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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Symbols." National Research Council. 2000. Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9452.
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Page193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Symbols." National Research Council. 2000. Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9452.
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Page194

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B Symbols p D DH Fr g go G J k-£ L n Heat capacity, or specific heat, J/kg-K Diffusion coefficient, m2/s Hydraulic diameter, m Froude number Acceleration due to gravity (not necessarily Earth's), m/s2 Gravity level at Earth's surface, m/s2 Artificial gravity level produced by rotation, m/s2 Inlet velocity, m/s Turbulent kinetic energy (k) and dissipation (£) Characteristic length scale or distance between boundaries, m Numerical exponent (greater than unity), dimensionless NSUB Nondimensional inlet subcooling p Pressure in fluid, N/m2 q max Critical heat flux, W/m2 Radial position, m Radius of pipe, m Saturation temperature, K Wall temperature R T sat or lw U W W X y Axial velocity fluctuation, m/s Lateral velocity fluctuation, m/s u'v' Reynolds stress (divided by density), m2/s2 Angular velocity of general rotation (e.g., of spacecraft about a distant axis), radians/s Flow rate, kg/s Axial dimension, m Radial distance (e.g., of spacecraft) from axis of general rotation, or lateral position, m Lateral dimension, m 193

194 ock £ V rl r p C, —£ CO APPENDIX B Volume fraction of phase k An overall difference of a property (e.g., /\p), measured or given at a certain position Amplitude of oscillation, m Friction number, fLIDH Kinematic viscosity of fluid, m2/s Single-phase pressure-drop-to-inlet-velocity ratio, N-s/m4 Two-phase pressure-drop-to-inlet-velocity ratio, N-s/m4 Mass density of fluid medium, kg/m3 Surface tension, N/m Reynolds stress (~) and turbulent dissipation (£) Angular velocity, radians/s

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The frontier represented by the near solar system confronts humanity with intriguing challenges and opportunities. With the inception of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise in 1995, NASA has acknowledged the opportunities and has accepted the very significant challenges.

Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies was commissioned by NASA to assist it in coordinating the scientific information relevant to anticipating, identifying, and solving the technical problems that must be addressed throughout the HEDS program over the coming decades. This report assesses scientific and related technological issues facing NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space endeavor, looking specifically at mission enabling and enhancing technologies which, for development, require an improved understanding of fluid and material behavior in a reduced gravity environment.

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