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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/540.
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Page189
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/540.
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Page190
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/540.
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Page191
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/540.
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Page192
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/540.
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Page193

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Index A Aging of aerosols, 131 Alaska, 175 Analogs, 164-69, 174-81 Antigreenhouse effect, 149, 168 Arctic haze, 39, 164-65 Asbestos, 122 Ash and debris particle scavenging, 68 Atmospheric changes, 127-73 baseline case, 2-4 cloudiness and precipitation, 157-58, 162-63 data uncertainty, 5-6, 9 ground fog, 156-57 light-level reduction, 132-36 long-term climate changes, 163-64 from meteor impacts, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 models used, 127-28 natural occurrences as analogs, 164-68 optical effects, 132-36 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 particulate clouds, early spread and evolution of, 128-32 research recommendations, 10-12 summary, 1-2, 6-9, 169, 185-87 thermal and circulation changes, multidimensional models, 150-56 thermal changes, one-dimensional models, 136-50 toxic chemicals release, 121-23 troposphere composition, 118-21 from volcanic eruptions, 84, 167, 178-79 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 winds, 158-62 Australia, 97 B Baseline and excursive nuclear exchanges atmospheric effects, 2-4. See also Atmospheric changes basic assumptions, 13-16 carbon monoxide emissions, 109-110 dust lofted, 3, 7-8, 17, 21-22, 30-33 fireball dynamics, 17-22 fires and smoke emissions, 54-57, 61, 62, 71, 76, 79-87 hydrocarbon emissions, 110-11 nitrogen dioxide emissions, 112 ozone reduction by nitrogen oxides, 113-16 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Black rain, 66, 77, 78, 85, 102 Bomb fires Germany, 40, 97-99 189

190 Japan, 36, 43, 46-48, 98, 101-2 C Canada, 73, 74, 165 Carbon (soot), 7, 37, 39, 58-59, 61, 62, 131, 165. See also Smoke emissions Carbon dioxide, 104 Carbon monoxide, 109-10 Chemical emissions. See Gaseous · ~ emlss Ions Chlorine compounds, 121, 122 Climate changes. See Atmospheric changes Clouds changes in, 157-58, 162-63 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Coagulation of smoke particles, 63-66, 85-86, 131 Combustible materials, 3, 51-S7, 85, 111, 121-23 Conflagrations, 36n. See also Fires D Dibenzofurans, 121 Dimethyl disulfide, 121 Dimethyl sulfide, 120, 121 Dioxins, 121 Droplet scavenging, 66-68, 77-80 Dust, 17-35, 86 amount lofted, baseline and excursion values, 3, 7-8, 17, 30-33 atmospheric effects. See Atmospheric changes data sources, 11, 26-27 from meteor impacts, 2, 21, 32, 174, 180-81, 186 nuclear cloud dynamics, 17-22 optical properties, 28, 30 particle size distributions, 27-28 removal from fire plumes, 77 research recommendations, 10-12 sources of nuclear dust, 17, 22-26 from volcanic eruptions, 167, 174-80 E Earthquakes, 39-40 Extinctions, biological, 2, 174, 180-81, 186 Extraterrestrial impacts, 2, 8-9, 12, 21, 32, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 F Fallout, 11, 22, 26 Fire whirls, 36n Fires, 3-4, 7 burning times, 73 data uncertainties, 85 estimation methodology, 36-37 experimental, 41 forest and wildland combustibles, 53, 55-57 forest ignition, 48-50 gaseous emissions, 107-12 historical experiences, 36, 39-41, 97-99 ignition mechanism, 41-46 research recommendations, 11 toxic chemicals release, 121-23 urban combustibles, 51-5S urban ignition, 46-48 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 See also Smoke emissions Firestorms, 36n, 41, 98 Flame retardants, 61 Fog, 156-57 Forest fires historical experiences, 40-41, 73, 74, 97-98, 165-66 See also Fires; Smoke emissions Franklin, Benjamin, 175

191 Gabriel project, 185 Gaseous emissions, 107-26 carbon monoxide, 109-10 hydrocarbons, 110-11 nitric oxide, 107-8 nitrogen oxides, 4, 8, 12, 111-19, 186 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 toxic chemicals, 121-23 troposphere changes, 118-21 Germany, 40, 97-99 Greenhouse effect, 104, 149 Guatemala, 178 H Hiroshima, 36, 43, 46-48, 66, 68, 77-79, 98, 101-2 Hydrocarbon emissions, 110-11 Hydrogen sulfide, 120, 121 I Iceland, 97, 175 Indonesia, 175, 178 Industrial chemicals, 121-23 Infrared properties dust, 30 smoke, 68-70, 72, 85, 87 L Light-level reductions, 7, 132-36 M Martian dust storms, 168 Mass fires, 36n. See also Fires Meteor impacts, 2, 8-9, 12, 21, 32, 40-41, 174, 180-81, 186 Meteotron facility, 65, 97 Methane, 110-11 Methyl mercaptan, 121 Mexico, 178, 179 Missile silo fields, 57 Model simulations, 4 models used, 10-11, 127-28 uncertainties, 5-6, 9, 117-18 See also Atmospheric changes Mount St. Helens eruption, 30, 167, 178, 179 N Nagasaki, 36, 43, 46-48, 66, 77, 78 Nitric oxide, 107-8 Nitrogen oxides, 111-12 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 smog formation, 118, 119 Nuclear tests, 11, 185 ozone reduction by, 117 samples collected from, 26-27 o Oceans, 120-21, 157 Oil fires, 61, 97 Optical depth, 37n, 84 Optical effects of particulate clouds, 7, 132-36 Optical properties dust, 28, 30 smoke, 68-73, 85-87 Organic peroxides, 118 Overpressure, 43n Ozone layer, 104, 118 reduction by nitrogen oxides, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 p Particle size distributions dust particles, 27-28, 32 smoke particles, 61-68, 71-72 Particulate emissions. See Dust; Smoke emissions Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), 118 Photosynthesis, 120 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 121

192 Precipitation black rain, 66, 77, 78, 85, 102 changes in, 157-58 Precipitation scavenging, 39, 66-68, 77-80, 85-86, 131 R Radioactive fallout, 11, 22, 26 Rain. See Precipitation; Precipitation scavenging Research recommendations, 10-12 S Sahara dust plumes, 167-68 Scavenging of smoke particles, 39, 66-68, 77-80, 85-86, 104, 131 Siberia, 40-41 Silicate particles, 175, 178, 179 Simulations. See Atmospheric changes; Model simulations Smog, 108, 118-19 Smoke emissions, 3-4, 7, 37-39, 58-106 baseline and excursive estimates, 80-85 climatic effects. See Atmospheric changes current global smoke emission, 37-39 data uncertainties, 85-86 emission factors, 58-61 estimation methodology, 36-37, 80-84 forest fire smoke, 71-73 injection altitudes, 73-76 obscurations produced by, 99 optical properties, 68-71 particulate clouds, early spread and evolution of, 128-32 physical properties, 58 plume heights, observations of, 97-99 removal from plumes, 4, 39, 77-80, 131 research recommendations, 10, 11 size distribution and composition, 61-68 urban smoke, 58-71 water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Soot (graphitic carbon), 7, 37, 39, 58-59, 61, 62, 131, 165 See also Smoke emissions Stratosphere dust lofted to, 7-8, 17, 31-33 ozone shield reduction, 4, 8, 12, 112-18, 186 smoke injection altitudes, 76 See also Atmospheric changes Sulfur compounds, 120, 121, 175, 178 Sulfuric acid, 178 Sunshine project, 185 Surtsey Island, 97 T Temperature changes, 8 from forest fires, 165-66 from Martian dust storms, 168 multidimensional models, 150-56 one-dimensional models, 136-50 from Sahara dust, 167-68 from volcanic eruptions, 167, 178-79 Toxic chemical releases, 121-23 Troposphere smoke injection altitudes, 73-76 See also Atmospheric changes Tunguska meteor, 40-41 U United States forest fires, 97-98 volcanic eruptions, 30, 167, 175, 178, 179 Urban fires. See Fires; Smoke · . emlsslons

193 V Volcanic eruptions, 8-9, 12, 28, 30, 77, 84, 167, 174-80 W Water in nuclear clouds, 77, 101-6 Wildland fires. See Fires; Smoke emissions Winds afterwinds, 25 changes in, 158-62 Sahara wind/dust storms, 167-68 World War II, 40

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Most of the earth's population would survive the immediate horrors of a nuclear holocaust, but what long-term climatological changes would affect their ability to secure food and shelter? This sobering book considers the effects of fine dust from ground-level detonations, of smoke from widespread fires, and of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The authors use mathematical models of atmospheric processes and data from natural situations—e.g., volcanic eruptions and arctic haze—to draw their conclusions. This is the most detailed and comprehensive probe of the scientific evidence published to date.

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