National Academies Press: OpenBook

Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective (2023)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26899.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2023 A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 243 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Passenger Transportation • Planning and Forecasting Urban Air Mobility AN AIRPORT PERSPECTIVE Jagannath Mallela Paul Wheeler Gaël Le Bris Loup-Giang Nguyen WSP USA Washington, DC

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 243 Project 03-50A ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-49804-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2023931005 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifi- cations. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which pro- vide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 243 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell-Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 03-50A PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Prabh K. Banga, Aecon, Oakville, ON (Chair) Monica S. Alcabin, Boeing Company, Seattle, WA Timothy Canan, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC Matthew Dowell, Golden Triangle Regional Airport, Columbus, MS Gareth Hanley, RS&H, Inc., Tampa, FL Vahid Motevalli, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, Harrisburg, PA Michon Powell, FAA Liaison Natalia Sizov, FAA Liaison Aneil Patel, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Parimal Kopardekar, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Liaison Chris Martino, Helicopter Association International Liaison

ACRP Research Report 243: Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective provides a compre- hensive examination of the emerging urban air mobility (UAM) industry, with a particular focus on its impacts and opportunities for airports. UAM initiatives are advancing in many communities and will likely bring many societal changes. The report and the toolkit will be of particular interest to airport industry practitioners who wish to explore the potential oppor- tunities, benefits, and challenges of accommodating this new technology in an airport setting. UAM, a subset of advanced air mobility (AAM), is a new and rapidly evolving market, broadly characterized as the local, on-demand movement of people and goods by air using a range of piloted, semi-autonomous, and fully autonomous systems. UAM will affect the airport industry, yet there is little airport-specific research on the topic. Airports need to understand and anticipate the impacts and opportunities of the UAM market, including anticipated market growth, vehicle types, and uses, operations and management, community and environmental impacts, regulatory changes, financial implications, and other issues. The research, led by WSP USA, began with a state-of-the-practice review, focusing on the overall market, technology, regulatory and environmental considerations, and potential use cases. Next, the team conducted an airport-focused market assessment for the various use cases. The analysis and findings from the research were then used to prepare the report and to develop a toolkit to help individual airports assess the potential for UAM at their facilities and plan for its activity. To understand the likelihood and magnitude of short- and long-term impacts of UAM on the airport industry, the research focused on planning, equity con- siderations, public engagement, and the emergence of other complementary technologies (e.g., autonomous cars, shared mobility, and electrification of the aviation sector). Several UAM use cases were explored, including air metro (using UAM in a manner similar to other transit modes), air cargo (particularly, last-mile delivery), and air medevac (likely replacing helicopters). The level of UAM activity for each use case was then considered under a low, baseline, and high degree of market growth to explore potential impacts and opportunities for airports. A key focus of the report is to help airports and their communities develop strategies to integrate UAM into an airport setting by considering applicable policies and standards, facility requirements, utility and other infrastructure requirements, and corridor planning. An ACRP prep checklist and a companion toolkit that is interactive and allows airports to first assess their readiness for UAM activity and then helps them make a go/no-go decision for investing resources to accommodate UAM based on market potential, community interest, capacity, resources, potential barriers, and risk mitigation are available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for ACRP Research Report 243: Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 03-50A by a multi-disciplinary team led by WSP USA. WSP USA, Inc. is the contractor for this project. Jagannath Mallela, Ph.D. at WSP USA, was the Principal Investigator for this project and Mr. Paul Wheeler was the co-Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Gaël Le Bris, Loup-Giang Nguyen, Beathia Tagoe, Catherine Prince, Lindsay Whelchel, Louis Wolinetz, Stephanie Atallah, Gabrielle Brazzil, Bethany Dickinson, Adrienne Lindgren (formerly WSP), and members of the Ascension Global Team (Pamela Cohn, Allan Fan, Eamonn Carroll, and Michael Whitaker). The research team would like to express gratitude to the panel members for their support, insights, and advice throughout the project. The authors wish to thank the participants who participated in the surveys, interviews, and workshops, reviews, and the technical group members who provided insight and guidance throughout the research. We express appreciation to Adam Cohen (UC Berkeley), Adrienne Lindgren (Hyundai UAM), Amber Wilson, Ph.D., IACE, ASC (Virginia Department of Aviation), Ann Richart, AAE (Nebraska Department of Transportation), Benjamin Elkins (Idaho Division of Aeronautics), Brendan Reed (San Diego Inter- national Airport), Brittani Kaim (WSP USA), Clint Harper, C.M. (Urban Movement Labs), Christian Luz, P.E., AICP (Desman), Danielle McLean (Happy Takeoff), Darshan Divakaran (AIRAVAT), David Sacharny (GeoRQ), Fred Judson (Ohio UAS Center), Gabriela Juarez (Department of City Planning Greater Los Angeles), James L. Grimsley (Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma), Jared Esselman, C.M. (State of Utah Division of Aeronautics), Jeffrey Belt, Ph.D. (EP Systems), James Herrera (FAA), Justin Guan (FAA), Katie Gilmore (MnDOT Aeronautics), Keri Lyons (FAA Office of Airports), Lori Lee (Caltrans Division of Aviation), Thomas S. “Max” Platts (WSDOT), Marisa Walker (Arizona Commerce Authority), Mary Beth Herritt (Caltrans Division of Aeronautics), Michael Armstrong (EP Systems), Michael Marcolini (Marcolini Consulting LLC), Nikki Navio, AICP (Wasatch Front Regional Council), Paul Stanley (The Boeing Company), Richard Sewell (Alaska Statewide Aviation), Ryan Marlow (Alaska Statewide Aviation), Ryan Naru (Joby Aviation), J. Scott Drennan (Drennan Innovation), Steven Melander (Sunrise Engineering), Tarek Tabshouri (Caltrans Division of Aeronautics), Troy LaRue (Alaska Statewide Aviation), and Yolanka Wulff (CAMI). The authors would also like to express gratitude to the review, design, and editorial team for their support on this project. We express appreciation to Alec Iacovelli, Deborah Mandell, Denise Short, Mark Kuttrus, Robin Christians, and Benjamin Rudolph.

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 Chapter 2 Market Assessment 8 2.1 Methodology 8 2.2 Use Cases 13 2.3 Downside, Baseline, and Upside Model Assumptions 15 2.4 Original Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliers 15 2.5 Infrastructure Developers 16 2.6 Infrastructure Operators 17 2.7 Flight Service Providers 18 2.8 Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul 19 2.9 Fleet Management 20 2.10 Physical Security 22 Chapter 3 Use Cases and Applications for Urban Air Mobility 23 3.1 Passenger Air Mobility 25 3.2 Air Cargo 27 3.3 Emergency Services 28 Chapter 4 Business Case and Implications for Airports 28 4.1 Business Case for Urban Air Mobility 29 4.2 Community Engagement 35 4.3 Implications and Guidance for Urban Air Mobility at Airports 39 4.4 Multimodal Integration 43 Chapter 5 Impact Assessment and Opportunities for Urban Air Mobility 45 5.1 Urban Air Mobility Impacts on Airports 55 5.2 Urban Air Mobility Opportunities for Airports 59 Chapter 6 Planning Strategies for Integrating Urban Air Mobility into Airports 59 6.1 Applicable Policies and Standards 66 6.2 Policymaking Efforts on Advanced Air Mobility Planning 67 6.3 Advanced Air Mobility Planning Process 72 6.4 Vertiports 75 6.5 General Aviation Facilities 76 6.6 Commercial Service Airports 82 6.7 Utilities and Support Infrastructure 84 6.8 Advanced Air Mobility for Airport Master Planning 87 6.9 Advanced Air Mobility Corridor Planning C O N T E N T S

88 Chapter 7 Airport Assessment Toolkit 88 7.1 The Go/No-Go Decision 89 7.2 Improving Readiness Levels 96 Chapter 8 Key Study Findings and Recommendations for Further Research 98 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 100 References 105 Appendix Federal Definitions Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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Urban Air Mobility (UAM), or its generalized version, Advanced Air Mobility (AAM), is an emerging aerial transportation approach that involves the operation of highly automated aircraft for a safe and efficient system to transport passengers or cargo at lower altitudes of airspace within urban, suburban, and exurban areas. UAM initiatives are advancing in many communities and will likely bring many societal changes.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 243: Urban Air Mobility: An Airport Perspective provides a comprehensive examination of the emerging UAM industry, with a particular focus on its impacts and opportunities for airports.

Supplemental to the report are an Airport AAM Preparation Checklist and a UAM Airport Assessment Toolkit.

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