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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26710.
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© 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research for this document was conducted through one or more programs administered by the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: • Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) research is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). • Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP) research is sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA), and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). • National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) research is sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). • Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) research is sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply endorsement by TRB and any of its program sponsors of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER To facilitate more timely dissemination of research findings, this pre-publication document is taken directly from the submission of the research agency. The material has not been edited by TRB. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this document are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. This pre-publication document IS NOT an official publication of the Cooperative Research Programs; the Transportation Research Board; or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Recommended citation: Thomas, D. N., N. Heer, I. W. Mitchell, A. Karner, K. Levine, J. Shuster, and K. Ma. 2022. Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts. Pre-publication draft of TCRP Research Report 236. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

FOREWORD By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Research Report 236: Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts reviews the literature and summarizes common practices of the 20th and 21st centuries that had significant economic, health, and social impacts, and the racial gaps that emerged as a result of transportation inequities, deliberate actions, policies, and projects. It will be of interest to transportation planners, funders, and policy makers at all levels of government, as well as other stakeholder groups. The research report is the first of four volumes to be published under TCRP Project H-59. ---------------------------------------------------------------- An overall objective of the transit community is to help develop an enhanced and more inclusive approach to public transportation planning and decision making that takes into account and acknowledges that public transportation systems of the 21st century have a critical role in addressing and correcting many of the problems caused by a 20th- and 21st-century transportation sector that severely impacted and, in some cases, destroyed Black communities in the building of today’s transportation systems and network. The public transportation community recognizes the need to address leadership and implement policies and practices to redress the harm from the past through policies, funding, and systems of accountability. The objective of Volume 1 is to document the extent of the damage that has been done to Black communities as a result of transportation decisions and actions. Volume 2 will demonstrate a methodology to estimate how much it would cost to redress those damages. Volumes 3 and 4 will provide tools for elected and appointed officials and other stakeholder groups to engage effectively in the arena of transportation policy, planning, and funding at all levels of government. Under TCRP Project H-59, a research team led by the Thrivance Group conducted a review that highlights the role that transportation, especially public transportation, has played in the creation of the gaps; nuances in the evolution and maintenance of segregation; and contemporary practices and policies, including public transportation policing practices, fare evasion, and fare enforcement. While the review acknowledges that inequitable outcomes in public transportation affect other vulnerable groups, the Black experience is highlighted. The research team has included as part of this literature review a section that provides a thematic outline of identity profiles that will inform the development of focus group instruments, social climate analysis parameters, and quantification focus areas, which will then all feed into the development of a formal set of recommended approaches to reparative transportation planning and investment priorities that will be documented in Volumes 2, 3, and 4.

CONTENTS Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 The Foundation for Transportation Equity and Mobility Justice is Grounded in the Civil Rights Movement ......... 1 Research Approach ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Economic Causes and Impacts ................................................................................................................................. 10 Transportation’s Origins in Slavery as Capital Interest .......................................................................................... 10 Discriminatory Housing Policies Contributed to the Growth of Sprawl and Deprived Black Families of Opportunities to Generate Wealth .......................................................................................................................... 11 Transportation Policies Supported Deconcentration and White Flight while Devastating Black Communities .... 12 White Flight’s Influence on Transit Network Design ............................................................................................. 13 Employment Siting and Spatial Mismatch .............................................................................................................. 15 Health Causes and Impacts ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Environmental Racism Creates Inequitable Health Impacts ................................................................................... 17 Toxic Industries Do Immediate Harm on Black Communities ............................................................................... 18 Proximity to Highways and Main Roads Cause Generational Health Implications ............................................... 19 Commuter and Pedestrian Focused Pathways ........................................................................................................ 19 Pandemic-era Transportation Policy and Planning Changes Have Disproportionately Affected Black Communities ........................................................................................................................................................... 19 Social Causes and Impacts ........................................................................................................................................ 21 Investment-Induced Displacement .......................................................................................................................... 21 Transportation Policing Actively Harms Black People .......................................................................................... 23 Purplelining Prioritizes White Comfort and Perpetuates Racist Planning Practices ............................................... 26 Conclusions and Preliminary Recommendations ................................................................................................... 28 MPOs and the Role of Transportation Governance in Policy-Making and Transportation Investments ................ 28 Efforts to Redress Transportation Inequity Have Been Stymied by Racism .......................................................... 29 Identity Profiles Which Serve as a Baseline Case Study for Continued Research to Develop Reparative Planning Strategies ................................................................................................................................................................ 31 The perspective of a racialized practitioner familiar with the transportation sector: ............................... 31 The perspective of a gender-justice advocate with liberation as a primary objective: .............................. 31 The perspective of a cultural critic who relies on public transportation: ................................................... 32 The perspective of a transportation planner: ................................................................................................ 32 The perspective of an advocate for reparations and reparative processes: ................................................ 32 Preliminary Recommendations ............................................................................................................................... 33 References .................................................................................................................................................................. 35

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1: Transit facilities in the East Bay as of 2013. Source: Golub et al. (2013) .................................................... 13 Figure 2: Low-wage job accessibility (transit and auto) for the greater Detroit, MI area. Source: Grengs (2010). ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Figure 3: Change in racial composition near Link Light Rail stations in Seattle and its suburbs. Source: Hess (2020) ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 Figure 4: Distribution of sidewalk cycling citations with bicycle infrastructure in Chicago. Source Barajas (2021) .....................................................................................................................................................................................25 Table 1. Transportation and land-use policy and planning impacts on Black people in the US. ................................... 5

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An overall objective of the transit community is to help develop an enhanced and more inclusive approach to public transportation planning and decision making. Public transportation planners have a critical role in addressing and correcting many of the problems caused by a 20th- and 21st-century transportation sector that severely impacted and, in some cases, destroyed Black communities in the building of today’s transportation systems and network.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of TCRP Research Report 236: Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation, Volume 1: A Review of Economic, Health, and Social Impacts reviews the literature and summarizes common practices of the 20th and 21st centuries that had significant economic, health, and social impacts, and the racial gaps that emerged as a result of transportation inequities, deliberate actions, policies, and projects.

The objective of Volume 1 is to document the extent of the damage that has been done to Black communities as a result of transportation decisions and actions. Volume 2 will demonstrate a methodology to estimate how much it would cost to redress those damages. Volumes 3 and 4 will provide tools for elected and appointed officials and other stakeholder groups to engage effectively in the arena of transportation policy, planning, and funding at all levels of government.

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