proper authority to negotiate by each party. f. It is accepted that getting all one wants is not probable; there is general satisfaction in coming out with the best that was possible. g. Sufficient information is available to all parties before, during, and after the negotiation process. h. All parties are open and receptive to innovative alternatives. 3. A win–lose strategy is a struggle for dominance. It may be a fast or expedient way of coping with conflict, but the conflict will manifest itself in another way. The danger in this strategy is its long-term effects: a. Lower levels of trust. b. Increased defensive or counter-aggressive behaviors. c. Decreased quality of long-term relationships. d. Decreased levels of commitment to the other parties or the organization. 4. Win–win behaviors include: a. Constructive assertiveness by each party. b. Active listening skills and effective questioning techniques. c. High level of commitment and persistence in seeking positive outcomes for all parties involved. d. Being receptive to exploring underlying concerns and issues.

Program Participant Workbook 271 38 Negotiation Assessment Center Activity

272 Airport Leadership Development Program 39 Executing Leadership Strategic planning Developing culture Relationship building Strategy execution Change management • • • • •

Program Participant Workbook 273 40 Strategic Planning Today’s business challenges are complex. The world is changing at an faster pace than in the past. To lead an organization successfully, it is critical that today’s leaders keep a strategic focus while balancing tactical execution. Effective leaders bring cross- disciplinary knowledge, a view of competitive differentiators, and an understanding of current legislative and regulatory issues to balance a deep understanding of the current state of the organization’s capabilities and customers’ needs. Strategic Planning The strategic plan for the organization begins with the organization’s purpose and mission. After clarifying purpose for the organization to be in business, strategies or goals must be developed. In order to make goals achievable, an effective leader must have a deep understanding of the capability and capacity of the current workforce. Defined goals must take into account the current demand on the available resources and be achievable along with the workload already in place. Goals should focus on innovative ideas or improvements to existing services that are aligned to the mission and purpose of the organization. Steps to Strategic Planning and Execution: 1. Evaluate and understand the organization; determine capacity for work and appetite for change. 2. Define mission, vision, and values. a. Mission = your purpose for being in business. b. Vision = who you want to be and what you want to make happen. c. Values = how you want work performed. 3. Scan the environment for external influences and indicators; identify critical drivers; conduct SWOT analysis. 4. Identify goals and long-term objectives (a vital few) with performance measures and success factors; define roles and responsibilities within the goals and long- term objectives. 5. Formulate short-term objectives and action plans to demonstrate progress toward goals; define roles and responsibilities within the objectives and action plans. 6. Document, communicate, and execute. 7. Monitor, evaluate, and modify. (Source: ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry)

274 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 41 Environmental Scan Portfolio of Business Market Globalization General Business Risk Industry Consolidation Industry Convergence Market Competition Information Technology Human Capital Capital Funding Regulatory Environment Innovative Models

Program Participant Workbook 275 Environmental Scan Information Technology: Investment in technology, use of current technology- modules to expand, skills to expand Automate processes that are documented and validated Determine current level of tech savvy in organization Human Capital Aging workforce: Generation X is the smallest generation; must get our younger generations ready to take on leadership roles sooner. Do you have the pipeline for the human capital you need? Are you a workplace of choice in your area: culture, pay, benefits, competitive. Succession planning: not just focused on retiring workforce, must focus on retaining institutional knowledge. Know when to promote and when to hire externally. Capital Funding Modifications to PFCs, revenue bond rating and interest, grant availability, earmarks discontinued. Alternative sources of funding. Diversify revenue sources. Regulatory Environment DOT funding, FAA modernization, EPA, cap and trade, ARFF, building codes, cargo security, use fees implementation, health-care benefits. Market-based Competition Nearby airports; adjacent states. Industry Convergence Alternative modes of transportation, fluctuating price of gas, energy-efficient automobiles. Industry Consolidation Airline bankruptcies and mergers; reduced flights: direct and connecting. General Business Risk Security risks heightened since 9/11, unemployment rates, increasing costs for employing staff (benefits and so forth), sustainability, lower capacity in the aviation system, economic conditions’ indirect effect. Innovative New Entrants/Models Additional services to customers for experience, transition to the experience economy, larger number of carry-on bags, liquids issues, discontinuance of regional jets.

276 Airport Leadership Development Program 43 Market Globalization World economy, increasing concerns on global terrorism, oil prices, pandemic issues. Organization SWOT STRENGTHS Internal attributes helpful to achieving goals and adding value to organization WEAKNESSES Internal attributes that detract from the ability to be successful and assist others in being successful OPPORTUNITIES External conditions helpful to achieving goals and increasing value THREATS External conditions damaging to ability to be successful

Program Participant W orkbook 277 EXTERNAL SWOT Analysis Template INTERNAL Criteria Examples Advantages of proposition Capabilities Competitive advantages Resources, assets, people Experience, knowledge, data Financial opportunities Marketing: reach, awareness Innovative aspects Location and geography Price, value, quality Accreditations, qualifications, certifications Processes, systems, IT, communications Culture, attitude, and behavior Management cover, succession Philosophy and values Strengths Weaknesses Criteria Examples Disadvantages of proposition Gaps in capabilities Lack of competitive strength Reputation, presence, and reach Financials Own known vulnerabilities Timescales, deadlines, and pressures Cash flow, start-up cash drain Continuity, supply-chain robustness Effects on core activities, distraction Reliability of data, plan predictability Morale, commitment, leadership Accreditations, etc. Processes and systems, etc. Management cover, succession Criteria Examples Competitors' vulnerabilities Industry or lifestyle trends Technology development and innovation Global influences New markets, vertical and/or horizontal growth Geography, export, import Tactics: surprise, major contracts Business and product development Information and research Partnerships, agencies, distribution Volumes, production, economies Seasonal effects, weather, fashion influences Opportunities Threats Criteria Examples Political effects Legislative effects Environmental effects IT developments Competitor intentions – various Market demand New technologies, services, ideas Vital contracts and partners Sustaining internal capabilities Loss of key staff Sustainable financial backing Economy – home, abroad

278 Airport Leadership Developm ent Program 45 Strategy Map VISION MISSION GOALS Realistic, measurable goal 1 Realistic, measurable goal 2 Realistic, measurable goal 3 VALUES

Program Participant W orkbook 279 46 Jaws of Culture Strategic Goals and Initiatives Many In Bureaucracy Turf Issues Stress Hierarchical Cultural Barriers Lack of: Trust Teamwork Clarity of Goals Coaching Few Out Low Results Adapted from Senn Delaney

280 Airport Leadership Development Program 47 Culture Pike Syndrome A number of Northern Pike were placed in one half of a large table aquarium with numerous minnows swimming freely and visibly in the other half of the glass-divided tank. As the pike became hungrier, they made many unsuccessful attempts to obtain the minnows but only succeeded in battering their snouts against the glass divider. Slowly the pike learned that reaching the minnow was an impossible task and seemingly resigned themselves to their fate. When the glass partition was carefully removed, the