National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2022 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 236 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the American Public Transportation Association Subject Areas Policy • Public Transportation • Society Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts Destiny N. omas Navjot Heer Imani Wyatt Mitchell Thrivance Group Los Angeles, CA Alex Karner Kaylyn Levine Jonathan Shuster University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX Kendra Ma Transform Oakland, CA

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 236, VOLUME 1 Project H-59 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-68740-9 © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover art: Essential Worker Portrait #31: Essential workers ride mass transportation to work. Cover art credit: Carolyn Olson, http://carolynolson.net NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or speci- fications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and APTA. APTA is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selec- tion (TOPS) Commission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 236, VOLUME 1 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell-Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications TCRP PROJECT H-59 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Gloria J. Jeff, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Roseville, MN (Chair) Jesus M. Barajas, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA Carrie O. Butler, Transit Authority of River City (TARC), Louisville, KY KeAndra Cylear Dodds, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA Stephanie Gidigbi Jenkins, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Washington, DC Eric T. Hill, MetroPlan Orlando, Orlando, FL Leslie S. Richards, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Philadelphia, PA Cy Richardson, National Urban League (NUL), New York, NY Sarah Y. Syed, University of California, Berkeley, Oakland, CA Paul A. Toliver, New Age Industries, Bradenton, FL Alex Z. Wiggins, New Orleans Regional Transit Authority, New Orleans, LA Xiang Yan, University of Florida, Newberry, FL Carolyn L. Nelson, FHWA Liaison Melody Hopson, FTA Liaison Robert A. Clark, FTA Liaison Linda Ford, APTA Liaison William B. Anderson, TRB Liaison

TCRP Research Report 236: Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts reviews the literature and summarizes common practices of the 20th and 21st centuries that have had significant economic, health, and social impacts, and the racial gaps that emerged as a result of transportation inequities, deliberate actions, policies, and projects. The report will be of interest to transportation planners, funders, and policy makers at all levels of government, as well as other stake- holder groups. The research report is the first of four volumes to be published under TCRP Project H-59. An overall objective of the transit community is to help develop an enhanced and more inclu- sive approach to public transportation planning and decision-making that takes into account and acknowledges that public transportation systems of the 21st century have a critical role in addressing and correcting many of the problems caused by a 20th- and 21st-century transpor- tation sector that severely impacted and, in some cases, destroyed Black communities in the building of today’s transportation systems and network. The public transportation community recognizes the need to address leadership and implement policies and practices to redress the harm from the past through policies, funding, and systems of accountability. The objective of Volume 1 is to document the extent of the damage that has been done to Black communities as a result of transportation decisions and actions. Volume 2 will demonstrate a methodology to estimate how much it would cost to redress those damages. Volumes 3 and 4 will provide tools for elected and appointed officials and other stakeholder groups to engage effectively in the arena of transportation policy, planning, and funding at all levels of government. Under TCRP Project H-59, a research team led by the Thrivance Group conducted a review that highlights the role that transportation, especially public transportation, has played in the creation of the gaps; nuances in the evolution and maintenance of segregation; and contem- porary practices and policies, including public transportation policing practices, fare evasion, and fare enforcement. While the review acknowledges that inequitable outcomes in public transportation affect other vulnerable groups, the Black experience is highlighted. The research team has included as part of this literature review a section that provides a thematic outline of identity profiles that will inform the development of focus group instru- ments, social climate analysis parameters, and quantification focus areas, which will then all feed into the development of a formal set of recommended approaches to reparative trans- portation planning and investment priorities that will be documented in Volumes 2, 3, and 4. By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board F O R E W O R D

1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 The Foundation for Transportation Equity and Mobility Justice Is Grounded in the Civil Rights Movement 4 The Value of TCRP Project H-59 for Civil Rights Advances 5 Chapter 2 Research Approach 8 Chapter 3 Economic Causes and Impacts 8 Transportation’s Origins in Slavery as Capital Interest 9 Discriminatory Housing Policies Contributed to the Growth of Sprawl and Deprived Black Families of Opportunities to Generate Wealth 10 Transportation Policies Supported Deconcentration and White Flight While Devastating Black Communities 11 White Flight’s Influence on Transit-Network Design 13 Employment Siting and Spatial Mismatch 16 Chapter 4 Health Causes and Impacts 16 Environmental Racism Creates Inequitable Health Impacts 17 Toxic Industries Do Immediate Harm to Black Communities 18 Proximity to Highways and Main Roads Causes Generational Health Implications 18 Commuter- and Pedestrian-Focused Pathways 19 Pandemic-Era Transportation Policy and Planning Changes Have Disproportionately Affected Black Communities 20 Chapter 5 Social Causes and Impacts 20 Investment-Induced Displacement 23 Transportation Policing Actively Harms Black People 25 Purple Lining Prioritizes White Comfort and Perpetuates Racist Planning Practices 27 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Preliminary Recommendations 28 Metropolitan Planning Organizations and the Role of Transportation Governance in Policy Making and Transportation Investments 28 Efforts to Redress Transportation Inequity Have Been Stymied by Racism 30 Identity Profiles Serving as a Baseline Case Study for Continued Research to Develop Reparative Planning Strategies 32 Filling Knowledge Gaps and Preliminary Recommendations 34 References and Bibliography C O N T E N T S

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An overall objective of the transit community is to help develop an enhanced and more inclusive approach to public transportation planning and decision making. Public transportation planners have a critical role in addressing and correcting many of the problems caused by a 20th- and 21st-century transportation sector that severely impacted and, in some cases, destroyed Black communities in the building of today’s transportation systems and network.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 236: Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts reviews the literature and summarizes common practices of the 20th and 21st centuries that had significant economic, health, and social impacts, and the racial gaps that emerged as a result of transportation inequities, deliberate actions, policies, and projects.

The objective of Volume 1 is to document the extent of the damage that has been done to Black communities as a result of transportation decisions and actions. Volume 2 will demonstrate a methodology to estimate how much it would cost to redress those damages. Volumes 3 and 4 will provide tools for elected and appointed officials and other stakeholder groups to engage effectively in the arena of transportation policy, planning, and funding at all levels of government.

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