National Academies Press: OpenBook

Climate Change: Evidence and Causes: Update 2020 (2020)

Chapter:Table of Contents

« Previous: Front Matter
Page 1
Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academy of Sciences. 2020. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes: Update 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25733.




1 Is the climate warming?

2 How do scientists know that recent climate change is largely caused by human activities?

3 CO2 is already in the atmosphere naturally, so why are emissions from human activity significant?

4 What role has the Sun played in climate change in recent decades?

5 What do changes in the vertical structure of atmospheric temperature—from the surface up to the stratosphere—tell us about the causes of recent climate change?

6 Climate is always changing. Why is climate change of concern now?

7 Is the current level of atmospheric CO2 concentration unprecedented in Earth’s history?

8 Is there a point at which adding more CO2 will not cause further warming?

9 Does the rate of warming vary from one decade to another?

10 Did the slowdown of warming during the 2000s to early 2010s mean that climate change is no longer happening?


CLIMATE CHANGE Q&A (continued)

11 If the world is warming, why are some winters and summers still very cold?

12 Why is Arctic sea ice decreasing while Antarctic sea ice has changed little?

13 How does climate change affect the strength and frequency of floods, droughts, hurricanes, and tornadoes?

14 How fast is sea level rising?

15 What is ocean acidification and why does it matter?

16 How confident are scientists that Earth will warm further over the coming century?

17 Are climate changes of a few degrees a cause for concern?

18 What are scientists doing to address key uncertainties in our understanding of the climate system?

19 Are disaster scenarios about tipping points like “turning off the Gulf Stream” and release of methane from the Arctic a cause for concern?

20 If emissions of greenhouse gases were stopped, would the climate return to the conditions of 200 years ago?



Page 1
Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academy of Sciences. 2020. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes: Update 2020. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25733.
Next: Summary »
Climate Change: Evidence and Causes: Update 2020 Get This Book
Buy Paperback (pack of 5) | $5.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time. It is now more certain than ever, based on many lines of evidence, that humans are changing Earth's climate. The Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences, with their similar missions to promote the use of science to benefit society and to inform critical policy debates, produced the original Climate Change: Evidence and Causes in 2014. It was written and reviewed by a UK-US team of leading climate scientists. This new edition, prepared by the same author team, has been updated with the most recent climate data and scientific analyses, all of which reinforce our understanding of human-caused climate change.

Scientific information is a vital component for society to make informed decisions about how to reduce the magnitude of climate change and how to adapt to its impacts. This booklet serves as a key reference document for decision makers, policy makers, educators, and others seeking authoritative answers about the current state of climate-change science.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!