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Emergency Working Groups at Airports (2019)

Chapter:Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Emergency Working Groups at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25572.

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Emergency Working Groups at Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice James F. Smith Smith-WoolWine, inc. Jackson, MS 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Security and Emergencies A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 99

ACRP SYNTHESIS 99 Project 11-03, Topic S04-23 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-48067-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2019947286 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photographs courtesy of Los Angeles World Airports NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at

CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 99 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT (retired) Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airport Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S04-23 PANEL Stewart Dalzell, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA Kirk A. Demers, Virgin Australia International Airlines, Los Angeles, CA Sergey Kireyev, Oviedo, FL Carlos Lopez, SkyWest Airlines, Woodland, CA Keila Walker-Denis, Orlando International Airport, Orlando, FL Keith Bagot, FAA Liaison Marc Tonnacliff, FAA Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S

ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research find- ings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program autho- rized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Gail R. Staba Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report focuses on airport emergency working groups as a collaborative arrangement between airports and their airlines, and sometimes between airports, airlines, and other agencies and organi- zations that train and mobilize volunteers to support either the legislated airline or the airport with family assistance. It is the legislated airline’s responsibility to provide this assistance in the case of an aircraft emergency; however, the airline may not have enough employees at the airport to deliver the assistance. In addition, the arrival of the airline’s care team may take 12 to 24 hours, or even 48 hours in the case of a carrier headquartered outside the United States. During this interval, the legislated airline may need help taking care of the victims and their families and will need a way to reach out for the appropriate assistance. Information used in this study was acquired through literature review, interview results from 32 organizations representing 25 airports from a range of geographic locations and airport classifications, and the NTSB. Results of the literature review and interviews are presented in this report. A checklist for emergency working group (EWG) formation is also included. In addition to EWGs, this study describes five other approaches to providing family assistance during the 12 to 24 (or 48) hours before the legislated airline’s care team arrives, and it describes the criteria for deciding whether an EWG is suitable for an airport. Dr. James F. Smith, Smith-Woolwine, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi, synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS An interview-based study such as this synthesis requires considerable time and cooperation from the respondents from the 25 airports and the NTSB. The research team of this synthesis is grateful for the generous assistance given by the following respondents from 25 airports and the NTSB. Boston Logan International Airport BOS Stewart Dalzell, George Naccara, Wendy Riggs-Smith, Deb Brown Charlotte Douglas International Airport CLT Michael Tobin Dallas Fort Worth International Airport DFW Deb Helton Dallas Love Field DAL Timothy Smith Daniel K. Inouye International Airport HNL Linda Watters (Hawaiian Airlines), Quentin Koch (United Airlines) Denver International Airport DEN Ashlee Herring Delventhal Eastern Iowa Airport CID Todd Gibbs Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport FLL Mike Nonnemacher George Bush Intercontinental Airport IAH Frank Ciaccio Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport ATL Gus Hudson, Kamille McCormick Jacksonville International Airport JAX Meaghan Smalley Los Angeles International Airport LAX Brandy Welch, Kirk Demers (Virgin Australia Airlines) Memphis International Airport MEM Jarin Horton Midway International Airport MDW Tamara Mahal Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport MSP Kristin Rollwagen National Transportation Safety Board NTSB Kimberly Frierson O’Hare International Airport ORD Tamara Mahal Orlando International Airport MCO Keila Walker, Angela Howard Pensacola International Airport PNS Dan Flynn Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport PHX Chris Rausch San Francisco International Airport SFO Jeff Airth, Robert Merrill (United Airlines), Kelli White (formerly with Virgin America, now with Hawaiian Airlines) Seattle–Tacoma International Airport SEA Brian Kyser, Jana Osborne (Alaska Airlines), Angie Perez (Alaska Airlines), Sue Warner-Bean (consultant) Southwest Florida International Airport RSW Lisa LeBlanc-Hutchings Tampa International Airport TPA David Nicewinter Tucson International Airport TUS Marc Gomez Tulsa International Airport TUL Timothy Hammer

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Important Milestones in Collaboration 5 Frameworks for Collaboration 5 Purpose and Audience of this Synthesis 6 Chapter 2 Results from Interviews 6 Methodology 6 Where EWGs Were Found 7 Use of “EWG” by Airports 7 Supporting Response 7 Membership and Partners 9 Organizational Structure 10 Catalysts for EWG Formation 10 Methods of Outreach to Airlines and Other Stakeholders 12 Types of Emergencies Envisioned to Trigger EWG Involvement 12 Activation of EWGs 12 Frequency of EWG Meetings 13 Planning 13 Training 13 Exercises 14 Relationship of EWGs to EOC and ICS Structures 14 Challenges, Barriers, and Solutions 19 Benefits of EWGs 20 Lessons Learned 21 Chapter 3 Findings from Interviews 21 Characteristics of Emergency Working Groups 21 Establishing and Sustaining an Emergency Working Group 25 Chapter 4 Case Examples 25 Los Angeles International Airport 26 Seattle-Tacoma International Airport 29 Boston Logan International Airport 30 Southwest Florida International Airport 31 Pensacola International Airport 32 Chapter 5 Conclusions and Further Research 32 Comparison of Alternative Models 33 Conclusions 33 Gaps and Further Research Needs C O N T E N T S

34 References 35 Acronyms and Abbreviations 36 Glossary 37 Appendix A Airports and Others Interviewed 39 Appendix B Interview Script 41 Appendix C NTSB Family Assistance Operations Workshop Agendas 47 Appendix D Sea-Tac’s EWG Brochure 50 Appendix E Champion’s Pitch at LAX 56 Appendix F LAX EWG Handbook 72 Appendix G Sample LAX EWG Meeting Agenda 73 Appendix H LAX EWG Meeting Guest Speakers 2016–2019 74 Appendix I Sample Agenda from BOS Family Assistance Training Workshop 76 Appendix J Checklist for EWG Formation Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at retains the color versions.

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Airports—especially in the past two decades—have generally sought to promote and increase collaboration among the members of the airport community, particularly between an airport and its airlines. One metric of this trend has been the increase in the number of U.S. airports with full-time emergency managers, from fewer than 10 in 2007 to more than 120 today. Collaboration and increased professionalism in airport emergency management have gone hand in hand.

No matter whether the incident is aircraft-related or an incident in the terminal—such as an active shooter, a bomb threat, or other hazard—the goals of airports, airlines, and others in the airport community are to achieve safety, security, compassion, customer service, regulatory compliance, and reputation. Achieving these goals can contribute to resiliency and to the protection of critical infrastructure and key resources.

Although air travel is one of the safest modes of travel, and airports are among the safest public spaces in the United States, air-travel incidents do occur. ACRP Synthesis 99: Emergency Working Groups at Airports documents these working groups and how they assist victims and their families and friends in the weeks following an incident.

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