National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: References
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26444.
×
Page227
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26444.
×
Page228
Page 229
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26444.
×
Page229
Page 230
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26444.
×
Page230
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26444.
×
Page231

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Bibliography Databases and Sources Bureau of Transportation Statistics. n.d.-a. Airline Origin and Destination Survey. https://transtats.bts.gov/. Data Finder: Aviation > Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Bureau of Transportation Statistics. n.d.-b. T-100 Database. https://transtats.bts.gov/. Data Finder: Aviation > Air Carrier Statistics (Form 41 Traffic) – All Carriers. International Air Transport Association. n.d. e-AWB (Electronic Air Waybill Program), https://www.iata.org/en/ programs/cargo/e/eawb/. Accessed October 3, 2021. Official Airline Guide. n.d. OAG Flight Data Sets. https://www.oag.com/flight-data-sets. Airport Customer Research Bezerra, G. C. L., and C.F. Gomes 2015. “The Effects of Service Quality Dimensions and Passenger Characteristics on Passenger’s Overall Satisfaction with an Airport.” Journal of Air Transport Management, pp. 44–45, 77–81. Bezerra, G. C. L., and C.F. Gomes. 2016. “Measuring Airport Service Quality: A Multidimensional Approach.” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 53, pp. 85–93. Bogicevic, V., M. Bujisic, A. Bilgihan, W. Yang, and C. Cobanoglu. 2017. “The Impact of Traveler-Focused Airport Technology on Traveler Satisfaction.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 123, pp. 351–361. Boyd, K. 2019. “Go Digital, Grow Revenue . . . and Passenger Satisfaction.” Presented at the 101st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Choi, Y.-J., and J.-W. Park. 2017. “The Decision-Making Processes of Duty-Free Shop Users Using a Goal Directed Behavior Model: The Moderating Effect of Gender.” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol. 31, pp. 152–162. Del Chiappa, G., and A. S. Loriga. 2019. “Analysing Determinants of Travellers’ Expenditures for Food and Beverage Services at Airports.” Mercati e Competitivit, Issue 2, pp. 127–147. Duebner, M. 2019. “Customer First – Enhancements at Dallas Love Field.” Presented at the 101st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Graham, A. 2019. “Aerotropolis: London’s Airports as Experiences and Destinations.” Destination London. A. Graham and A. Smith (eds.), University of Westminster Press, London, England, pp. 61–90. Hamilton, R. W., R. T. Rust, M. Wedel, and C. S. Dev. 2017. “Return on Service Amenities.” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 96–110. Jevons, D., T. Hoe, and M. Shepherd. 2011. “Understanding Customer Preferences for Airport Access: Implica- tions for Forecasting.” Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 226–238. Lee, Y.-K., and J.-W. Park. 2016. “Impact of a Sustainable Brand on Improving Business Performance of Airport Enterprises: The Case of Incheon International Airport.” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 53, pp. 46–53. Leigh Fisher Associates, M. A. Coogan, and MarketSense. 2000. TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Leigh Fisher Associates, M. A. Coogan, and MarketSense. 2002. TCRP Report 83: Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Lissner, H. 2014. “Integrating Traveler Needs into Airport Concessions.” Airport Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 14–16. McDaniel, C., and R. Gates. 2018. Marketing Research. 11th ed., John Wiley & Sons. 227  

228 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research Pantouvakis, A., and M. F. Renzi 2016. “Exploring Different Nationality Perceptions of Airport Service Quality.” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 52, pp. 90–98. Paraschi, E. P., A Georgopoulos, and P. Kaldis. 2019. “Airport Business Excellence Model: A Holistic Performance Management System.” Tourism Management, Vol. 72, pp. 352–372. Patel, M. 2019. “Enhancing Customer Experience Through Revenue Generation and Technology.” Presented at the 101st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Pecheux, K. K., T. S. Geiselbrecht, E. Kraus, C. Simek, J. Kennedy, and S. G. Bricka. 2014. Creation of a Customer Relations Development System. Report FHWA/OH-2013-22, Prepared for the Ohio Department of Trans- portation, Applied Engineering Management Corporation, Herndon, VA, June. Prentice, C., and M. Kadan. 2019. “The Role of Airport Service Quality in Airport and Destination Choice.” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 47, pp. 40–48. Robinson, J. 2017. “Passenger Terminal Development in the Digital Age.” Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 355–368. Smahel, T. 2017. “Airport Features Most Likely to Affect International Traveler Satisfaction.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2626, pp. 34–41. Wattanacharoensil, W., M. Schuckert, A. Graham, and A. Dean. 2017. “An Analysis of the Airport Experience from an Air Traveler Perspective.” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol. 32, pp. 124–135. Wiredja, D. 2019. “A Passenger-Centred Model in Assessing Airport Service Performance.” Journal of Modelling in Management, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 492–520. Air Cargo Analysis Harry, R. 2019. “Air Cargo Community System Launched at Atlanta Airport.” Air Cargo News (online), https:// www.aircargonews.net/technology/logistics-automation/air-cargo-community-system-launched-at- atlanta-airport/, December 17. (Accessed December 8, 2020). Phillips, T. E., and J. Tian. 2019. “Innovations in Air Cargo Terminal Access in Europe and Asia and the Use of Air Cargo Community Systems.” Presentation P19-21071, Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. RS&H, Inc. 2016. SWOT Analysis of TRANSEARCH and FAF Data. Project No: TRANSTAT TWO 7, Prepared for the Transportation Statistics Office, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, Florida. Airport User Surveys Berinsky, A. J., M. Margolis, and M. Sances. 2014. “Separating the Shirkers from the Workers? Making Sure Respondents Pay Attention on Internet Surveys.” American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 58, Issue 3, pp. 739–753. Blumberg, S. J., and J. V. Luke. 2020. Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, July-December 2019. National Center for Health Statistics. Available online: https://www. cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm. Bradburn, N., S. Sudman, and B. Wansink. 2015. Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design – For Market Research, Political Polls, and Social and Health Questionnaires. 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons. Clifford, S., and J. Jerit. 2015. “Do Attempts to Improve Respondent Attention Increase Social Desirability Bias?” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 790–802. Cochran, W. G. 1077. Sampling Techniques. 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons. Cripwell, J. P., and M. Turpin. 2006. “Groundside Interview Survey Concepts and Design, Toronto Pearson International Airport, 2005.” Paper presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Dillman, D. A. 1978. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. John Wiley & Sons. Dillman, D. A., J. D. Smyth, and L. M. Christian. 2014. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons. Dutwin, D., and T. D. Buskirk. 2017. “Apples to Oranges or Gala versus Golden Delicious?: Comparing Data Quality of Nonprobability Internet Samples to Low Response Rate Probability Samples.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. S1, pp. 213–239. Gorton, M., E. R. Brown, K. DeBoer, A. R. Kuppam, V. Livshits, R. A. Payne, R. Roy, K. Tierney, and W. Zhang. 2013. “Tablet and Web-Based Regional Airport Travel Survey with Synchronized Bluetooth Traffic Data Collection.” Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Bibliography 229   Gosling, G. D. 2014. “Use of Air Passenger Survey Data in Forecasting Air Travel Demand.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2449, November. Groves, R. M. 1989. Survey Errors and Survey Costs. John Wiley & Sons. Groves, R. M., et al. 2001, Telephone Survey Methodology. John Wiley & Sons. Groves, R. M., et al. 2009. Survey Methodology. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons. Haan, M., P. Lugtig, and V. Toepoel. 2019. “Can We Predict Device Use? An Investigation into Mobile Device Use in Surveys.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 517–531. Huang, J. L., P. G. Curran, J. Keeney, E. M. Poposki, and R. P. DeShon. 2012. “Detecting and Deterring Insufficient Effort Responding to Surveys.” Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 99–114. Kalton, G. 1983. Introduction to Survey Sampling. Sage Publications. Krosnick, Jon A. 2000. “The Threat of Satisficing in Surveys: The Shortcuts Respondents Take in Answering Questions.” Survey Methods Newsletter, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 4–8. Levy, P. S., and S. Lemeshow. 2008. Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications. 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons. MacInnis, B., J. A. Krosnick, A. S. Ho, and M.-J. Cho. 2018. “The Accuracy of Measurements with Probability and Nonprobability Survey Samples: Replication and Extension.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 4, Winter, pp. 707–744. Payne, S. L. 1951. The Art of Asking Questions. Princeton University Press. Schonlau, M., and M. P. Couper. 2017. “Options for Conducting Web Surveys.” Statistical Science., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 279–292. Schuman, H., and S. Presser. 1996. Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording, and Context. Sage Publications. Shapiro, B. 2017. “Enhancing the Passenger Experience: ACI’s Employee Engagement Survey for Customer Experience.” https://blog.aci.aero/enhancing-the-passenger-experience-aci-employee-engagement-survey- for-customer-experience/ (as of October 26, 2019). Spitz, G. M., F. L. Niles, and T. J. Adler. 2006. TCRP Synthesis 69: Web-Based Survey Techniques. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Tourangeau, R., A. Maitland, G. Rivero, H. Sun, D. Williams, and T. Yan. 2017. “Web Surveys by Smartphone and Tablets: Effects on Survey Responses.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 4, Winter, pp. 896–929. Tourangeau, R., H. Sun, T. Yan, A. Maitland, G. Rivero, and D. Williams. 2018. “Web Surveys by Smartphones and Tablets: Effects on Data Quality.” Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 542–556. Weisberg, H., J. A. Krosnick, and B. D. Bowen. 1996. An Introduction to Survey Research, Polling, and Data Analysis. 3rd ed., Sage Publications. Zimmermann, V., U. Felscher-Suhr, and J. Vogt. 2018. “Public Perceptions of Frankfurt Airport’s Value – A Survey Approach.” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 67, pp. 46–54. Reports on Specific User Surveys Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 2012. Minneapolis–St. Paul Airport Special Generator Survey. Prepared for the Metropolitan Council, Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN, April 17. Corey, Canapary & Galanis Research. 2016. San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Oakland International Airport (OAK) Ground Access Study 2014–2015: Summary Report. Prepared for San Francisco International Airport and the Port of Oakland, San Francisco, California. InterVISTAS Consulting Group. 2014. Phoenix Regional Air Cargo Planning Study. Final Report. Prepared for Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix, Arizona. Mark Keifer Consulting with Desautels Consulting, LLC. 2019. 2019 Logan International Airport Air Pas- senger Ground-Access Survey. Draft Final Report, Prepared for the Massachusetts Port Authority, Boston, Massachusetts. National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board. 2018. Washington–Baltimore Regional Air Passenger Survey – 2017: General Findings. Washington, D.C., June. Phoenix Marketing International. 2019. John Wayne Airport Passenger Survey – 2019 Report. Prepared for John Wayne Airport Orange County, Branchburg, New Jersey. San Francisco International Airport. 2020. Customer Survey Data. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://www.flysfo. com/media/customer-survey-data. Steer, D. G., Mark Kiefer Consulting, and A. Desautels. 2017. 2016 Logan International Airport Air Passenger Ground-Access Survey. Prepared for the Massachusetts Port Authority, Final Report, Boston, MA, February. Unison Consulting. 2019. 2019 Passenger Survey – Los Angeles International Airport. Prepared for Los Angeles World Airports, Mission Viejo, CA, October 18.

230 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research Unison Consulting, Inc. 2016. 2015 Dallas Love Field Airport Originating Passenger Survey. Prepared for the North Central Texas Council of Governments, Chicago, IL, October. Unison Consulting, Inc. 2016. 2015 Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport Originating Passenger Survey. Prepared for the North Central Texas Council of Governments, Chicago, IL, December. Statistical Analysis Blalock, H. M., Jr. 1979. Social Statistics. 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill. Moore, D. S., G. P. McCabe, and B. Craig. 2017. Introduction to the Practice of Statistics. 9th ed., W. H. Freeman. Stockburger, D. W. 2016. Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models and Applications, 3rd Web ed., available at https://dwstockburger.com/Introbook/sbk.htm. Qualitative Methods Few, S. C. 2013. Information Dashboard Design: Displaying Data for At-a-Glance Monitoring. Analytics Press, Burlingame, California. Greenbaum, T. 1998. The Handbook for Focus Group Research, Sage Publications. Roller, M. R, and P. J. Lavrakas. 2015. Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach. Guilford Press. Stewart, D. W., and P. N. Shamdasani. 2014. Focus Groups: Theory and Practice, 3rd ed., Sage Publications. Analysis of Social Media American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2018. State DOT Social Media Survey. https://communications.transportation.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/11/2017- State-DOT-Social-Media-Survey.pdf (as of November 4, 2019). Bregman, S., and K. E. Watkins (eds.). 2013. Best Practices for Transportation Agency Use of Social Media. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Gitto, S., and P. Mancuso 2019. “Brand Perceptions of Airports Using Social Networks.” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 75, pp. 153–163. Halpern, N. 2012. Use of Social Media by Airports. Journal of Airline and Airport Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 67–85. Malinowski, H. 2016. “The Profession of Being Social: Developing an Effective and Purposeful Social Media Strategy for an Airport.” Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 245–252. Martin-Domingo, L., J. C. Martín, and G. Mandsberg. 2019. “Social Media as a Resource for Sentiment Analysis of Airport Service Quality (ASQ).” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 7, pp. 106–115. Monmousseau, P., A. Marzuoli, E. Feron, and D. Delahaye. 2019. “Passengers on Social Media: A Real-Time Estimator of the State of the U.S. Air Transportation System.” Presented at the 6th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS, Electronic Navigation Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan, October 29–31. Montgomery, H. 2014. “Denver International Uses Quirky and Playful Social Marketing.” Airport Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 20–21. Nigam, S., R. Cook, and C. Stark. 2011. “Putting the Joy Back into the Airport Experience: Can Social Network- ing Platforms Make a Genuine Contribution to Increasing Commercial Revenues and Engaging Customers?” Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 7–11. Pasek, J., H. Y. Yan, F. G. Conrad, F. Newport, and S. Marken. 2018. “The Stability of Economic Correlations Over Time: Identifying Conditions Under Which Survey Tracking Polls and Twitter Sentiment Yield Similar Conclusions.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 3, Fall, pp. 470–492. Perry, L. J., O. Damian, and A. Lagu. 2014. ACRP Synthesis 56: Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/ ACRP/Blurbs/170977.aspx. Smith, J. F., and K. A. Kenville. 2017. ACRP Synthesis 82: Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www. nap.edu/catalog/24871/uses-of-social-media-to-inform-operational-response-and-recovery-during-an- airport-emergency (as of November 9, 2019). Stambaugh, C. L. 2013. “Social Media and Primary Commercial Service Airports.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2325, pp. 76–86.

Bibliography 231   Straker, K., and C. Wrigley. 2018. “Engaging Passengers Across Digital Channels: An International Study of 100 Airports.” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol. 34, pp. 82–92. VanAuken, K. 2015. “Using Social Media to Improve Customer Engagement and Promote Products and Services.” Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 92, pp. 109–117. VanAuken, K., and R. Hollingsworth. 2013. “Social Media and How They Can Benefit Your Airport.” Airport Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 26–27, 29, 46. Wall, T. A., G. S. Macfarlane, and K. E. Watkins. 2013. “Exploring the Use of Egocentric Online Social Network Data to Characterize Individual Air Travel Behavior.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Trans- portation Research Board, No. 2400, pp. 78–86. New and Emerging Methods and Data Japec, L., F. Kreuter, M. Berg, P. Biemer, P. Decker, C. Lampe, J. Lane, C. O’Neil, and A. Usher. 2015. “Big Data in Survey Research: AAPOR Task Force Report.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 839–880. Keusch, F., B. Struminskaya, C. Antoun, M. P. Couper, and F. Kreuter. 2019. “Willingness to Participate in Passive Mobile Data Collection.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 83, Special Issue, pp. 210–235. Marzuoli, A., E. Boidot, E. Feron, and A. Srivastava. 2019. “Implementing and Validating Air Passenger-Centric Metrics Using Mobile Phone Data.” Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 132–147. Marzuoli, A., P. Monmousseau, and E. Feron. 2018. “Passenger-Centric Metrics for Air Transportation Lever- aging Mobile Phone and Twitter Data.” In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, Volume 1, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, November 17–20, pp. 588–595. Customer Research in Travel and Tourism Backer, E., F. Leisch, and S. Dolnicar. 2017. “Visiting Friends or Relatives?” Tourism Management, Vol. 60, pp. 56–64. Bigné, E., E. Oltra, and L. Andreu. 2019. “Harnessing Stakeholder Input on Twitter: A Case Study of Short Breaks in Spanish Tourist Cities.” Tourism Management, Vol. 71, pp. 490–503. Dewnarain, S., H. Ramkissoon, and F. Mavondo. 2019. “Social Customer Relationship Management: An Integrated Conceptual Framework.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 172–188. Harrigan, P., U. Evers, M. Miles, and T. Daly. 2017. “Customer Engagement with Tourism Social Media Brands.” Tourism Management, Vol. 59, pp. 597–609. Li, J., L. Xu, L. Tang, S. Wang, and L. Li. 2018. “Big Data in Tourism Research: A Literature Review.” Tourism Management, Vol. 68, pp. 301–323. Perez-Vega, R., B. Taheri, T. Farrington, and K. O’Gorman. 2018. “On Being Attractive, Social and Visually Appealing in Social Media: The Effects of Anthropomorphic Tourism Brands on Facebook Fan Pages.” Tourism Management, Vol. 66, pp. 339–347. Punel, A., L. A. H. Hassan, and A. Ermagun. 2019 “Variations in Airline Passenger Expectation of Service Quality Across the Globe.” Tourism Management, Vol. 75, pp. 491–508. So, K. K. F., C. King, S. Hudson, and F. Meng. 2017. “The Missing Link in Building Customer Brand Identifica- tion: The Role of Brand Attractiveness.” Tourism Management, Vol. 59, pp. 640–651.

Next: Appendices »
Guidebook on Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Airport user surveys have traditionally been used to obtain information for facility planning. More recently, however, surveys are being used to measure satisfaction as a way to identify actions that could improve the customer experience and increase non-aeronautical revenues, particularly those from passenger terminal concessions.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 235: Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys and Other Customer Research provides airport managers and staff involved in customer research, as well as airport consultants and other stakeholders, with guidance on the effective use of airport user surveys and other customer research techniques.

Supplementary to the report is Appendices A through L.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!