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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

Index

A

Accessions Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity, 14, 16, 23, 50, 63–64, 85, 98

ADHD. See Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Adjustment disorder

among military personnel, 141

as disqualifying condition, 142

medications for, 138

Age factors

asthma patterns, 127, 131

injury and attrition risk, 98–99

mental health history cutoff standards, 143, 147, 149–150, 188–189

Agoraphobia, 142

Air Force

asthma waivers, 128–131

attrition patterns, 80

body weight and composition standards, 117, 118

delayed entry program, 31

mental disorder patterns, 141, 145

occupational specialty placement, 40

recruiting goals, 11–12, 21

substance use policies, 153

tobacco use in, 163, 167, 168, 174

waiver authority, 29

Air Force Strength Aptitude Test, 31, 32

Alcohol consumption

enlistment standards, 4, 152–153, 159, 191

enlistment waivers, 153, 159

patterns and trends, 4–5, 153–156, 192

See also Substance use

Anorexia nervosa, 143

Anterior cruciate ligament, 78

Antidepressant medications, 137–139

Antisocial personality disorder, 140, 188

Anxiety disorders

among military personnel, 140, 141

enlistment disqualifications, 142, 144

epidemiology, 136, 137

pharmacotherapy, 138

recommendations for assessment, 9, 150, 190, 195

recommendations for enlistment standards, 147, 149–150, 189

Appearance and bearing of individual soldiers, 186

Aptitudes and abilities, 10, 11, 12

assessment in recruiting process, 37–39, 49

cost-performance trade-off analysis, 53

evaluation methodology, 48

Armed Forces Qualification Test, 37–38, 39

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, 37–38

Arm injuries/conditions, 79

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

ARMS. See Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength

Army

attrition patterns, 80, 85–86

body weight and composition standards, 117, 118

delayed entry program, 31

mental disorder patterns, 141, 145

occupational specialty placement, 40

physical fitness of inductees, 66

Physical Fitness Test, 70, 71

recruiting goal attainment, 11–12, 21

substance use policies, 153

tobacco use in, 163, 169–170, 174

waiver authority, 29

Army Accessions Command, 64

Army Longitudinal Study, 16

Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength (ARMS), 31, 50

Asthma, 2

attrition patterns, 8, 131–132, 133–134, 187

cost of care, 8, 132, 187

as dichotomous assessment criteria, 48

as disqualifying condition, 3, 128, 131–132, 134, 187

epidemiological patterns and trends, 3, 127, 133, 187

medical management, 132–133

medical outcomes, 128, 133, 187

in military population, 128–132, 133–134

recommendations for enlistment standards, 10, 134, 188, 196

research needs, 134, 187–188

risk factors, 131

waiver requests, 128–131

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 143

enlistment disqualifications, 144

enlistment standards, 142, 145, 188

pharmacotherapy, 138, 139, 140

prescreening, 150, 190

prevalence, 4, 136, 140

substance use risk and, 4, 136

Attitudes toward enlistment, 10, 12

Attrition

asthma-related, 131–132, 133–134, 187

body composition risk factors, 119–121, 185–186

cost-performance trade-off analysis, 57–58

costs, 49, 54

discharge for conditions existing prior to service, 145

educational attainment and, 38–39, 49, 51–52, 54

as enlistment outcome measure, 6–8, 49, 50, 51–52

mental disorder as basis for, 140–141, 142, 144, 145, 188, 195–196

musculoskeletal injury as cause of, 80, 181

patterns and trends, 7, 79, 80, 86, 108, 186

research methodology, 6–7, 15–16, 17

research needs, 9, 107, 108, 195–196

risk factors, 16, 80–82, 85–89, 119–121, 185–186

risk reduction strategies, 8–9, 99–106, 195

substance use outcomes, 159–161, 192–193

tobacco use and, 8, 168–172, 193–194, 196

of tobacco use standards, 172–174

waivers of disqualification and, 7–8, 17, 159, 160–161, 192–193

B

Back pain, 109

Basic training

body composition changes in, 123–125

delayed entry program, 19

functional capacity assessment for risk reduction in, 100

gender-specific training programs, 105–106, 184

group exercises, 103

injury and attrition in, 7–8, 14, 79–80

injury and attrition risk reduction strategies, 100–106

injury risk factors, 80–85, 181

physical fitness assessment during, 2, 19, 32, 66

physical training in, 66–67, 181

purpose, 66, 102–103, 181

recommendations for redesigning, 9, 106, 195

tailored to fitness levels of recruits, 9, 14, 101, 102–105, 107, 195

Bipolar disorder, 142, 150, 190

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

Blood pressure testing, 39

Blood testing, 39

Body fat. See Body weight and composition

Body mass index

asthma risk, 131

current military population, 111–117

current standards, 3, 185

injury and attrition rates and, 7–8, 17, 186

population profile, 110, 111

recommendations for fitness assessment, 9, 126–127, 186, 187, 195

retention standards, 187

See also Body weight and composition

Body weight and composition, 3

body fat measurement, 113, 117–119

changes in basic training, 123–125

cost-performance trade-off analysis of standards for, 56–59

current military population, 113–119

current population profile, 3, 110–111

current standards, 3, 185

data sources, 17

in definition of physical fitness, 68

demographic differences, 110, 111–113

disqualification for service based on, 3, 15, 109, 185

height and weight tables, 117

MEPS screening, 26, 28–29, 178

military job performance and, 52, 122–123

rationale for enlistment standards, 119, 122–123, 185–186

recommendations for fitness

assessment, 9, 126–127, 186, 195

recruiting station assessment, 25, 177

retention standards, 117, 127, 185, 186–187

risk of injury and attrition, 80, 81–82, 96, 119–121, 185–186

waivers of disqualification, 7–8, 17

See also Body mass index;

Obese and overweight persons

Bone injuries, 79.

See also Musculoskeletal injury/disease;

Orthopedic screening

Bone remodeling, 94

Bulimia, 143

Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 29

C

Cardiorespiratory fitness

attrition risk and, 87–88

body composition and, 119

current military profile, 73–74

current population profile, 73, 74–77

data sources, 17

disqualifications for service, 15, 109

as predictive of military service performance, 7

risk of injury and, 80–81, 82, 86

See also Endurance, cardiorespiratory

Chief medical officer, MEPS, 26

Chronic pain disorder, 143

Cigarette use

associated behavioral problems, 8, 170–172, 194

cost-performance trade-off analysis of standards for, 172–174

educational attainment and, 174–176

enlistment standards, 5, 152, 163

historical military policy, 162

implications for enlistment screening, 174–176

injury and attrition risk, 8, 99, 167–172, 193–194, 196

in military population, 162–163, 165–167, 193, 194

patterns and trends, 5, 163–167

research needs, 9, 176, 194, 196

Combat experience, mental health outcomes, 141

Combat readiness

components of, 18

as physical fitness standard, 6, 14

Conduct disorder, 138, 142

Contract, enlistment, 41

Costs

asthma care, 8, 132

attrition, 49, 54

benefits of injury reduction programs, 103–105

cost-performance trade-off analysis, 53–59.

See also Trade-off model for assessing standards

military entrance processing, 29

military training, 168

educational attainment of recruits and, 39, 49, 54

musculoskeletal injuries, 79, 181

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

physical and medical outcome measures, 50

recruiting, 55–56

smoking-related, 162, 168–170

Credit check, 40

Cumulative impact injury, 92–94

D

Data collection

connectivity and compatibility of databases, 60–61

for evaluating predictive validity of enlistment standards, 6–7, 9, 14, 50

individual medical and mental health data, 9, 30, 59–60, 178

on injury and attrition, 15–16, 17

management databases, 62

medical prescreening, 4, 9, 25, 36, 41–46

mental health, 143–144, 151, 191

privacy protections, 59, 60

recommendations for, 9, 36, 61, 151, 178, 191, 195–196

research needs, 9

sources, 14, 16–17, 62–65

surveillance databases, 62–63

Defense Manpower Data Center, 17, 61, 64

Defense Medical Surveillance System, 62

Delayed entry program, 19, 31, 41, 101

Demands of military service

attrition and injury risk, 16

body weight and composition effects, 122–123

combat readiness, 6, 14, 18, 178–179

cross-service requirements, 36–37, 179, 195

functional capacity assessment for, 99–100

mental and emotional stress in, 3–4, 135–136, 188

musculoskeletal injury risk factors, 89

PULHES system of physical examination for, 30–31

research needs, 9, 13, 37, 179

substance use effects, 159–161

See also Cardiovascular fitness;

Military occupational specialties

Demographics

applicants for service, 18

injury and attrition risk, 81, 96–99

physical and medical condition trends, 13, 71–73, 74–77

population of interest, 1–2, 13–14

recruitment goals, 22

See also Age factors;

Gender differences;

Race/ethnicity

Depression

among military personnel, 140, 141, 188

clinical course, 149, 189

as disqualifying condition, 142, 145–147, 189

epidemiology, 136, 137

pharmacotherapy, 137–139, 189

recommendations for assessment, 9, 150, 190

recommendations for enlistment standards, 147, 149–150, 189

treatment, 145

Developmental disorders, 138

Diabetes, 117

Dial-A-Medic Program, 25

Dichotomous assessment criteria, 6, 48

Directive 1304.26 (DoD), 152

Disqualifying conditions, 14

asthma, 3, 128, 131–132, 134, 187

body weight and composition, 3, 15, 109, 185

current distribution, 109

current standards, 19, 21

data sources, 17

dichotomous assessment criteria, 48

medical, 2, 15, 17, 19, 24–25, 78–79, 109

military entrance processing, 26

psychiatric disorders, 4, 15, 19, 109, 142–143, 144–147, 149–150, 188, 189

recruitment station processing, 26

retention standards, 71, 117, 127, 185, 186–187

standards based on, 48–49

standards evaluation methodology, 52

substance use, 5, 15, 78, 109, 153

trade-off analysis of tobacco use standards, 172–174

Disruptive behavior disorders, 136

Dissociative disorders, 143

Drug use. See Marijuana use;

Substance use

E

Eating disorders, 143, 188

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

Economic factors influencing enlistment, 1, 11

applicant’s financial problems, 40

unemployment rate, 12

Educational attainment

attrition and, 38–39, 49, 51–52, 54

cost-performance trade-off analysis, 53–56

Department of Defense classification, 38

enlistment outcome linkage, 39, 49, 51–52

evaluation methodology, 48

recruitment goals, 39

smoking patterns and, 174–176

Encopresis, 143

Endurance, cardiorespiratory, 2

in definition of physical fitness, 68

demographic differences, 2, 35, 74, 77

measurement, 69

trends, 2

See also Cardiorespiratory fitness

Endurance, muscular, 2

Army Physical Fitness Test, 71

in definition of physical fitness, 68

functional capacity assessment, 99–100

measurement, 69

Enlistment standards. See Standards, enlistment

Enuresis, 143, 188

Existing prior to service discharges, 145

F

Fatigue, in definition of physical fitness, 67

Financial problems, applicant’s, 40

Firefighters, 35, 100

FITNESSGRAM, 69

Form 2807-2 (DoD), 24, 26, 36, 41–46, 178, 190

Functional capacity assessment, 99–100

G

Gender differences

ADHD prevalence, 136

applicants for service, 18

asthma patterns, 127, 134

asthma risk, 3, 131

body composition changes in basic training, 123–125

body weight and composition, 110, 111, 112–113

cardiorespiratory fitness, 2, 35, 74, 77

current military population, 18

gender-specific physical training programs, 105–106, 184

injury and attrition patterns, 7, 14, 79–80, 105–106, 181, 183

injury and attrition risk, 82, 87, 96–98, 108

musculoskeletal injury during training, 79–80, 105–106, 183

overweight and obese youth, 3

physical fitness testing and, 35–36

psychological disorder patterns, 136, 137, 141

recommendations for research, 108, 184, 195

recruitment goals, 22

substance use patterns, 5, 156–159

tobacco use patterns and trends, 165–166

Goals, recruitment, 1, 11–12, 2

demographic diversity, 22

educational attainment of recruits, 39

See also Shortfalls, recruiting

Group training, 103

H

Health Examination Survey Cycle II, 77

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996), 60

Health-related physical fitness, 68

HIV testing, 26

Hypochondriasis, 143

I

Initial contact in recruiting process, 37

Injuries

body weight and composition risk factors, 119–121, 185

cigarette smoking and risk of, 167–168

disqualifications for service based on, 109

functional capacity assessment for risk reduction, 99

gender differences, 7, 82, 105–106, 108, 195

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

musculoskeletal. See Musculoskeletal injury/disease

preship conditioning and, 107

research methodology, 15–16, 17

research needs, 9, 107, 108, 195

risk factors, 16, 80–85

strategies for reducing, 8–9, 195

in training, 7, 79–85, 106

See also Cardiovascular fitness;

Musculoskeletal injury/disease

Instruction 1308.3 (DoD), 33

Instruction 6130.4 (DoD), 19, 23–24, 131

International comparisons, physical fitness, 74–77

J

Job performance evaluation

challenges, 6–7, 16

outcome selection and linkage, 49–53

See also Attrition;

Injuries;

Trade-off model for assessing standards

K

Knee problems, 78, 97, 98

L

Learning disorders, 142, 188

Legal challenges to preemployment, 35–36

Load-tolerance relationship, 89–90

M

Marijuana use

attrition outcomes of enlistment waivers for, 159–161, 192–193

cost-performance trade-off analysis of standards, 9, 161–162, 193, 196

as dichotomous assessment criteria, 48

disqualification for service due to, 5, 15, 78, 109, 153

enlistment standards, 4, 153, 162, 192

patterns and trends, 5, 155, 156, 192

Marine Corps

attrition patterns, 80

body weight and composition standards, 117, 118

delayed entry program, 31

mental disorder patterns, 141, 145

occupational specialty placement, 40

physical fitness testing, 36

recruiting goal attainment, 12

substance use policies, 153

tobacco use in, 163

waiver authority, 29

Maximal oxygen consumption. See VO2max

Medical condition(s)

assessment methodology, 48

cost-performance trade-off analysis of standards for, 56–59

data collection in recruitment process, 9, 25, 30, 177

data sources, 59–60

disqualifying conditions and waivers, 2, 14, 15, 17, 24–25, 48–49, 78–79, 178, 188

enlistment outcome evaluations, 50, 52

enlistment standards, 23–24, 47

military entrance processing, 26–31, 177–178

Physical Profile Serial System, 30–31

prescreen, 24–25, 41–46, 177, 178

recommendations for data collection, 9, 178, 195

recruiting station assessment, 24–26, 177

See also Asthma;

Body weight and composition;

Mental health;

Obese and overweight persons;

Physical fitness

Medical professionals, in MEPS, 26

Mental health

attrition and injury risk, 16, 140–141, 142, 144, 188

combat experience and, 141

common disorders, 4.

See also specific disorder

comorbid disorders, 136

discouragement of potential recruits by recruitment process, 4

disqualifications for service, 15, 109, 145–147, 149–150, 188, 189

enlistment standards, 142–143, 188–189

epidemiology, 4, 136–137, 140, 188

existing prior to service discharges, 145

impairment prevalence, 136

MEPS assessment, 143, 150–151, 190

in military population, 140–142, 143–144, 188

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

prescreening, 4, 9, 148–149, 189

psychotropic medicine use, 4, 137–139, 140

recommendations for assessment, 9, 148–149, 150–151, 190, 195

recommendations for data collection and management, 9, 151, 191, 195

recommendations for enlistment standards, 147, 149–150, 189

stresses of military service, 3–4, 135–136, 188

tobacco use and, 171–172

treatment delivery and utilization, 139–140, 140, 145

waivers of disqualification, 7, 141, 144, 145

See also specific diagnosis

MEPS. See Military entrance processing station

Military Entrance Processing Command (MEPCOM). See U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command

Military entrance processing station (MEPS)

costs, 29

detection of musculoskeletal injuries in, 77–78

examinations performed, 29

medical and physical assessments, 19, 26–31, 39, 177–178, 195

medical disqualifications and waivers, 17, 78–79

medical personnel in, 26

mental health assessment, 9, 143, 150–151, 190, 195

substance use disqualifications during, 5

transportation to, 25–26

Military occupational specialties

applicant’s selection and placement, 40

different enlistment standards for, 5–6, 14

physical fitness requirements, 32, 36, 178–179

MIRS. See U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command Integrated Resource System

Mission requirements

as recruitment factor, 1, 11

See also Demands of military service

Mood disorders, 142, 144, 145–147, 149–150

See also Depression;

specific diagnosis

Moral character standards, 39–40, 152–153, 191

Mortality

asthma, 128

obesity as risk factor, 110

Muscular strength, 2

Air Force Strength Aptitude Test, 31, 32

in definition of physical fitness, 68

load-tolerance relationship, 89–90

measurement, 69

See also Endurance, muscular

Musculoskeletal injury/disease, 7

acute, 92

attrition related to, 80, 181

cigarette smoking and, 167–168

costs, 181

cumulative trauma, 92–94

disqualifications for service, 15, 78–79

functional capacity assessment, 99–100

gender differences, 96–98, 182, 183

incidence in training, 79–80

multifactorial causation, 89, 106

prevalence in applicant population, 77–79

racial/ethnic patterns, 98–99

risk factors, 89–99, 181, 182–183

risk reduction strategies, 99–106, 182

See also Muscular strength;

Orthopedic screening

N

National Guard, 2, 14

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 71–73, 77

Naval Recruiting Command, 29

Navy

asthma waivers, 132

attrition patterns, 80

body weight and composition standards, 117, 118

delayed entry program, 31

mental disorder patterns, 141, 145

occupational specialty placement, 40

recruiting goal attainment, 11–12

substance use policies, 153

tobacco use in, 163, 167, 169–170, 172–174, 193

waiver authority, 29

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

Neurological screening, 26

Neurotic disorders, 144–145

O

Obese and overweight persons

current prevalence, 3, 110–111, 185

definition, 3, 110, 185

disqualification for service, 78

effectiveness of weight control programs, 123–126, 186–187

enlistment outcome evaluations, 50

health outcomes, 110, 185

opportunity for MEPS reevaluation, 28–29

population trends, 111, 185

See also Body mass index;

Body weight and composition

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 142

Occupational area counseling, 40

Orthopedic screening, 109

disqualification for service, 78, 79

enlistment outcome measures, 50

MEPS, 26

Oxygen consumption. See VO2max

P

Panic disorder, 142

Paranoid disorder, 142

Paraphilias, 143

Patella, 78

Peacekeeping missions, 135–136, 188

Penalties for failure to maintain physical fitness, 71

Personality disorders, 138, 140, 143, 145, 188

Pharmacotherapy, psychiatric, 4, 137–139, 140

Phobias, 142

Physical fitness

assessment during recruitment process, 100–101, 183

attrition risk factors, 80–82, 85–89

basic training outcomes, 66–67

basic training tailored to fitness levels of recruits, 9, 101, 102–105, 106, 184

civilian employment testing, 33–36

cost-performance trade-off analysis of standards for, 56–59, 180–181

cross-Service requirements, 36–37, 179, 195

data sources, 17, 59–60

definition and components, 2, 33, 67–68, 70

demographic patterns, 13, 71–73, 74–77

disqualifying conditions, 48–49

enlistment outcome indicators, 50

enlistment standards, 2, 6, 9, 18–19, 31–33, 70–71, 85, 88, 100, 178–179

failure to maintain, 71

gender-specific training programs, 105–106, 184

goals of basic training, 66–67, 102–103

health-related components, 68

injury and attrition risk reduction strategies, 99–106, 182

legal challenges to employment testing, 35–36

measurement approaches, 13, 48, 68–69

MEPS testing, 31, 39

as predictive of job performance, 7, 13, 17, 35, 36

PULHES assessment system, 30–31

recommendations for assessment and measurement, 9, 36–37, 106–107, 195

recommendations for assessment prior to basic training, 183

recommendations for measurement, 9

requirements of different military occupational specialties, 5–6, 13, 14, 32, 36, 178–179

research needs, 9, 36, 107, 179, 183–184

risk of injury in training and, 80–85, 96, 182

of soldiers entering service, 66

test components of military Services, 33, 70

testing in basic training, 2, 19, 32, 66

training programs prior to basic training, 19, 31, 101–102, 107

See also Body weight and composition;

Cardiorespiratory fitness;

Endurance, cardiorespiratory;

Endurance, muscular;

Medical condition(s);

Muscular strength

Physical Work Capacity-170 test, 69

Policy options, 8–9, 13, 194–196

Posttraumatic stress disorder, 141, 142

Prescreening

medical, 24–25, 41–46, 177, 178

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

mental health, 4, 9, 148–149, 190

recommendations for, 9, 36, 178, 190

President’s Council on Physical Fitness, 74

Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, 148

Privacy Act (1974), 60

Privacy and confidentiality, health data, 59, 60

Private sector employment, 12

physical fitness testing, 33–36

Psychosexual disorders, 143

Psychosocial context

as injury risk factor, 89, 95–96, 181, 182–183

stresses of military service, 3–4, 135–136

See also Mental health

Psychotic disorders, 138, 142, 150, 190

PULHES assessment system, 30–31

R

Race/ethnicity, 14

applicants for service, 18

asthma patterns, 3, 127, 128, 131–132, 134, 187

asthma waivers, 128

body weight and composition profiles, 111–113, 185

cardiorespiratory fitness, 74

considerations in design of enlistment standards, 18

current military population, 17–18

injury and attrition patterns, 86, 98–99

physical fitness patterns, 73

population trends, 18

prevalence of overweight youth, 3

psychological diagnosis patterns, 136, 137

recruitment goals, 22

substance use patterns, 5, 156–159, 192

tobacco use patterns and trends, 5, 165–166

Recruiting stations

data collection and management, 9, 25, 26

initial contacts, 37

medical and physical screening, 24–26, 177, 178

psychiatric disqualifications at, 4

Regression analysis, 51

Regulation 40-1 (USMEPCOM), 26, 29

Repetitive motion injuries, 92–94

Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, 2, 14

Reserve units, 2, 14

Retention standards, 71, 117, 127, 185, 186–187

Risk-taking behavior, 171

Rotator cuff conditions, 79

Running

body composition and, 119, 120

injury reduction strategies, 103–105

S

Schizophrenia, 140, 142, 150, 188, 190

Sensitivity of tests, 50–51

Shortfalls, recruiting

causes of, 12

enlistment standards and, 11, 12

recent history, 11–12, 21

Shoulder problems, 78–79

Sleepwalking, 143, 188

Smokeless tobacco, 163

Social phobia, 142

Somatoform disorders, 143, 145

Specificity of tests, 50, 51

Spine, 95

Standards, enlistment

asthma, 10, 134, 188, 196

based on disqualifying conditions, 48

body mass index, 3, 111–119

combat readiness, 6, 14

current predictive validity, 6–8, 13

design procedures, 47, 48, 53

for different military occupational specialties, 5–6, 14, 179

issues of concern, 1–2, 11, 12–13

medical, 23–31, 47

mental health, 142–143, 145–147, 149–150, 188–189

methodology for evaluating. See Standards evaluation methodology

moral character, 39–40, 152–153, 191

physical fitness, 2, 6, 18–19, 31–33, 47, 70–71, 85, 88, 100, 179

policy options, 8–9, 13, 194–196

racial/ethnic considerations, 18

strategies for increasing pool of eligible

youth, 9, 195

substance use, 4, 152–153, 161–162, 191–192

tobacco use, 5, 152, 163

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

uniformity among military services, 13

See also Body weight and composition;

Disqualifying conditions

Standards, retention, 71, 117, 127, 185, 186–187

Standards evaluation methodology, 6–7, 16–17, 47

databases for, 59–61

dichotomous assessment criteria, 48

outcome selection and linkage, 49–53, 179–181

recommendations for improving, 36, 61, 179–181

trade-off model, 6–7, 19, 48–49, 53–59

validity testing, 6–7, 9, 14, 50–53

Stimulant medications, 137, 138

Strength. See Muscular strength

Substance use

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as risk factor for, 4, 136

cost-performance trade-off analysis, 161–162

degrees of severity, 153

demographic patterns, 156–159, 192

drug trafficking, 153

enlistment disqualifications, 144, 152–153

enlistment standards, 4, 144, 152–153, 161–162, 191–192

military performance and, 159, 192

patterns and trends, 5, 136, 153–159, 192

screening in military entrance processing, 26

waivers of disqualification for, 153

See also Alcohol consumption;

Cigarette use;

Marijuana use

Suicidal behavior/ideation, 142

prevalence among youth, 137

Synovial fluid, 93

T

Tendon injury, 92–94

Tobacco. See Cigarette use

Total Army Injury and Health Outcome Database, 63

Trade-off model for assessing standards, 19

applications, 6, 53–59

asthma standards, 134, 188

conceptual basis, 48–49

medical and physical fitness standards, 6–7

research needs, 61, 180–181, 196

substance use standards, 161–162, 193, 196

tobacco use, 172–174

Training. See Basic training

Training of MEPS personnel, 26

U

Unemployment rate, 12

Urinalysis, 39

U.S. Air Education and Training Command, 29

U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 16

U.S. Army Accession Command, 16

U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 14, 16, 17, 80–81

U.S. Army Recruiting Command, 29

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 14, 16

U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM), 14, 16, 17, 60

Integrated Resource System (MIRS), 30, 60, 64

U.S. Navy Service Training Command, 16

V

Validity testing, 6–7, 9, 14, 50–53

Vision and hearing tests, 26, 39

VO2max, 69, 73, 74, 77, 119.

See also Cardiorespiratory fitness

W

Waiver of disqualification, 14, 19

for asthma, 10, 128–131, 132, 133–134

authorities for, 29

body weight and composition, 7–8, 17

for cigarette smoking, 8

data sources, 17, 30

for medical conditions, 15, 178

military entrance processing, 26, 30, 39

for musculoskeletal conditions, 78

for persons with criminal history, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
×

for psychiatric conditions, 4, 7, 141, 144, 145

subsequent attrition and, 7–8, 17, 159, 160–161

for substance use, 153, 159–161

Weight. See Body mass index;

Body weight and composition;

Obese and overweight persons

Weight loss programs, 125–126

Wolff’s law, 94–95

Women. See Gender differences

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11511.
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The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) faces short-term and long-term challenges in selecting and recruiting an enlisted force to meet personnel requirements associated with diverse and changing missions. The DoD has established standards for aptitudes/abilities, medical conditions, and physical fitness to be used in selecting recruits who are most likely to succeed in their jobs and complete the first term of service (generally 36 months). In 1999, the Committee on the Youth Population and Military Recruitment was established by the National Research Council (NRC) in response to a request from the DoD. One focus of the committee's work was to examine trends in the youth population relative to the needs of the military and the standards used to screen applicants to meet these needs.

When the committee began its work in 1999, the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force had recently experienced recruiting shortfalls. By the early 2000s, all the Services were meeting their goals; however, in the first half of calendar year 2005, both the Army and the Marine Corps experienced recruiting difficulties and, in some months, shortfalls. When recruiting goals are not being met, scientific guidance is needed to inform policy decisions regarding the advisability of lowering standards and the impact of any change on training time and cost, job performance, attrition, and the health of the force.

Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment examines the current physical, medical, and mental health standards for military enlistment in light of (1) trends in the physical condition of the youth population; (2) medical advances for treating certain conditions, as well as knowledge of the typical course of chronic conditions as young people reach adulthood; (3) the role of basic training in physical conditioning; (4) the physical demands and working conditions of various jobs in today's military services; and (5) the measures that are used by the Services to characterize an individual's physical condition. The focus is on the enlistment of 18- to 24-year-olds and their first term of service.

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