National Academies Press: OpenBook

Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation (2021)

Chapter:Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide

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Page 24
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 25
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 26
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Practitioner Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26056.

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24 This Practitioner Guide, as summarized in Figure 5.1, presents checklists and resources for planning an LSAV project, based on the research team’s experience and interviews with more than 200 stakeholders. The guide assists public transit agencies, their partners, and stakeholders in LSAV program foundations, feasibility, procurement, implementation, operations, monitoring and evaluation, and building for sustainability. Checklists lay out key considerations and are intended to be illustrative, not exhaustive. LSAV transportation is dynamic and technologies and policies may change rapidly. Public transit agencies wishing to explore these services may consult with relevant federal, state, or local authorities on policy. A resources box in each section links to examples of relevant documents and secondary material. 5.1 LSAV Program Foundations Checklist This checklist provides core considerations for formulating an LSAV program, including defining vision, outcomes, objectives, use cases, and service models. ✔ Stakeholders. Engage key stakeholders such as elected officials, transportation, economic development, human service, public safety agencies, community groups, and private interests (landowners, developers, etc.). • Convene stakeholders to gain a common understanding of the program vision, objectives, and LSAV technology implementation. • Develop and implement a sustained stakeholder communication plan to relay program performance, key results, milestones, and next steps after program completion. ✔ Vision. Articulate a vision for the LSAV program that includes desired outcomes. ✔ Objectives. Define objectives of the LSAV program, such as • Showcase LSAV technology and related innovations, • Expand mobility service to mobility deserts or those underserved by public transit, • Evaluate user acceptance of LSAV-like technologies, • Increase travel options, • Promote economic development, • Evaluate ways to integrate into high-capacity transit, • Define the business case for LSAV service, and • Enhance safety, efficiency, and accessibility. ✔ Use Cases. Determine the transportation use cases, including private and public transit use cases and service models. Start with defining the trip purpose and then align the purpose with the appropriate service model and vehicle type. ✔ Alignment of Use Cases with Operating Environment. Assess the alignment of the use cases using key factors in the operating environment such as speed, intersections/crossings, C H A P T E R 5 Practitioner Guide 5.1 Program Planning Resources DRPT Statewide Integrated Mobility Plan U.S. DOT Grant Narrative: Jacksonville U2C Program U.S. DOT Grant Narrative: Downtown Youngstown Click on the item to access the resource.

Practitioner Guide 25 and road conditions (as discussed in Section 2.2 on operational design domains). These factors need to be taken into consideration in assessing potential hazards and preparing a mitigation plan. ✔ Local, Regional, and State Plans. Consult appropriate plans such as local comprehensive plans, transit-oriented development plans, technology plans, and state and regional LRTPs, TIPs, and regional transportation priority plans. ✔ Business Model. Identify a business model for sustained operations and maintenance over short-, medium-, and long-term time frames. ✔ LSAV and Technology Awareness. Establish a baseline of stakeholder knowledge about LSAV technology, current LSAV capacity and availability, trends in LSAVs over time (1, 2, and 5 years), and availability and integration of related technologies. • Include related technologies such as connected technologies, mobility on demand, and assistive technologies. • Consider assistive technology such as haptics (technology that stimulates touch through motion), HMI to support those with communications limitations, augmented and virtual reality for wayfinding, and virtual and augmented reality tools. • Conduct a workshop featuring technology development and deployment experts, suppliers, and researchers, as well as transit agency staff, local and regional stakeholders, and public and private partners. 5.2 Feasibility Study Checklist This checklist for the feasibility study encompasses assessing the site or route and associated hazards, considering government compliance requirements, estimating costs and identifying funding, and developing a concept of operations for the project. Figure 5.1. Practitioner Guide overview.

26 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation ✔ Site/Route Assessment. Assess a site or route to evaluate and document physical attributes, technology performance requirements, and transportation needs. Focus principally on the operating environment and safety considerations to determine the alignment between the technology, operational considerations, and the operating designing domain. • Route Mapping. Document the route in a GIS format on the basis of a physical assessment informed by relevant planning materials. Video of operating conditions on the route and Google Earth reviews, along with existing maps, are useful resources. Include the following key elements: – Adjacent land-use and development plans; – Appropriate venues for charging, storage, and maintenance of LSAVs; – Crash data; – Existing active (bike and pedestrian) transportation facilities; – Existing and planned transit service; – Intersections with and without controlled stops and signals; – Opportunities for dedicated right-of-way; – Parallel and angled on-street parking; – Public or private roadway type; – Roadway condition, including surface and grade; – Posted speed and operating speeds; – Structured and surface parking facilities; and – Traffic volume. • Transportation Needs. Review planning data and residential developers, human services providers, employers, and community groups to assess – Housing, employment, entertainment, retail, health, educational, and other destinations along the route and in the catchment. – Population and demographics data in the catchment. – Transportation demand based on modeling and market assessments. ✔ Hazards Assessment. Assess hazards and develop a mitigation plan. ✔ Compliance with Public Safety Requirements. • Ascertain federal, state, and local requirements, if any, including permits, waivers, and approvals. • Coordinate with law enforcement and other emergency responders, transportation agen- cies, and legal departments. ✔ Accessibility. Assure compliance with ADA requirements. ✔ Insurance. Determine insurance requirements. ✔ Costs and Funding. Calculate project cost and secure public and private funding from fed- eral, state, and local agencies and nonprofit and commercial partners, such as • Economic development agencies, • Federal and nonprofit research grants, • Downtown development authorities or business improvement districts, • Hospital systems or campuses, • Real estate developers, and • State transportation innovation funds. ✔ CONOPS. Develop a project concept of operations, or CONOPS, which describes in plain language • The current situation, • The purpose of the LSAV project and how it will be used, • Recorded goals and objectives, • General system requirements (detailed system requirements generally follow the CONOPS), and 5.2 Feasibility Resources Mountain View Feasibility Study Chamblee Feasibility Study Jacksonville Benefit–Cost Analysis CONOPS Next Generation Integrated Transportation CONOPS Worksheet Click on the item to access the resource.

Practitioner Guide 27 • A project plan to capture and organize key concepts, collaboration, performance metrics, and feasibility outcomes into a guide for procurement, implementation, launch, and operations. 5.3 Procurement Checklist This checklist provides considerations specific to LSAV service procurement. This check- list augments, rather than supplants, public procurement processes and is premised on the research findings that LSAV projects are most often the product of public–private collaborations. ✔ Scope. Develop a scope of work to address • Vehicle and system requirements; • Accessibility requirements to design for wheelchair and securement and inclusion of HMIs that allow those with communications-related disabilities to interact with the AV through visual panels, touch screens, voice communication, and more; • Performance requirements, data sharing and privacy accessibility, and reporting; • Outcomes; • Risk management, including hazard assessment and risk mitigation, safety operation compliance, and vehicle performance monitoring; • Insurance and related liability assignment; • Emergency management planning and coordination with public safety stakeholders; and • Vehicle safety standards. ✔ Acquisition. Align acquisition to the type of money allocated (public, private, or a combina- tion of both). Public transportation entities may • Issue individual RFPs, • Tap state or regional contracting to prequalify vendors, • Provide a regional brokerage or statewide sole source, and • Use local or state on-call or task order contracts. ✔ Purchase or Lease. Structure acquisition for purchase or lease of vehicles, operations, or a combination of both. ✔ Third-Party Support. Determine whether marketing, communications, storage, and charg- ing (or some combination of these) will be provided by third parties, including private land- owners, facility owners, and nonprofit organizations. 5.4 Implementation Checklist This checklist highlights key activities relevant to implementing an LSAV project. ✔ Start of Work. Conduct a “start of work” meeting with stakeholders and suppliers to • Confirm roles and responsibilities and identify key personnel; • Establish working groups and key participants (e.g., local police and first responders, utili- ties, other key groups that could intersect with pilot operations); • Identify and assign required deliverables to include plans, standardized checklists, and documents; and • Finalize LSAV project evaluation criteria and key measures. ✔ Planning. Develop program plans to include • Standard operating procedures (SOPs), • Functional plans defining roles and responsibilities, 5.3 Procurement Resources Tampa RFP Columbus RFP Texas RFP (pre- qualify vendors) Arlington Phase 2 RFP Gainesville RFP Rhode Island RFP DCTA MaaS RFP (Documents tab) RTD Contract Modification Click on the item to access the resource.

28 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation • Manuals and training plans, • Communications plans, • Data management plans, and • Management tools identified in the CONOPS. ✔ Safety. Develop a safety approach for the program to include • Safety plans, • Safety operations, • Safety standards, and • Emergency management plans, including coordination with local and state emergency managers, training that includes tabletop exercises, and crisis communications plans. ✔ Permits and Approvals. Obtain required permits from state and local authorities and approvals, as needed, from NHTSA. ✔ Infrastructure. Plan and install infrastructure improvements to include both permanent and temporary changes, digital and physical infrastructure elements, and signage. These may include • Design, construction, and designation of paths on private property and off-road paths such as sidewalks and walking and bike trails. • Intersection improvements, design and construction of dedicated lanes, and elevated guideways. • Kiosks for information, ticketing, and mobility-on-demand tools. • Painted or temporary lane markings with cones or bollards. • Signs noting LSAV operations and stops. • Temporary or permanent traffic signals and roadside units (RSUs). ✔ Marketing and Communications. Create marketing and communications tools to include printed, electronic, and web-based messages, updates, and surveys or other mechanisms to collect participant input. ✔ Training. Conduct required training for on-board and remote operators as well the service and maintenance team. ✔ Emergency Response. Brief emergency responders and law enforcement personnel and conduct tabletop exercises. ✔ Verification. Schedule and carry out an LSAV operational shakeout and safety verification to include operations as described in the CONOPS and SOPs. ✔ Operations Documents. Supply all standardized procedures, instructions, checklists, forms, and other required documentation on board each LSAV, within the monitoring center, and in all service areas. 5.5 Operations Checklist This checklist highlights key operational activities, beginning with safety, from hazards assess- ment and mitigation to continuous improvement. ✔ Safety. Execute and ensure compliance with a comprehensive safety operations program that includes • Hazards assessment and mitigation, • Safety operations protocols, • On-board diagnostics, • Initial and refresher safety operator training plans, • Emergency preparedness plans, and • Continuous improvement processes to ensure vigilance and up-to-date safety practices throughout the project. ✔ Schedule and Shifts. Document and monitor service hours, shift schedules, service times, and daily opening and closing procedures. 5.5 Operations Resources JTA Safety Checklist CCTA AV Shuttle Safety Outline Mcity Operations Mcity Signage Example Las Vegas UNLV Rider Survey Smart Columbus Safety Plan Click on the item to access the resource.

Practitioner Guide 29 ✔ Operations and Maintenance. Ensure operating and maintenance procedures are current and accessible for operations staff. ✔ Training. Train personnel on their roles and responsibilities, SOPs, safety, and emergency- response protocols. Provide LSAV familiarization training. ✔ Data. Confirm procedures and tools are in place for data collection, storage, analysis, and reporting in accordance with the data management plan. ✔ Updates. Provide timely and accurate updates to all program personnel, stakeholders, and the public, according to the communications plan. ✔ Launch. Prepare for program launch to • Determine whether the launch will be partial or full-scale operations. • Determine whether the launch event will include a formal ribbon-cutting ceremony with distinguished visitors, formal proceedings, and other official activities. • Present planned communications, media, and other engagement activities to inform and invite the public to participate in the launch and pilot operations. • Conduct a dress rehearsal within 24 hours before launch to work out final operational and technological bugs. 5.6 Monitoring and Evaluation Checklist This checklist highlights core monitoring and evaluation activities over the course of planning, operating, and closing out the project. ✔ Data. Collect data and information, both qualitative and quantitative, to monitor and evalu- ate performance in accordance with specified metrics. Align metrics with the objectives of the project. Example metrics include • Amount of time a vehicle operated in autonomous mode; • Community and stakeholder engagement in planning, execution, and evaluation; • Customer acceptance; • Information on capability of a specific technology; and • Performance of LSAV services in a particular operating environment or ODD. ✔ Customer Input. Gather qualitative customer satisfaction and community acceptance data to evaluate against previously established baselines and comparable operations. ✔ Reviews. Plan and facilitate after-action reviews at key milestones or incidents, if any, with the core project team and stakeholders. ✔ Reporting. Provide regular reporting on the program, including a closeout report if appropriate. ✔ Data Closeout. Finalize data collection, analysis, reporting, and transfer to long-term stor- age per the data management plan. ✔ Future Planning. Create a business plan or model for sustainable LSAV service. 5.7 Sustainability Checklist This checklist reflects key factors, activities, and tools critical to building sustainable approaches toward including LSAV service in public transportation. ✔ Transportation and Community. Integrate LSAV projects into transportation and com- munity planning. • Adapt existing tools such as LRTPs and TIPs. • Create new approaches, including mobility innovation plans and innovation challenges. 5.6 Monitoring Resources AAA National Polling on AV Acceptance (May 2019) AAA NorCal Customer Satisfac- tion Survey on Las Vegas LSAV Arlington Milo Shuttle Survey Results (on page 3 of Closeout Report) AVS Symposium Briefing on User Acceptance of AVs Denver RTD 61AV Final Report UDOT/UTA Survey Questions Click on the item to access the resource.

30 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation ✔ Long-Range Planning. Incorporate LSAV projects into existing regional and state long-range plans and evaluate potential projects to be placed in constrained plans, such as • Capital and operating budgets, • Constrained LRTPs, • Transit development plans, and • TIPs. ✔ Capital Planning. Review and update state, municipal, and transit agency capital planning documents and budgets. ✔ Funding. Create a funding matrix of public and private grant, contract, and innovation investment funds. ✔ Long-Term Initiatives. Integrate the LSAV service into longer-term projects, including • Curbside management studies, • Digital infrastructure, • General public transit improvement plans, • Human services plans, • Land-use studies, • Lane reallocation and complete streets initiatives, • Local and regional corridor transportation plans, • Municipal capital planning, • Parking studies, and • Sign codes and signage. ✔ Next-Generation Planning Tools. Develop and adopt next-generation operational planning tools, including • Capacity management through pricing, geofencing, and data from infrastructure and vehicle sensors; • Cross-sector technology planning; • Data-based planning and operations tools; • Land use; • Mobility innovation and smart city plans; • Public–private partnerships; • Scenario planning; and • Simulations and visualization. ✔ Mobility Hub Plans. Design adaptive mobility hubs at transit stations, taking into consideration: • Multimodal passenger and delivery services, • Support for amenities and adaptive or future-proofed infrastructure design, • Designated pick-up and drop-off areas, • Bike and pedestrian infrastructure, • Universal access through design and operation, • Electric charging and communications facilities, and • Strong sense of placemaking including key retail services. ✔ Curbside Management Plans. Develop and implement strategies to manage curbside as a terminal for AV drop-off and pick-up for passengers and goods, including • Dynamic pricing and geofencing; • Smart zones for loading; • Policies relating to managing micromobility including smaller, automated electric vehicles on the sidewalk; and • Enhanced accessibility for people with disabilities at the curb. 5.7 Sustainability Resources (Part 1) Preparing Communities for Autonomous Vehicles, APA APA AV Knowledge Base* APTA Research Page on Autonomous and Electric Vehicles* CTAA Statement of Principles for Automated Vehicles NACTO Blueprint for Autonomous Urbanism (second edition 2019) National League of Cities Autonomous Vehicles: A Policy Preparation Guide National League of Cities Auto nomous Vehicle Pilots Across America (2018) NCTCOG Automated and Connected Vehicles Planning Page* Miami-Dade TPO Connected- Autonomous Vehicle Program* Click on the item to access the resource. *updated periodically

Practitioner Guide 31 ✔ Flexible Land-Use Zoning. Assess and adopt zoning approaches that reflect variable travel demand, e-commerce, and residential densities, including • Parklet, • Parking requirements, • Right-of-way management off roadway, and • Build codes. 5.7 Sustainability Resources (Part 2) Mobility Hub Typology Study (Prepared for Port- land DOT) 2020 San Diego For- ward, Regional Mobility Hub Plan; Mobility Hub Features Catalog; Oceanside Mobility Hub Sim- ulation (SANDAG) Curbside Manage- ment Practitioners Guide, Institute for Transportation Engineers (2019) A Framework for Hawaii’s AV Fu- ture: Accessible, Autonomous, Connected, Elec- tric and Shared (Ulupono Initia- tive, 2020) Planning for the Advent of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in Cham- paign-Urbana Using Scenario Planning Click on the item to access the resource.

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Interest in driverless vehicles, including low-speed automated vehicles (LSAVs), continues to expand globally and in the United States.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 220: Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation presents current use cases for LSAVs and provides a practitioner guide for planning and implementing LSAV services as a new public transportation service.

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