National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26625.
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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1003 Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones John Gambatese Joseph Louis Oregon State University Corvallis, OR Chukwuma Nnaji University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL Subscriber Categories Operations and Trafc Management • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration 2022

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universi- ties and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway trans- portation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coor- dinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1003 Project 20-07/Task 416 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-68706-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2022938487 © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or speci- fications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 20-07, Task 416 by the School of Civil and Construction Engineering at Oregon State University (OSU) and the Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at the University of Alabama (UA). OSU was the lead contractor and fiscal administrator for the study, with UA serving as a subcontractor to OSU. Dr. John A. Gambatese, PhD, PE (CA), Professor of Civil and Construction Engineering at OSU, was the project director and co-principal investigator. The other authors of this report are: Dr. Joseph Louis, PhD, Assistant Professor of Civil and Construction Engineering at OSU and co-principal investigator; Dr. Chukwuma (Chuma) Nnaji, PhD, Assistant Professor of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at UA and co-principal investigator; and Manjunath Kadalli, MS graduate student in Civil and Construction Engineering at OSU. The work was done under the general supervision of Drs. Gambatese and Louis at OSU and Dr. Nnaji at UA. The authors would like to acknowledge the subject matter experts who provided feedback on the study process and documents, and the state department of transportation and contractor personnel who responded to the online survey and participated in the case study interviews. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1003 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program David M. Jared, Senior Program Officer Clara Schmetter, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-07/TASK 416 PANEL Field of Special Projects James Danila, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Boston, MA (Chair) Osama A. Abaza, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK Jeff Benefield, Alabama Department of Transportation, Montgomery, AL Kerry DenBraber, Michigan Department of Transportation, Kalamazoo, MI Jay Norris, Tennessee Department of Transportation, Nashville, TN Tony Tavares, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA Tony Nieves, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1003 is a guide to support selection of technologies to prevent and/or mitigate intrusions into highway work zones. A decision-support tool also was created to help traffic control designers and contractors select appropriate technologies based on road- way and work operations characteristics. The guide and system are applicable to the construc- tion and maintenance work performed by all departments of transportation; implementing the results and products of the research is expected to help reduce motorist and worker injuries and fatalities. Work zone intrusion technologies (WZITs) that help prevent and mitigate vehicle intrusions into roadway work zones are available. These technologies are designed to warn workers and drivers of potential intrusion, provide a barrier to prevent intrusion, detect and alert drivers and workers during intrusion, and/or protect workers and drivers following intrusion. Although some WZITs have shown significant potential, knowledge of technologies that could be used for preventing and/or mitigating work zone intrusions is limited. To increase adoption, better resources are needed to educate potential users about available WZITs. Under NCHRP Project 20-07(416), “Alternative Technologies for Mitigating the Risk of Injuries and Deaths in Work Zones,” Oregon State University was asked to study alter- native technologies for mitigating the risk of injuries and fatalities in work zones with a specific focus on technologies that prevent and mitigate work zone intrusions. The study included a literature review, technology readiness assessment, survey of industry, and case studies. Technologies were identified that could be implemented to prevent intrusions before they occur, determine if an intrusion occurs, and/or mitigate the potential result after an intrusion occurs. Case studies were conducted to gather practical insights and guidelines for implementation of the technologies. Finally, a guide and decision-support tool were created to support decision-making and selection of work zone intrusion technologies by project. The guide is accompanied by a conduct of research report, which details the research activities and methods and the decision-support tool. These materials are available on the National Academies Press website (www.nap.edu) and can be found by searching for NCHRP Research Report 1003: Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones. F O R E W O R D By David M. Jared Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.nap.edu) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Chapter 2 Work Zone Safety and Intrusions 3 2.1 Descriptive Analysis of Work Zone Crashes 5 Chapter 3 Work Zone Intrusion Technologies 5 3.1 Positive Protection Devices 9 3.2 Networked Systems for Workers 16 3.3 Driver Warning Systems 21 Chapter 4 DSS for Selection of WZIT 25 References C O N T E N T S

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Work zone intrusion technologies are designed to warn workers and drivers of potential intrusion, provide a barrier to prevent intrusion, detect and alert drivers and workers during intrusion, and/or protect workers and drivers following intrusion.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 1003: Guide to Alternative Technologies for Preventing and Mitigating Vehicle Intrusions into Highway Work Zones is designed to be applicable to the construction and maintenance work performed by all departments of transportation and to help reduce motorist and worker injuries and fatalities.

Supplemental to the report are NCHRP Web-Only Document 322: Alternative Technologies for Mitigating the Risk of Injuries and Deaths in Work Zones: Conduct of Research, a presentation, an implementation memo, a Decision Support System User Guide Coversheet, a Decision Support System User Guide, and a Decision Support System Tool.

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