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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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ENHANCING BIOWATCH
CAPABILITIES THROUGH TECHNOLOGY
AND COLLABORATION

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Joe Alper, Rapporteur

Standing Committee on Health Threats and Workforce Resilience

Board on Health Sciences Policy

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×

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This activity was supported by Contract No. HSHQDC-14-C-00100_P2 - ROHB-16-00042 with the Department of Homeland Security. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-45168-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45168-X
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/23687

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch capabilities through technology and collaboration: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/23687.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ENHANCING BIOWATCH CAPABILITIES THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AND COLLABORATION1

LISA E. GORDON-HAGERTY (Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, LEG Inc.

SUZET M. McKINNEY, Executive Director, Illinois Medical District Commission

TERRY MULLINS, Chief, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma System, Arizona Department of Health Services

COLIN STIMMLER, Director, Biodetection Preparedness and Response Unit, Office of Emergency Preparedness and Response, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

JOHN VITKO, JR., Rector, St. Luke Serbian Orthodox Church

Health and Medicine Division Staff

SCOTT WOLLEK, Program Director

JACK HERRMANN, Senior Program Officer (until August 2016)

BEN KAHN, Research Associate

THELMA COX, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2016)

ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Consulting Writer

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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STANDING COMMITTEE ON HEALTH THREATS AND WORKFORCE RESILIENCE1

LISA E. GORDON-HAGERTY (Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, LEG Inc.

MAXIE BISHOP, JR., Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Coordinator, Division of Emergency Management, Texas Department of Public Safety

DAREN BRABHAM, Assistant Professor, Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California

ELLEN EMBREY, President and Chief Executive Officer, Stratitia, Inc.

ROBERT KNAKE, Whitney Shepardson Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations

JAMES LAMBERT, Research Professor, Associate Director of the Center for Risk Management of Engineering Systems, University of Virginia

SCOTT LILLIBRIDGE, Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University Health Science Center

SUZET M. McKINNEY, Executive Director, Illinois Medical District Commission

STEPHEN MORSE, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

TERRY MULLINS, Chief, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma System, Arizona Department of Health Services

GERALD PARKER, Associate Vice President for Public Health Preparedness and Response, Center for Innovation in Advanced Development & Manufacturing, Texas A&M University Health Science Center

TERRI TANIELIAN, Senior Social Research Analyst, RAND Corporation

JOHN VITKO, JR., Rector, St. Luke Serbian Orthodox Church

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s standing committees do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

MAXIE BISHOP, JR., Texas Department of Public Safety

JULIA GUNN, Boston Public Health Commission

SCOTT R. LILLIBRIDGE, Texas A&M University Health Science Center

SUZET M. McKINNEY, Illinois Medical District Commission

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund and QE Philanthropic Advisors. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA)
ASPR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (HHS)
BAR BioWatch Actionable Result
CBRN chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DoD Department of Defense
ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (U.S. Army)
EMS emergency medical services
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
FISMA Federal Information Security Management Act
Fp fraction of population protected
GAO Government Accountability Office
Gen-2 BioWatch Generation 2.0 technology
Gen-3 BioWatch Generation 3.0 technology
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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HHS Department of Health and Human Services
NRC National Research Council
OHA Office of Health Affairs (DHS)
PCR polymerase chain reaction
Pd-10K probability of detection of a biological aerosol attack that results in more than 10,000 infections
S&T Science and Technology Directorate (DHS)
SLTT state, local, tribal, territorial
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USNORTHCOM U.S. Northern Command
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing BioWatch Capabilities Through Technology and Collaboration: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23687.
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The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) BioWatch program aims to provide an early indication of an aerosolized biological weapon attack. The first generation of BioWatch air samplers were deployed in 2003. The current version of this technology, referred to as Generation 2 (Gen-2), uses daily manual collection and testing of air filters from each monitor, a process that can take 12 to 36 hours to detect the presence of biological pathogens. Until April 2014, DHS pursued a next-generation autonomous detection technology that aimed to shorten the time from sample collection to detection to less than 6 hours, reduce the cost of analysis, and increase the number of detectable biological pathogens. Because of concerns about the cost and effectiveness of the proposed Generation 3 system (Gen-3), DHS cancelled its acquisition plans for the next-generation surveillance system.

In response to the cancellation announcement, Congress asked the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to conduct a review of the program and the proposed system enhancements that would have been incorporated in BioWatch Gen-3. However, Mike Walter, BioWatch Program manager, Office of Health Affairs, DHS, said that DHS did not agree with all of GAO's characterizations of the BioWatch program efforts described in this review. In response to this, DHS requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conduct a workshop to further explore the findings of the 2015 GAO report and discuss the impact these findings may have with regard to the future development of the technical capabilities of the BioWatch program. Workshop participants also discussed existing and possible collaborations between BioWatch, public health laboratories, and other stakeholders that could contribute to the enhancement of biosurveillance capabilities at the federal, state, and local levels. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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