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Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition (2019)

Chapter:Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Operations Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14275.
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89 Icons are defined in Figure 1 of Section 1.1. Operations is a daily, ongoing element of small airport management to provide a safe and efficient airport for the users. This chapter is organized to address the most frequently used or needed aspects of operations first, followed by more specialized operational activities. It is intended that a less experienced small airport manager could start at the beginning of this section and progressively build an understanding of the operational elements of small airport manage- ment. Some of the specialized items will not be applicable to all small airports, such as winter operations or joint use, but are included for those small airports to which they are applicable and to provide background information for other small airport managers. 4.1 Inspection Key Insights Inspection requirements should be established for the airport facilities/equipment, maintenance vehicles and navigational aids owned by the airport to ensure that the facility is maintained to the highest possible standards and to reduce downtime and safety risks and their associated insurance costs. Airport operator self-inspections are used to promote compliance with the operating or licens- ing requirements and are conducted daily. These daily inspections are conducted separately from inspections carried out by the certifying or licensing authorities that are generally performed on an annual basis. Key Definitions Aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF): A special category of firefighting that involves the response, hazard mitigation, evacuation and rescue of passengers and crew of an aircraft involved in an airport ground emergency. Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)/Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS): A system of weather sensors that collect and disseminate weather data to pilots and flight dispatchers so they may prepare for and monitor weather forecasts. The ASOS program is entirely federally funded, whereas AWOSs are generally funded by the operator or airport sponsor. FAR Part 77: Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace. Part 77 establishes standards for deter- mining obstructions in navigable airspace, outlines the requirements for notifying the FAA of C H A P T E R 4 Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport

90 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports certain proposed construction or alteration and provides for aeronautical studies of obstructions to air navigation in order to determine their effect on the safe and efficient use of airspace. FAR §77.25 of this part establishes imaginary surfaces around airport runways, approach zones and navigable airspace in the vicinity of the airport. Frangible coupling: Mounting coupling for lights, signs and navigational aids designed to shear at a defined force, reducing the possibility of loss of aircraft control, damage and injury. Navigational aid (NAVAID): Any form of aid to navigation designed to assist the pilot with position and height information and wind conditions. Examples: instrument landing systems, visual approach slope indicators, precision approach path indicators, wind cones and very high frequency omnidirectional ranges. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM): A notice containing information concerning the establishment of, condition of, change to any component (facility, service or procedure) of or hazard in the National Airspace System, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. Object-free area (OFA): The area of the airport centered on the runway, taxiway or taxilane centerline provided to enhance the safety of aircraft operations by having the area free of objects, except for those that are necessary for air navigation or aircraft ground maneuvering, which are required to be mounted on frangible couplings. Precision approach path indicator (PAPI): A visual aid that provides guidance informa- tion to help a pilot acquire and maintain the correct approach, relative to aircraft altitude, to a runway. Self-Inspections The goal of an airport self-inspection program is to identify potential safety or security issues and address them as soon as practical to keep the airport in good operating condition. While reactive maintenance may occur from inspections, a best management practice is to develop a preventive maintenance program to minimize the need for reactive maintenance. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-18: Airport Safety Self-Inspection provides details and a sample inspection checklist to help airports establish or review their self-inspection programs. Four types of inspections are generally used by airports as part of a self-inspection program: • Routine or scheduled • Continuous surveillance • Periodic condition • Special inspections If the airport is used daily, provisions should be made to inspect it on a scheduled basis, at least once daily. For airports operated at night, inspections should occur in daylight and periods of darkness. Daily inspections are considered routine. If an airport is operated less than daily, inspections should occur at least as frequently as the airport is in operation. Activities such as construction or wildlife migration may require continuous surveillance to prevent hazards to aircraft. Periodic inspections are less frequent and may include specific assessments of pavements and pavement markings and recordings on airfield lighting circuit performance. Special inspections include checking the airfield after an unusual operation or condition, such as an aircraft accident or meteorological event. Conducting a special inspection prior to reopening a closed portion of an airport will ensure the pavements and safety areas are clear and airfield lighting systems are functioning correctly.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 91 Numerous areas of an airport should be included in the self-inspection program. A regular inspection program can be established as an airport policy. A template airport inspection policy and checklist is provided in ACRP WebResource 6. This template should be modified to fit the facilities and operations at your airport. This template includes fuel system elements for airport operators that are also responsible for the fueling services. Fuel system inspections are also discussed in more detail in Section 4.4: Fueling Operations. ACRP Synthesis 27: Airport Self-Inspection Practices summarizes current practices at airports. The corrective action program is equally essential to ensure that any discrepancies are corrected in a timely manner and the resolution is documented as complete. Also, as needed, the operator should issue a NOTAM to report deficient conditions that could have an immediate and critical impact on the safety of aircraft operations. This NOTAM must be cancelled by the airport operator when the deficient conditions are addressed. Small airports with an FAR Part 139 certificate have specific daily, or more frequent, inspection requirements. Part 139 requires records of each inspection, indicating conditions found and corrective actions taken, to be maintained for at least 12 consecutive months. The inspection and record-keeping requirements are detailed in FAR §139.327, and the specific inspection plan should also be addressed in the airport certification manual (ACM). To enhance safety and security, a routine inspection program is an essential tool for all small airports. State-issued operating certificates may also include a daily inspection requirement. The Part 139 record-keeping requirement of 12 calendar months provides a good guide for other small airports that are state certificated. Routine inspection programs and prompt resolution of discrepancies help airports demonstrate their care of the airfield in the event of an accident, as discussed in ACRP Legal Research Digest 33: Overview of Airport Duties and Standards of Care in Airfield Accident Cases. Common Inspection Items This section addresses the most common areas that must be inspected at a small airport. Along with the tools in ACRP WebResource 6, this discussion of inspection items can help identify the inspection requirements most applicable to your airport. Pavement Areas The condition of pavement surfaces is an important part of airport safety. When possible, pavement inspections should be conducted daily before flight operations commence to ensure pavement surfaces are clear. ACRP Synthesis 26: Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) identifies FOD management programs used at airports to keep pavements clear. At a minimum, a daily inspection should be performed on all paved areas that are the responsibility of the airport operator or as specified in the FAA-approved ACM for Part 139 airports. During the pavement inspection, the inspector should also observe the items associated with and around the pavement areas, such as lights, signs and markings. Runway and Taxiway Safety Areas and Object-Free Areas Safety areas are intended to support an aircraft if it leaves the pavement. OFAs are to be free of objects except those fixed by an aviation function, such as lights, signs or other navigational aids required based on siting criteria. Safety areas should be inspected for proper grading and drainage. OFAs need to be checked that they remain free of obstructions. The inspector should know the dimensions of the runway and taxiway safety areas and OFAs at the airport. At airports certificated under Part 139, the

92 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports dimensions of the safety areas should be documented in the ACM. For airports that are not Part 139 certificated, the safety area and object-free zone requirements may be found in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13: Airport Design or on the airport’s approved ALP. Safety area widths are listed in the advisory circular and are based on the aircraft group (wingspan) and category (approach speed). The aircraft category and group information for a particular airport should be available in the airport master plan and on the ALP. It is based on the critical aircraft, the largest aircraft or group of aircraft, that use the airport on a regular basis. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5000-17: Critical Aircraft and Regular Use Determination defines “critical aircraft” and identifies the information and analysis needed to identify the critical aircraft. There was a national initiative to improve runway safety areas at NPIAS airports. The FAA used FAA Standard Operating Procedure 8: Runway Safety Area Determination to assess the safety areas. Markings Airport markings provide important information to pilots during takeoff, landing and taxiing. To avoid confusion and disorientation, airport markings should be in compliance with FAA marking standards specified in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-1: Standards for Airport Markings. Compliance with these standards is mandatory for operators of airports certificated under Part 139 and for airport operators that have accepted federal funds for runway and taxiway construction or rehabilitation. The inspector should know the appropriate markings required at the airport. Signs Signs provide important information to pilots while taxiing. To avoid pilot confu- sion and disorientation, airport signs should be in accordance with FAA sign standards specified in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-18: Standards for Airport Sign Systems. Compliance with these standards is mandatory for operators of airports certificated under Part 139 and for airport operators that have accepted federal funds for runway and taxiway construction or rehabilitation. The inspector should know the appropriate sign standards and specifications at his or her airport and ensure that the signs comply with the FAA-approved sign plan, if applicable for that airport. Lighting Lighting systems at night and during periods of low visibility are critically important for safe airport operations. Lights come in different shapes, sizes, colors and configurations and can be located in the pavement or along its edges, mounted on frangible couplings, as detailed in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-30: Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids. A lighting inspection is best accomplished during periods of darkness in order to evaluate lighting systems when they provide the primary visual aid for pilots. The inspection should concentrate on the lighting owned by the airport operator. However, the inspector should observe any lighting owned or operated by the federal government and report any observed problems immediately to the appropriate responsible owner. At some airports, there are certain lighting systems owned and maintained by the FAA. Navigational Aids The inspection of NAVAIDs should concentrate on the visual navigational aids owned by the airport operator. These could include windsocks, PAPIs and AWOSs. However, the inspector should observe any NAVAIDs owned or operated by others, such as the FAA, and immediately report any observed problems to the NAVAID owner. INSPECTION ITEMS AIRFIELD Pavement, safety and object-free areas Markings Signs Lighting systems Part 77 obstructions Security systems Wildlife hazards Snow and ice (as applicable) Construction areas (as required) NAVAIDS PAPIs/VASIs, REILs Approach lighting system Wind socks and associated lighting AWOS VEHICLES Airport/maintenance vehicles Mowing equipment Snow removal equipment (as needed) ARFF vehicles (as required) FUEL STORAGE SYSTEMS Tank and filter sumps Hoses and fittings Nozzles and couplings Bonding/grounding cables Leaks (visual check) Fire extinguishers Transaction equipment, if equipped FUEL DELIVERY VEHICLES General vehicle condition Filter sumps Tank sumps Filter pressure differential Deadman controls Brake interlocks Nozzles and cover Hose condition Ground reels, cables and clamps Fire extinguishers Tanker bottom loading Air tanks (if air-brake equipped) Spill kit Leaks (visual check) Airfield electrical systems are high voltage. Work on and around them requires using appropriate safety measures, including disabling and locking out the appropriate circuits in the vault.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 93 Obstructions The inspection of obstructions should con centrate on a visual check of construction underway on and near the airport that could affect aircraft operations. Cranes are a special area of concern. The inspection should also include checking for any fast-growing vegetation, especially trees that may penetrate the Part 77 surfaces. Additional information on obstructions is included in Section 4.10: Airport Obstruction Management. Wildlife Wildlife can create a significant aviation hazard and cause extensive property damage, injury or even loss of life. During the inspection, observations should be made to determine if wildlife hazards exist and if they need immediate or short- or long-term mitigation. Section 4.9: Wildlife Management contains more information on this subject. Snow and Ice A snow and ice control plan is required at Part 139-certificated airports in climates where snow and ice occur. Where applicable, the inspector should be familiar with the airport’s snow and ice removal procedures and the guidance provided in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-30: Airport Field Condition Assessments and Winter Operations Safety. During and after snow removal operations at any airport, an inspection should be conducted to determine the conditions on the airport, and appropriate NOTAMs should be issued for any nonstandard conditions. Additional information on snow and ice control is in Section 4.12: Winter Operations. A snow and ice control plan template that can be customized for your airport is located in ACRP WebResource 6. Security Systems and Vehicles Areas to be considered for periodic inspections beyond the scope of the airfield inspections would include the proper operation of security systems; fencing; vehicles operated on the airport, including cars and trucks, mowing equipment, tractors and mowers; and other maintenance equipment owned by or used on the airport. Inspections of these vehicles and equipment will help to ensure they can be operated safely within the airport environment or for off-airport use as required. Items to be checked would include tires, brakes, wheels, fluid levels, belts and hoses and safety equipment such as light bars, headlights, taillights, turn signals, insignias and hazard flashers. Equipment maintenance is addressed in more detail in Section 4.7: Equipment Management. Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting If the airport has ARFF equipment on the airport, inspection of the equipment, as prescribed by the manufacturer, should be conducted. Aside from the vehicle inspection noted previously, the inspection of all pumping and foam systems and the status of ARFF response—including the availability of equipment, firefighters and extinguishing agents—should be checked and noted. At Part 139 airports, ARFF capabilities must comply with the FAA-approved ACM and the airport’s ARFF index must be appropriate for the size of air carrier aircraft serving the airport. Other areas to be inspected, as applicable, include ensuring the alarm and emergency notification communication systems are operable and determining the adequacy of the availability of fire extinguishing agents. Check for construction or maintenance activity on the movement area that could affect ARFF response routes and that the ARFF department has been notified if construction or maintenance activity could affect emergency response routes. The following must also be monitored: any ARFF vehicle, equipment or extinguishing agent that is inoperative or not avail- able; any ARFF personnel who are not available; and any changes to aircraft that may require a change to ARFF capabilities. At Part 139 airports, the FAA must be notified if ARFF vehicles When inspecting the airport, look at surrounding off-airport areas and keep an eye out for obstructions that have not been appropriately evaluated.

94 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports are inoperative and cannot be replaced immediately, as specified under FAR §139.319(g), and a NOTAM must be issued regarding nonavailability of any rescue and firefighting capability, as specified under FAR §139.339. Fueling Equipment Even if a small airport does not own or operate the fuel system, fuel storage areas and fueling vehicles should be inspected on a periodic basis and are covered in more detail in Section 4.4: Fueling Operations.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 95 4.2 NOTAM Management Key Insights Airport operators or airport-owning agencies are responsible for observing and reporting the condition of airport facilities when temporary changes, irregular operations or outages could impact safe airport operations or the National Airspace System. Airport operators are also responsible for initiating Notices to Airmen to report impacts to safety as observed via runway condition assessments and field condition reports. The preferred means of filing Notices to Airmen is electronically through the federal NOTAM Manager system. They can also be filed by contacting a flight service station. Key Definitions Chart supplement (formerly airport/facility directory): FAA publication containing data on public- and joint-use airports, seaplane bases and heliports. Federal NOTAM System (FNS): United States digital Notices to Airmen system. Field condition (FICON): Assessment of airfield conditions. Flight service station (FSS): A facility that provides information and service to aircraft pilots before, during and after flight but that is not responsible for giving instruction or clearance. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): A United Nations specialized agency established to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention). National Airspace System (NAS): The airspace, navigation facilities and airports of the United States along with their associated information, services, rules, regulations, policies, procedures, personnel and equipment. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM): A notice containing information concerning the establishment of, condition of, or change to any component (facility, service or procedure) of or hazard in the National Airspace System, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Manager: The modernized NOTAM system that digitizes the collection, dissemination and storage of NOTAMs. Notices to Airmen NOTAMs are essential to providing timely information about changing conditions or facilities within the NAS to personnel involved with flight operations. The airport operator is responsible for issuing NOTAMs for changing conditions at an airport. The need to issue or rescind a NOTAM may be identified through self-inspections. An airport operator may provide additional infor- mation to pilots through local airport advisories as described in ACRP Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Nontowered Airports. NOTAMs provide essential information to airport users concerned with flight and airport operations by providing timely information about unanticipated or temporary changes to components of, or hazards in, the NAS and by providing information that becomes available too late to publicize in the associated aeronautical charts and related publications, such as the

96 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports chart supplement (formerly the airport facility/directory). NOTAMs are not intended to be used to impose restrictions on airport access for the purpose of controlling or managing noise or to advertise data already published or charted. NOTAMs of an extended period should be published instead of being allowed to remain in the NOTAM system. NOTAM guidance is provided in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-28: Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) for Airport Operators. The NOTAM system should be used to report the following conditions or categories of information: • Surface areas: changes in hours of operations; hazards such as pavement issues, wildlife hazard conditions, surface conditions, airport construction, airport infrastructure deficiencies and airspace obstructions • Runway condition reports • NAVAID outages • Commissioning, decommissioning, opening, closing or abandonment of a public airport • A decrease in ARFF capability; restrictions to air carrier operations that may result • Changes to runway and taxiway identifiers, dimensions, declared distances, threshold placements, surface compositions and closures • Deficiencies in required NAS lighting systems, such as airport beacons, runway and taxiway lights and wind cones, including the commissioning, decommissioning, outages or changes in classification or operation The NOTAM should contain the following elements and maintain the following order: • Exclamation point • Accountability for established NOTAM (e.g., airport identification, flight data center) • Location of the condition (affected facility) • Keyword for affected surface or service [e.g., RWY (runway)] • Attribute, activity or designation of the surface • Surface segment, if applicable • Lower and upper altitude limit, if applicable • Condition being reported • Reason, if needed • Remarks (optional) • Schedule, if applicable • Start and end time (anticipated duration of condition) or self-cancelling conditions. Start and end times are a required entry in the NOTAM Manager system. Responsibility for Filing Notices to Airmen Personnel should be designated and trained to control NOTAM filings for the airport. Airports that have no staff or a very small staff may consider training and authorizing the FBO or other tenant personnel to issue NOTAMs on behalf of the sponsor or owner. The preferred method of issuing NOTAMs is digitally by using the NOTAM Manager system. An alternative is the eNOTAM II (ENII) system, which is similar to NOTAM Manager but lacks some of the direct entry functionality. Calling the controlling FSS for the airport is the least desirable method but is acceptable if the other methods are not accessible. Nationwide, Flight Service can be reached at (800)-WX-BRIEF, and the call can be routed to the controlling FSS. Airports not using the NOTAM Manager system are responsible for providing and keeping an up-to-date list of airport or tenant employees who are authorized to issue NOTAMs to the FSS air traffic manager. At public airports without an airport manager, the FSS air traffic manager will coordinate with the appropriate airport operating authority or owner to obtain a list of persons

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 97 delegated to provide NOTAM information. Using authorized airport personnel will help expedite the NOTAM processing, because information obtained from unauthorized personnel must be confirmed and authenticated by the FSS before a NOTAM is issued. Authorized airport personnel who do not have access to NOTAM Manager or applicable NOTAM system technology can submit information for NOTAMs to the FSS. Airport operators should use the NOTAM Manager, as described in its user’s guide, as the preferred and most effective method for entering NOTAMs into the system. NOTAM Manager uses drop-down menus, which standardizes entry. It also reduces or eliminates the time- consuming, free-form NOTAMs that need human intervention and interpretation before issuance. Airport managers are encouraged to register designated airport representatives with Federal NOTAM System Airport Self-Certification. Following registration, an FAA representative will contact the airport and establish additional NOTAM Manager account information. This information may include the development of a map of the airport with important landmarks, such as runway and taxiway intersections or quadrants and major aprons, which may be desig- nated when entering NOTAMs. This map will provide a visual of the area of the airport for which the NOTAM is being issued, providing an added layer of certainty that the NOTAM is being reported as intended. Use of the digital NOTAM Manager speeds up dissemination of safety-critical information into the FNS to a matter of seconds and allows authorized airport representatives full control over the status of their facility’s NOTAM information. When issuing NOTAMs in the system manager, the required abbreviations and contractions will be automatically inserted during the filing process. When using the NOTAM Manager, the issuer will receive an email confirming that the information has been received. Confirmation of NOTAM cancellations will also be emailed. This feature is useful in the retention of records as required. Additional email addresses can be added to the account to provide copies of the NOTAM issuance or cancellation to selected tenants, users and the airport traffic control tower (ATCT). The official ICAO contractions and abbreviations required to be used when issuing a NOTAM are located in FAA Order JO 7340.2: Contractions, and the allowed exceptions are found in FAA Order JO 7930.2: Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). Complete words or phrases must be used when the word or phrase is not an approved ICAO contraction. When using NOTAM Manager, the required contractions, when available, will be inserted into the NOTAM.

98 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.3 Airport Emergency Plans Key Insights On-airport emergencies and natural disasters can occur without warning. Having a comprehensive emergency plan can be invaluable in minimizing the loss of life and property and in minimizing facility downtime. Airports present a critical community resource for disaster response and post-disaster recovery. Airports should have plans that address emergency and disaster situations in order to minimize downtime and to maintain regular operations to the maximum extent feasible. Coordination should be undertaken in concert with the federal, state and local emergency response and operations authorities for effective facility-resiliency planning. Key Definitions Geographic information system (GIS): A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present spatial or geographic data. Hard resiliency: The direct strength of structures or facilities and their ability to absorb and function under the impacts of a natural or man-made disaster. Incident Command System (ICS): A standardized on-scene incident management concept designed to allow responders to adopt an integrated organizational structure equal to the complexity and demands of any single incident or multiple incidents without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. Mutual aid agreement: A voluntary, noncontractual arrangement to provide short-term emergency or disaster assistance between two or more entities. It typically does not involve payment, reimbursement, liability or mandatory responses. National Incident Management System (NIMS): A systematic, proactive approach to guide departments and agencies at all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in seamlessly working together and managing incidents involving all threats and hazards—regardless of cause, size, location or complexity—to reduce the loss of life, loss of property and harm to the environment. Soft resiliency: The ability of operational systems, including human resources, to absorb and recover from the impacts of disruptive events without fundamental changes in function or structure. Need for Emergency Plans It is essential that airports of all sizes plan and prepare in advance for emergency situations. The FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-31: Airport Emergency Plan can help the airport operator develop and implement an airport emergency plan. The FAA Great Lakes Region also has an airport emergency plan checklist to assist in preparing the plan. In addition to planning for an emergency on the airport, an airport emergency plan should include planning provisions for providing support for the community during any crisis or emergency situation. Depending on the scale of the event, airport emergencies and impacts from disasters, man-made and natural, tend to go beyond operational disruptions. Such events financially

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 99 affect the airport and challenge the facility’s hard and soft resiliency. When preparing for or planning to respond to emergencies, an airport should seek multiple avenues to increase its resiliency to high-impact events and establish practices that mitigate its short- and long-term impacts from these events. If possible, emergency preparedness should aim to prevent emergencies from occurring, but failing that, airports should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies. As time goes on and more data becomes available, usually through lessons learned, the plan should evolve and continue to improve. Developing emergency plans is a cyclical pro- cess. The plan should be reviewed and updated as necessary, at least annually. The plan should address such things as storms common to the region, such as tornadoes and hurricanes; aircraft accidents; terrorist attacks; and off-site disasters. During off-site disasters, a portion of the air- port may be required to house recovery teams, such as electric providers, military personnel and the American Red Cross or Salvation Army. Establishing Mutual Aid Agreements Mutual aid agreements can be critical to the successful execution of the airport emergency plan, by promoting the safety of the first responders and those involved in the incident while establishing practices to minimize disruption to airport operations. Having a reciprocal agreement with one or several different airport sponsors prepares the airport to respond to an event that would exceed the availability of its own local resources, such as personnel, equipment, materials and other applicable emergency response services. Although such agreements are primarily linked to the response phase of emergency management, they constitute a crucial element of successful emergency operations planning and can aid in the mitigation and recovery phases of emergency management. Local mutual aid agreements for fire, police, maintenance and engi- neering support are very common and beneficial for ensuring an adequate first response and recovery from an airport-related emergency. When developing a mutual aid agreement, airports should include, at a minimum, the following: • Definition of terms used in the agreement • Identification of the parties and their roles and responsibilities • Purpose of the agreement • Procedures for assistance requests and response • Procedures and responsible parties for cost reimbursement and allocation • Expectations of the parties • Notification procedures and communication between parties • Response time • Access and staging points • Insurance requirements (i.e., worker’s compensation, liability and immunity matters) • Training requirements • Practice exercises (how often and type of exercise, e.g., tabletop, mock drill) • Termination clause and procedures Airport sponsors or managers should contact their state emergency response agencies for possible additional requirements or recommendations for developing a mutual aid agreement specific to their local regulatory environment. Additionally, ACRP Synthesis 45: Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports contains a broad range of helpful information for airport managers preparing mutual aid agreements.

100 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Familiarizing First Responders with the Airport Before an Emergency The next element of airport emergency planning involves familiarizing first responders with the airport to promote safety and efficient response. Familiarization with the airport operating environment is critical to ensure that first responders do not endanger themselves or airport patrons while responding to an emergency. That training and familiarization exercise should include, at a minimum, the following: • Airport-specific driver training class • Overview of the ingress and egress points for response • Overview of staging areas and discussion of staging procedures and limitations • Alert status definitions, e.g., Alert 1, Alert 2 and Alert 3 • On-airport communications procedures • Visit to the ATCT, as applicable The key to this effort’s success is not only in the content and efficiency of the familiarization exercise but in systematic and repeated opportunities for first responders to gain familiarization with the airport. Because the local first responders rarely need to respond to on-airport acci- dents or emergencies, such training and repetition would keep the procedures and on-airport response requirements fresh. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has a brochure, “Responding to a Transportation Accident,” that explains how law enforcement and public safety personnel can support the NTSB during the on-scene phase of an aviation accident. The NTSB also offers courses for first responders through the NTSB Training Center. Emergency Exercises An emergency plan is only as good as the paper it is written on. To make the plan effective, training should be conducted and include internal people, contractors, airport stakeholders and civil protection partners. The plan should state the nature and frequency of training and testing. A plan’s effectiveness should be regularly tested. When several businesses or organizations occupy the same space, joint emergency plans, formally agreed to by all parties, should be put in place. To ensure plan effectiveness even for those airports where exercises are not a requirement, annual or semi-annual tabletop exercises are highly recommended. While all Part 139 airports, per FAR §139.325, are required at least once every 12 consecutive months to review their emergency plans with all parties with whom the plan is coordinated, Class I Part 139 airports are required to hold a full-scale emergency plan exercise at least once every 36 consecutive months. As previously stated, all small airports can benefit from periodi- cally conducting tabletop and full-scale emergency exercises. ACRP Synthesis 72: Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub and Small Hub Airports provides example exercises and sample emergency exercise materials for small airports. Emergency com- munication is also important for all airports to preplan. When conducting emergency exercises, the emergency communications plan should also be reviewed and practiced. ACRP Synthesis 73: Emergency Communications Planning for Airports provides information on airport emergency communication plans. National Incident Management System According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), NIMS is a systematic, pro- active approach to guide departments and agencies at all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector to work together seamlessly and manage incidents involving all threats and hazards—regardless of cause, size, location or complexity—to reduce the loss of Because first responders do not frequently operate at the airport, prepare a map of the airport they can keep in their vehicles.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 101 life and property and harm to the environment. NIMS is the essential foundation to the National Preparedness System, developed with the purpose to provide a common approach to managing incidents in the areas of emergency prevention, mitigation, response and recovery. NIMS was developed to provide the capabilities required across a community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk. These risks include events such as natural disasters, disease pandemics, chemical spills and other man-made hazards, terrorist attacks and cyberattacks. The FEMA web page on NIMS provides information and training resources. A key feature of NIMS is the standardized Incident Command System (ICS) developed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of response to incidents of various sizes and types. Because of its standardized nature and scalability, the ICS can cover a broad spectrum of events and can assist responders in organizing a response in the immediate as well as the long-term time frame. The system is used by a variety of agency types and levels and is structured to streamline and standardize the activities in the following areas: • Command: Chain of command, establishment and transfer of command functions, etc. • Operations: Modular organization, safety of response, execution of response operations, standardization of titles and terminology. • Logistics: Establishment and management of transportation, communication, supply, maintenance/fueling, food and medical services for incident personnel and off-incident resources. Housing availability should be planned for responders from outside the area. • Planning: Incident action planning for the overall incident response plan, including demobili- zation planning. Collects, evaluates and disseminates information on the current and forecast situation and the status of resources assigned to the incident. • Finance and administration: Management of all financial aspects of an incident, cost analysis, compensation and claims handling for responding agencies. Detailed and accurate financial records will be required for FEMA reimbursements. FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute (EMI) offers a broad range of free online and classroom courses that provide entry- to advanced-level training in NIMS and ICS functions and application. Airport managers and staff should consult EMI’s web page for additional informa- tion. Numerous state emergency management agencies also provide free training to state public agencies and responding personnel. Please contact your local or state emergency management authorities for additional information. Airport managers may be required to complete NIMS training as part of their community’s emergency plan and preparedness exercises. Resiliency and Airport Preparedness The role of an airport as a critical community disaster-response-and-recovery asset is fre- quently overshadowed by the primary and more obvious roles that the facility serves in the course of its regular business. However, the value of the airport’s capabilities to support local disaster preparation, response or recovery efforts—as an equipment-and-supply staging area, a primary point of rapid access to the community by disaster responders and operations or as a refueling area for disaster response air assets—cannot be overstated. Protecting and preparing the airport to serve in that role is critical to the management’s success in carrying out that mission. Overall, airport preparedness for natural and man-made impacts spans three key elements: • Emergency support preparedness • Proactive resiliency planning and concept implementation • Planning for post-disaster recovery Airports of all sizes can play an important role in disaster recovery, if they can stay functional because of emergency preparedness.

102 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Airports can have a broad range of physical assets that could be vulnerable to man-made disasters, climate change and natural disaster impacts. Airports should assess these poten- tial vulnerabilities and plan for long-term resiliency to pre-empt anticipated impacts. ACRP resources, such as the Airport Climate Risk Operational Screening tool available as a part of ACRP Report 147: Climate Change Adaptation Planning: Risk Assessment for Airports, can assist airport managers in conducting such assessments. Emergency Support Preparedness When planning for an emergency, several items must be considered. Steps must have been taken to make sure that all facilities have been strengthened as much as possible to minimize damage and preserve their functionality after the event. Storm shutters, roof hardening, emer- gency generators and vehicle storage areas should be considered. Areas for the protection of records and IT equipment should also be identified. Rest areas for staff should be designated. Emergency supplies, including medical supplies, water, food and a sufficient supply of fuel, should be on hand. For emergencies that may not have a long warning time (tornadoes, terrorist attacks), these supplies should be maintained to ensure operational capability for 7 to 10 days, depending on the threat level of the area. In some emergencies, all personnel may not be able to return to work immediately after the event due to closed roads, personal losses or other influences. A chain of command should be established to ensure that one or more individuals with the authority for decision making are onsite during the emergency. Communication is one of the key issues during any emergency. After the initial assessment of the facility, the operational capability should be communicated to appropriate personnel. Completing this assessment quickly and accurately will allow agencies responding to the event to know what to expect on arrival. Airport Resiliency In general terms, resilience is the ability to sustain and recover from adversity and return to normal conditions or operations. Airport resiliency, like any other infrastructure resiliency, is characterized by hard resiliency and soft resiliency qualities and measures. With regard to infrastructure, hard resiliency refers to the measures that prepare, strengthen and reinforce the various physical elements of infrastructure to deal with potential natural and man-made threats. As an example, such measures may include increased structural rigidity to withstand high wind loads, architectural design that creates physical barriers and standoffs to man-made threats, or material selection or strengthening that protects the structure and its occupants from destruction during a disaster. Soft resiliency refers to the capability of an organization’s human resources to deal with the impacts of disasters or other extraordinary events. Such events can be a natural disaster, or even circumstances such as a severe flu epidemic, government shutdown or staff furlough. The soft resiliency measures serve to prepare and rehearse the command structure, communication and mutual aid channels and methods of addressing specific threats and circumstances. They do so by providing the appropriate people access to the necessary tools, capital and equipment, building in cross-departmental and internal staffing redundancies and giving staff the appropriate level of emergency authority. Short-range resiliency planning should be incorporated into the foundations of the irreg- ular operations (IROPS) plans and emergency preparedness processes at the airport. While

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 103 commercial service airports have specific IROPS plan requirements, all airports should plan for irregular operations. This planning should include input from airport planning, environ- mental, engineering and maintenance staff, as appropriate to the airport. While typical severe weather can be managed and addressed with relative ease through existing practices, unusual weather events, catastrophes or even unusual human impacts on airport operations warrant a risk assessment by airport staff. Based on the likelihood of specific events and the severity of potential impacts, the findings of such assessments should be incorporated into the short- and mid-range airport capital improvement programs (i.e., design considerations, structural rigid- ity considerations, security features, etc.). A similar approach should be made to evaluate the soft resiliency of the airport operations and develop recommendations on how to address organizational vulnerabilities, such as staff sharing the airport sponsor’s resources, mutual aid organization participation and IROPS planning and exercises. When it comes to long-range resiliency planning, the potential impacts from climate change should also be considered. Climate change research indicates that airports will be subjected to a broad range of potential effects, which span impacts on physical infrastructure, increased security demands and impacts on business opportunities and airport finances. When planning for hard and soft resiliency due to climate change impacts, airports should consider the various elements of potential impacts (e.g., sea-level rise) and examine the forecasts of projected impacts. Long-range planning should be incorporated as a part of the fundamental airport master planning process, as well as the airport asset management and maintenance practices. Best practices and tools are available to help airports identify their vulnerabilities and facility elements that will be affected, such as ACRP Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience and ACRP Report 147. Post-Event Recovery The ability of the airport to effectively recover from an event of any nature or magnitude goes beyond the fiscal impacts of irregular operations. The study that resulted in ACRP Synthesis 60: Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices indicates that even the perceived level of success or failure of an airport’s recovery affects the airport’s public image and standing in the community. Because negative public image and goodwill affect a broad range of airport matters, effective, efficient and successful recovery is critical to the airport manager’s success. More importantly, the key “metric” of perceived successful airport recovery is the speed of the airport’s return to normal operations, because no industry-wide accepted metrics exist to quantify the success otherwise. ACRP Synthesis 60 found the following three key qualities of a successful recovery: • Awareness: This quality covers situational awareness, such as inclusive and transparent communication of emergency conditions to all of the critical players, as well as the knowledge of and utilization of all available emergency response systems (e.g., NIMS/ICS) and resources (municipal or county emergency operations center). • Planning: Planning for a successful recovery, through developing either continuity-of- operations plans or hazard- or incident-recovery plans as a part of the overall airport emer- gency plan or a combination thereof, strengthens the airport’s soft resiliency and promotes a speedy recovery. • Flexibility: No plan fully survives its first application to a real-world event; flexibility and recovery alternatives are the last, but likely most important, key qualities of a successful recovery. Developing that flexibility and operational redundancy comes in many forms, such as cross-training staff to handle different areas of recovery. Flexibility is ultimately based on clear communications and established relationships between the various stakeholders and a clear understanding of desired final outcomes.

104 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Establishing mutual aid relationships and using standardized approaches such as NIMS/ICS during the recovery phase of the emergency response are essential elements of effective response. In addition, ACRP Synthesis 60 found that developing, training with and implementing a real- world, comprehensive crisis communication plan is indispensable during the response and recovery stages. The synthesis contains additional valuable information and suggested best practices that will assist airport managers in developing or fine-tuning their airports’ post-event recovery plans. Post-disaster resiliency should focus on identifying critical players for post-disaster recovery; participating in airport-specific, mutual aid organizations (e.g., Southeast Airport Disaster Oper- ations Group); and identifying recovery priorities (i.e., which facility elements must be brought back online first). Incorporating resiliency into the post-event and post-disaster recovery should focus primarily on soft resiliency measures, because the key goals of the post-event time frame will be on airport safety, a return to normal airport operations, the preservation of compromised infrastructure and recording lessons learned for eventual debriefing. Because post-disaster recovery is frequently hampered because people who work at the facility are affected by the disaster, qualified staff that will be available to assist at the airport should be identified through mutual aid agreements, and critical facility information (e.g., location of electrical vaults, access information) should be centralized, but protected. These steps give airport management the leeway to release their regular staff to tend to family and household disaster recovery, while relying on mutual aid airport staff from areas unaffected by the disaster to help. Additionally, airports can voluntarily identify certain critical pieces of equipment and material, such as lighted Xs, generators, sand bags, etc., to be loaned to other facilities following a disaster. This type of information should be available in an electronic database and protected from unauthorized access, but made readily available to responders with authorized access. In the event that staff at the affected facility are unavailable to respond and provide the needed infor- mation access, state aeronautics agencies or local governments can serve as a centralized resource for such information. Integrating a Geographic Information System into Airport Emergency Management With so many areas of emergency management dependent on the availability, quality and timeliness of information, GIS can serve as an effective measure of improving the accessibility and accuracy of information for facility emergency preparedness, resiliency assessments and post-disaster recovery. The availability of data and the ability to identify various elements of the airport’s infrastruc- ture can be helpful in creating maps for response and exercises and in conducting life-cycle or post-disaster infrastructure evaluations with a GIS-based moving map. The use of GIS as a common platform also improves the ability of the airport to coordinate emergency management functions with the state and local emergency operations and response teams. Coordination with the airport sponsor’s GIS resource staff or with state and local emergency management authorities should serve as a starting point in the assessment of potential data needs and integra- tion benefits. ACRP Report 88: Guidebook on Integrating GIS in Emergency Management at Airports provides a general overview of the various uses of GIS in emergency management, with an emphasis on best practices. The report also offers guided best practices for developing a GIS emergency management initiative, while providing an in-depth look at the fundamentals of GIS for airport operations and emergency management staff.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 105 4.4 Fueling Operations Key Insights Fueling operations at airports can be conducted by a private entity, via an agreement with the airport owner, or by the airport owner and may be full service or self-service. The public entity owning the airport has the right to elect to be the exclusive fuel provider; however, consideration must be given to existing contracts as well as the costs and projected income from fuel sales, before exercising such rights. Fuel sales are typically a major source of income at an airport. The FAA is in the process of developing a replacement fuel for 100 octane low-lead (100LL) aviation gasoline, used by piston-powered aircraft. The proper condition and operation of fuel storage and delivery equipment are critical to the safe operation of aircraft. Key Definitions Avgas: Aviation gasoline used by piston-powered aircraft. Fixed-base operator (FBO): A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate at an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instrument, etc. Fuel flowage fee: A fixed fee added to each gallon of fuel pumped or percentage added to fuel purchased at the airport to support airport operations, which is generally collected from a private entity that provides the fueling services and remitted to the airport owner. Into plane fee (ITP): The fee charged to the fuel recipient for providing the fueling service when the recipient has prepurchased the fuel. Jet A: A type of aviation fuel used in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. Mogas: Automotive fuel that is used in some aircraft with the proper FAA certifications. Split load: The term applied to the purchase and delivery of less than a full tanker of fuel. Fueling Options There are three types of aircraft fueling: • Full service: The entity selling the fuel also delivers it into the aircraft by refueling the aircraft. • Self-service: An entity offers fuel for sale at an airport, but the pilot purchasing the fuel refuels the aircraft. • Self-fuel: The aircraft operator provides the fuel and refuels the aircraft with its own employees. Some airports also offer assisted/self-service, for which assistance is available while the airport or FBO is attended, and self-service is available during the remaining hours. Historically, most fuel offered for sale at airports was full service, either from a truck that delivered the fuel to the aircraft or from a pump that the aircraft parked adjacent to. More recently, self-service systems are becoming more common at airports, especially smaller airports. As described in FAA Order 5190.6, Chapter 11: Self-Service, under FAA Grant Assurance 22, Economic Nondiscrimination, an airport sponsor “will not grant any right or privilege which

106 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports operates to prevent any person, firm or corporation operating aircraft on the airport from performing any services on its own aircraft with its own employees (including but not limited to maintenance, repair and fueling) that it may choose to perform.” Thus, an aircraft owner has a right to self-fuel with its own employees, including bringing fuel to the airport, providing it is in conformance with the airport’s rules and regulations. Fueling Equipment While historically aviation fuel sales were provided by private entities, as it has become more difficult for small airports to support the operations of a full-service FBO, more small airports are undertaking fueling operations. These small airports conduct fueling to better control customer service levels, to directly receive the revenue from the sales to support airport operations or to ensure fuel is available for purchase. There are also some small airports that own the fueling equipment and lease it to a private entity for its operation. ACRP Synthesis 63: Overview of Airport Fueling Operations provides additional information on common fueling prac- tices at airports. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5230-4: Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling, Training and Dispensing on Airports contains specifications and guidance for fueling operations at airports and is the acceptable means of compliance for Part 139 airports. In addition to the operational requirements, small airports that consider undertaking fueling operations with their staff also need to be sure they consider the resulting training, insurance and budgetary requirements. Storage Tank Size The type and size of the equipment for storage and delivery should be based on the type of aircraft using the airport, the number of operations and the amount of fuel consumption. A key factor in the size of the fuel storage system is the ability to receive the delivery of a full load of fuel. Fuel tankers usually carry about 8,800 gallons, so the installation of a 10,000- to 12,000-gallon tank is required to allow the fuel to be delivered prior to the tank being empty. While many suppliers will deliver split loads for avgas, split loads typically cost more per gallon. Thus, if the budget permits, a 10,000-gallon avgas storage tank should be considered. Suppliers typically cannot deliver split loads of Jet A because of the configuration of the delivery vehicle. Above-ground and underground fuel tanks are available in 10,000- to 12,000-gallon sizes. Many airports replacing fuel systems are transitioning to above-ground fuel tanks. While there are environmental regulations for both types of systems, if space is available, an above-ground tank with appropriate containment is preferable, because it reduces direct exposure of contaminants to the ground. It also places more of the system in view to allow its condition to be monitored. Some aircraft are certificated to use mogas. Therefore, the installation of a tank to dispense this type of fuel may be considered. It is important that the fuel vendor considering the sale of mogas ensures its fuel insurance covers the sale of mogas so as not to jeopardize its insurance coverage for avgas and Jet A. Mogas is generally less expensive than avgas, so it can be an attractive option for certain aircraft operators. As new unleaded aviation fuel options are entering the market, airport managers may consider installing tanks to offer this product. The potential demand for the product, especially by based users, should be assessed as part of the process as well as the return on the investment. As long as volumes are adequate, certain fuel vendors will offer airports the entire fuel system and build the cost into the per-gallon price being charged. Tank Siting Considerations Fire code considerations will dictate the areas available for the tank location and the delivery vehicle staging areas. Fire code requirements vary from state to state and even from county When contemplating a fuel storage installation, coordinate with the local fire marshal early in the process.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 107 to county. It is essential to know the local requirements for your airport. Typical fire code considerations include the following: • Location: Distance from buildings and the airport property boundary should be specified in the local fire codes and must be considered when identifying available sites. Proper location regarding the airfield, safety areas and movement areas should also be considered. • Availability of a permanent power supply: Locating the fuel system as close as possible to an existing power supply can reduce installation costs. Consideration may also be given to providing an emergency power supply to ensure fuel availability during power outages. • Proper grounding/bonding: The area selected for the fuel system should be tested to make sure it is conducive to proper grounding. • Fire extinguishers: Fire extinguishers of the size and type specified by the fire code will need to be available at the site of the fuel system. • UL approval: All electrical systems must conform to UL requirements for fuel storage installations. • Proper venting: Tanks must be vented in a manner so as to not allow water intrusion. • Separation between tanks: If more than one tank will be installed, the separation required by the fire code must be observed. If only one tank will be installed, consideration should still be given to identifying an area that is suitable for the installation of more than one tank, with proper separation provisions to allow for future growth. • Signs: The product type must be labeled on each tank, and NO SMOKING signs should be located on each side of the containment fencing of the storage area. Also, all fuel piping must be properly labeled. • Emergency shut-off: Emergency shut-off must be accessible and installed in compliance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 30 and NFPA 407. There are also numerous environmental and permitting considerations related to fuel tank equipment: • Secondary containment: The secondary containment volume of a single storage tank must be at least 110 percent of the tank’s capacity. Facilities with more than one tank must have secondary containment of at least 150 percent of the largest tank’s volume, or 10 percent of the total volume of all containers, whichever is greater. Secondary containment may also need to be provided for fuel delivery vehicles when not in use. Provisions may also be needed to provide secondary containment when the fuel is being delivered into the tank from the supplier, such as a diked delivery area. • Guard post protection: Steel bollards of at least a 4-inch diameter, spaced at 4-foot intervals and set 3 feet in concrete, are necessary to prevent inadvertent damage to the storage tanks and dispensing equipment and must be installed and spaced at acceptable intervals. • Leak detection devices: Installation of an approved leak detection device is required for under- ground tank installations where underground tanks are allowed. While leak detection devices have an upfront cost, they can save the operator money by identifying the need for repairs before excessive fuel loss is experienced and costly spill cleanup is required. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides resources about underground storage tanks. • Disposal of sump fuel: An approved container for disposal should be located at the storage site. The container should be checked during site inspections to ensure the waste is discarded before the container is full. Arrangements should be made with an approved environmental contractor for the disposal of all waste fluids. Containers should also be provided for aircraft owners who sump their aircraft during the preflight inspection. • Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) plan: An SPCC plan is required by the EPA (40 CFR §112.7) for any facility with above-ground oil-storage capacity of greater than 1,320 gallons or a buried oil-storage capacity greater than 42,000 gallons with a

108 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports reasonable potential for discharge into or on navigable waters of the United States. Prepa- ration of this plan allows the operator to proactively consider how spills will be contained and managed. On-Airport Delivery Vehicles Vehicles Delivery vehicles used on the airport come in a variety of sizes, depending on the type of fuel delivered. When determining the size for a vehicle, consider the amount of fuel being pumped and the type of aircraft using the fuel. For example, if fuel delivery is primarily to small, single-engine aircraft, a 250- or 500-gallon tanker may suffice. If larger corporate aircraft are regularly serviced, the delivery vehicle will likely need to be larger. Separate vehicles are needed for avgas and Jet A and must be clearly identified. Vehicles can be purchased or leased in new or refurbished condition. The cost of the vehicle will increase with the gallon capacity of the vehicle. Self-Service Self-service fueling may also be considered. A trend in aviation fuel sales is the increasing availability of self-service fuel, especially for avgas, with automated card readers. These self-service systems not only reduce staffing and delivery vehicle costs, they also enable small airports to make fuel service available all the time. At some small airports, self-service fuel may be the only fuel available. At busier small airports, an FBO may offer self-service and full-service options. Jet A self-service may also be considered but is typically not cost effective, because jet operators usually desire a higher level of service. Employee Training All line service personnel should take line service certification courses. Most aviation fuel suppliers and the National Air Transportation Association (NATA) provide online classes for line service personnel. Personnel should also receive on-the-job training from a certified line service supervisor prior to servicing aircraft unsupervised. In 2015, the EPA established minimum training requirements for underground storage tank operators. States may have additional or more restrictive training requirements. Line service personnel should be familiar with the following fuel delivery methods: • Overwing and single-point: There are two basic methods of delivering fuel to aircraft: over-the-wing and single-point. Overwing fueling, often referred to as gravity fueling, is very much like refueling an automobile, in that a refueling port is opened and the fuel is delivered manually through a nozzle. Single-point refueling, sometimes called pressure refueling, is accomplished by attaching a single-point nozzle to the aircraft and controlling the flow from the delivery vehicle. • Defueling: Sometimes defueling of an aircraft is necessary. The most common reasons to defuel an aircraft include fuel contamination and maintenance requirements. Line service personnel should be familiar with this operation. • Bottom loading: This is the preferred method of offloading the delivery vehicle from the supplier to the fuel storage tanks. The fuel is dispensed from the bottom of the delivery fuel truck tank and pumped through a hose into the storage tanks. A fuel delivery instruction checklist for overwing and single-point refueling, defueling and bottom loading is in ACRP WebResource 6.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 109 Fuel System Inspections Airports that conduct the fueling operations should conduct a daily inspection on aircraft fueling facilities, including the fuel storage area and, if applicable, the fuel delivery vehicles. A fuel system inspection checklist template that can be adapted for airport-specific use is contained in ACRP WebResource 6. Airports on which another entity provides fueling operations should still conduct a daily inspection of the fueling systems as part of the airport inspection, to identify any potentially emerging issues. Fuel Storage Inspections Areas that should be inspected on the fuel storage area include the following: • Tank and filter sumps: Drain and check for the presence of water and contaminants. If water is found, the sump should continue to be drained until no water is detected in the sample. • Hoses and fittings: Check for leaks, damage and excessive wear. • Nozzles and couplings: Check for leaks, proper connection and damage. • Bonding/grounding cables: Ensure proper operation. • Entire storage area for leaks: Visually check the for indications of leaks. • Fire extinguishers: Ensure the proper size and inspection date is within tolerance. • Transaction equipment: If so equipped, check for the proper operation of automated equipment. • Sump storage container: Inspect for leaks and check the level to see if it needs to be emptied. • Security: Ensure the area is secured to prevent tampering or theft. • Fuel level: Check to ensure adequate fuel for sale. Identify a range in which additional fuel needs to be ordered to allow an opportunity to monitor for the best price before the order is placed. Fuel Delivery Inspections Fuel delivery vehicle inspections include the following: • General vehicle condition: Inspect for obvious damage that could hamper the safe operation of the vehicle. • Filter sumps and tank sumps: Drain and check for water and contaminants. • Filter pressure differential: Check to make sure it is within tolerance. • Deadman controls: Check for proper operation. • Brake interlocks: Ensure the brakes must be locked before the power takeoff can be engaged to initiate delivery. • Nozzles and hoses: Inspect for proper operation and excessive wear and tear. With a self-service system, check any automated retractable hose system for proper operation. • Tank covers: Inspect for proper seal to prevent water intrusion. • Ground reels, cables and clamps: Check for damage and proper operation. • Fire extinguishers: Check for proper size and inspection date is within tolerance. • Tanker—bottom loading: Check for proper operation. • Air tanks (if air-brake equipped): Check for damage and ensure they are holding air. • Spill kit: Inspect to ensure all required equipment is contained within the kit. • Visual leak check: Conduct a visual check for leaks. Oversight of Privately Operated Systems Fuel systems owned or operated by private entities should also be inspected daily by the airport operator. This inspection should, at a minimum, concentrate on a quick inspection for the most common problems concerning compliance with local fire safety codes at fuel storage If an aircraft incident occurs where it has been fueled, a fuel sample should be immediately taken from the appropriate storage tank and the fuel delivery vehicle.

110 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports areas and with mobile fueling vehicles. During the daily inspection of aircraft fueling operations, the inspector should verify the following: • Proper procedures: Determine if the fueling operator is permitting any unsafe fueling practices or is in violation of local fire code, such as failing to bond aircraft with the mobile fuelers during fueling operations, allowing fueling personnel to smoke while fueling aircraft or failing to have required fire extinguishers. • Fuel farm control: Check to ensure that the appropriate signs for the fuel farm are installed and that all gates are locked, except when the facility is occupied by an authorized user. Also verify that security, fire protection, general housekeeping and fuel-dispensing procedures are being followed. The airport owner should report and monitor any unsafe fueling practices and violations of local fire codes. ACRP Legal Research Digest 28: Operational and Legal Issues with Fuel Farms provides guidance on the operational issues of fuel farms that provide the storage and dispensing of aviation fuels to airport users. At Part 139 airports, this function should include reporting any noncompliance with fuel fire safety procedures specified in the FAA-approved airport certification manual.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 111 4.5 Security Key Insights The level of security will vary with the size and complexity of the airport, but since the events of September 11, 2001, airport security is an issue that needs to be addressed by management for all airports. The airport security plan/program should be a protected document. A list of those entities with a “need to know” should be maintained by airport management. Key Definitions Aircraft operations area or air operations area (AOA): Any area of the airport used or intended to be used for the landing, takeoff or surface maneuvering of aircraft, including runways, taxiways and, in some cases, ramp areas. Stakeholder: A person, group or organization that has interests or concerns in the airport and can affect or be affected by the airport’s actions, objectives and policies, examples of which are employees, tenants, first responders and airport traffic control tower personnel. Transportation Security Administration (TSA): An agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security responsible for protecting the U.S. transportation systems and the traveling public. Transportation security regulations: Regulations issued by the Transportation Security Administration in 49 CFR Parts 1500 to 1699. Airport Security Program Requirements With the creation of the TSA after the events of September 11, 2001, the airport security requirements moved from CFR Title 14 to Title 49 parts referred to as the 1500 series. While most of the security regulations apply only to commercial aircraft operations and the airports they serve, some security regulations are applicable to operations at GA airports. The aircraft operator security programs fall into one of five categories: full, partial, all-cargo, private charter or 12-5 rule (aircraft weighing more than 12,500 pounds). The full security program applies to aircraft operators with aircraft having 61 or more seats. Airport security related to commercial passenger operations is described in Section 7.1: Tran- sitioning to Commercial Air Service. Some individual states have adopted specific regulations that pertain to and may exceed the minimum federal airport security criteria outlined in 49 CFR Parts 1540 through 1562. Due diligence should be exercised in ensuring that the airport sponsor complies with the criteria established and administered by the state aeronautics agency. While no security regulations are in place for airports without commercial service, the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) created an Airport Watch Program and national hotline (866-GA SECURE) to report suspicious activity. Also in 2017, the TSA published an updated Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airport Operators and Users to provide options, ideas and support for airport owners and operators and tenants of GA airports. In summary, these guidelines recommend the following: • Tighter identification of passengers that fly on private planes (passengers must be known or identified by the pilot, along with the baggage or cargo)

112 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports • Closer monitoring of student pilots and improved airport surveillance (controlled access to aircraft) • Establishing procedures to identify transient pilots and their aircraft, such as sign-in/sign-out • Use of multiple locking systems to keep unauthorized persons from gaining access to aircraft • Fencing, locks, lighting, video cameras and other steps to control access onto aircraft ramps, parking, hangar and fuel storage areas (controlling access to the airfield) • Control of keys and key codes • Developing communications procedures for law enforcement officers and airport users in an emergency (familiarizing local law enforcement with the airport and operations) • Use of airport watch programs and security awareness training • Security precautions for agricultural aircraft operators These recommendations can be incorporated by small airports through several security-related actions that can also improve the overall safe operation of the airport. Security Plan Development A security plan should be prepared for each airport regardless of size, number of based aircraft, the type of aircraft utilizing the airport or operational count. Although the terrorists used large commercial service aircraft during the events of September 11, 2001 (commonly known as 9/11), corporate jet aircraft are large enough and carry enough fuel (a Gulfstream 550 corporate jet has a fuel capacity of more than 6,000 gallons) to be used to cause harm. While small airports may not be as desirable a target for terrorists, having and maintaining a security plan has other benefits. Implementing a security program can help guard against theft and vandalism, and airport access restrictions can be very valuable in preventing runway incidents and incursions. ACRP Synthesis 3: General Aviation Safety and Security Practices provides insights on, and examples of, security practices at GA airports. The New York State Department of Transportation has specific security requirements for GA airports, which include an air- port security plan template. The Ohio Department of Transportation sample general aviation airport security plan provides an editable outline to help an airport develop a security plan. A security plan will range from simple to complex for small airports with commercial service. Even for the smallest airports, planning for the control of access to the airfield, aircraft and facilities—and an awareness of whom to contact if something out of the ordinary is identified—aids in the provision of a safe and secure facility for users. As the value and size of the aircraft based at a small airport increase, so should the access control and security measures. Development of a comprehensive security plan should include all stakeholders and include hard and soft security needs. Typically, stakeholder involvement is accomplished by forming a security committee. Not every tenant at the airport needs to be included in the planning, but their interests should be represented. Airport Security Committee The establishment of an airport safety or security committee is essential to the success of the airport safety and security programs. These committees can be organized separately or in combination to assist with the development and promotion of the programs. 49 CFR 1500 SERIES SECURITY REGULATIONS Part 1500 – Applicability, Terms and Abbreviations Part 1503 – Investigative and Enforcement Procedures Part 1520 – Protection of Sensitive Security Information Part 1540 – Civil Aviation Security: General Rules Part 1542 – Airport Security Part 1544 – Aircraft Operator Security Part 1546 – Foreign Air Carrier Security Part 1548 – Indirect Air Carrier Security Part 1550 – Aircraft Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules (12-5 Rule) Part 1552 – Flight Schools Part 1562 – Operations in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 113 Establishing the committee at the initial stages of the security program planning process will help ensure that critical areas of the program do not result in unintended consequences, such as unnecessarily restricting access to areas not intended to be restricted; proper consideration is given to access points; adequate access controls are developed; areas for security fencing are detailed; and access control and identification system requirements are determined. Involving airport tenants in the development of the security program is important and aids in its implementation. If airport tenants view the program as restricting their movement on the airport or those of the sub-tenants or customers, then they can be critical of the program. Commercial tenants may also view the program as adding tasks for their employees, who may be asked to implement or observe portions of the security plan. Involving stakeholders early in the process and providing an opportunity for their input in developing the plan promote ownership in the plan, aiding in the implementation and execution of the resulting security program. First Responders Fire rescue and local, county and state police should also be included in the planning stage. These first responders will need access to the airport if there is an emergency. If this access is not considered in the planning stages, response to emergencies may become difficult, if not impossible. Mutual aid agreements with off-site first responders should be developed to ensure everyone is aware of their authority and responsibilities in emergency and standard situations. ACRP Synthesis 45: Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports addresses the development of mutual aid agreements. Security Best Practices TSA General Aviation Security Recommendations TSA has published Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airport Operators and Users. These guidelines are recommendations and are not regulatory. This document addresses the types of threats as well as best practice recommendations for security measures. Airport Watch Program Every person at the airport is responsible for the security of the air- port. Therefore, establishing an airport watch program is a basic first step every small airport should take. The cooperation and involvement of all individuals working at the airport is essential to the program’s success, because airport workers can generally recognize someone or something that is unfamiliar. This cooperation and involvement may be accomplished through comprehensive training programs or by sending a notice to each tenant explaining the components and ben- efits of the program. Security Program Elements The elements of the security program should be tailored to the needs of the individual airport. The various components can be prioritized Common Airport Security Committee Members • Airport staff member responsible for risk management • Airport staff member responsible for maintenance/operations/security • FBO representative • Hangar tenant representative(s) • ATCT representative • Other tenant representatives Examples of Security Best Practices • Ensuring street-side gates and doors are closed and locked at all times • Closing and locking hangar doors when those areas are unattended • Securing all key storage areas • Confirming the identity and authority of each passenger, vendor and visitor prior to allowing access to facilities or aircraft • Escorting all visitors on the ramp and in the hangar areas • Requiring a government-issued photo ID to verify identity of any visitor or vendor • Being aware of your surroundings and not being complacent—challenging strangers • Actively controlling airfield access to tenants and operationally required individuals only

114 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports and installed in phases as needed and as budget considerations allow. The technology and equip- ment available to accomplish the goals of the security program vary greatly. Security Fencing Chain link fencing typically is used to secure the AOA or airport perimeter. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, including installing fencing that is 6 to 10 feet high and may be topped with three strands of barbed wire. For added security, razor wire can be considered but is not typically used, except at larger commercial service airports. The installation of the security fencing can be coupled with wildlife fencing to provide an added level of safety at the airport. When determining the path the security fencing will follow, consideration should be given to remaining clear of runway and taxiway safety and OFAs, staying below the 14 CFR Part 77 surfaces and being cognizant of the terrain, to avoid gaps under the fence. When addi- tional perimeter security is desired or required, the installation of security cameras, fence sensors or electrification of the fence should be considered. Vehicle Gates With security fencing providing a controlled perimeter, gates can be installed to control access at entry points. Vehicle gates can be as straightforward as single- or double-swing, manually operated or electrically operated. There are a variety of types of electric gates, such as swing, track-mounted or cantilevered slide gates or vertical lift. When deciding on the type of gate, several factors should be considered. For instance: When considering the size of the gate opening, what types of vehicles will traverse the access point, and what will be the required turning clearance? For the clearance of the gate opening, is there sufficient room for the gate to open unobstructed or without creating an obstruction? Weather can also affect the operation of the gate. In areas with heavy rainfalls, cantilevered gate rollers can slip and, therefore, a track-mounted, chain-operated gate may be a better choice. Areas with heavy snowfalls may wish to consider a vertical lift gate. If a gate is going to be installed at an unpaved access point, trenching and pouring concrete under the gate can control digging under the gate. This is especially desirable when wildlife fencing is installed. If tailgating through the gate is anticipated to be a problem, penalty boxes may be considered. A penalty box comprises any additional installation that prevents a vehicle from continuing on its desired route until the electric gate has closed behind it. Penalty boxes can increase the cost of the gate installation and may affect the type of gate installation. Security Technology Ranging from the very simple to the very complex, a wide variety of measures can provide access to the airfield at access points, such as vehicle or pedestrian gates or doors. Padlocks are on the simple end of the spectrum and are cost effective. Padlocks can work well in areas where only limited access is required, such as construction gates or access points for use only by air- port personnel. While inexpensive, padlocks are inefficient where numerous persons require access, because either airport personnel are continually locking and unlocking the access point or numerous keys have to be made and issued to airport tenants. Keeping track of keys and prohibiting people from loaning them to others are almost impossible. However, smart keys have been helpful in securing low-volume access points that are padlocked and accessed by numerous approved personnel. Keypads at the access point will provide an acceptable level of security in many cases, but for airports with a strict access policy, they may not provide the level desired. The primary challenge with keypads is that the codes can be given to anyone. “If you see something, say something”—while this phrase may be seen as overused, its practical application can provide invaluable results.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 115 Another means of allowing gate access is remote control. Similar to a garage door opener, these remotes usually contain more code points than the typical garage opener. Remotes are available on the open market, and the codes can be copied and applied to the additional unit. Remote openers work well for off-airport first responders, where the remote can be kept in vehicles designated for response. Badging (card reader) systems are on the upper level of the security spectrum and, unfortu- nately, the cost curve. Badging systems can be generic, where they are programed in advance to allow access through designated or all access points. More advanced badging systems require the airport operator to issue the cards, usually with a photograph of the card holder. These cards can allow access to all or specific access points. The more advanced types of these systems are programmable, using a chip or strip code that is specific to the card. The access point can be programmed at the gate or door through a laptop, or a computer in the airport office can be linked to the access reader via telephone lines or fiber-optic cable. Card reader systems can also provide a record of access. Biometric readers are the most secure, because they are specific to the user. The biometric identifiers can be a fingerprint or an eye scan programmed at the site. Dual requirements through a combination of access controls may be the most secure method, because two forms of access identification are needed to activate the opener, and the user’s biometric characteristics cannot be copied. The most widely used combination for dual access control is the airport-issued iden- tification and a biometric. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is commonly used to provide a record of actions that occur at the airport. CCTV cameras can be used in a variety of areas such as at access points, in high- risk areas like fuel farms, on specific fence locations and at strategic points on the airport to monitor and record aircraft operations, including incidents. Camera types vary depending on the desired application. Fixed-mount cameras, as the name implies, are mounted and fixed at a desired location. Pan–tilt–zoom cameras are adjustable within the design capabilities of the camera. Adjustments of these cameras are made from a remote source, usually a computer. The more sophisticated models can also be viewed and sometimes adjusted through smartphone applications. Motion-activated cameras can be monitored at all times but will only record when motion is detected. Pan–tilt–zoom and fixed cameras can be purchased with motion activation. The camera’s motion activation results in less storage space being required. Video can be stored through the use of DVRs or in the cloud. Cloud storage has become relatively inexpensive and is virtually unlimited. Depending on the access control used for gates and storage requirement for the video, some method of connectivity will be needed. Connectivity can be accomplished through the use of telephone lines, the installation of fiber-optic cables or, in cases where the line of sight from the device to the storage unit or transmitter is unavailable, wireless applications. Establishing Accountability Regardless of the level of security chosen for the airport, the security committee should consider enforcing the security program through accountability and a penalty program. The accountability element of the security program must be communicated to make sure all elements are known and that the program is fairly and equally administered. Each person entrusted with any portion of the security program must be accountable for violations, such as failing to report lost or stolen identification cards and gate-access con- trols, loaning access-entry devices or identification cards to unauthorized persons, allowing

116 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports unauthorized access to any portion of the airport covered by the program, disabling or dis- arming security devices or failure to perform the assigned duties, as specified in the plan. Penalties for violations of the program can be progressive, depending on the severity of the infraction, and could include charges for replacement of a lost or stolen identification card or gate-access controls; reimbursement for damage to any security device, including cameras, gates and access controls; and denial of access for a predetermined period, up to and including permanent. Other Security Requirements Applicable at Small Airports Three of the 49 CFR 1500 series regulations apply to small airports without commercial service: • Part 1550: Aircraft Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules, which applies to aircraft operations conducted in aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds • Part 1552: Flight Schools, which describes the procedures a flight school must follow before providing flight training • Part 1562: Operations in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area, which specifies regulations for the Maryland Three Program (three GA airports within the Washington, D.C.-restricted zone: College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield and Washington Executive Airpark/Hyde Field) and special requirements for GA aircraft wishing to use Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport While the managers of small airports may not be directly responsible for implementing these regulations, the managers should be aware of the regulations.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 117 4.6 Staff Training Key Insights Regardless of the airport size, all personnel operating at an airport should be trained to understand the airport environment. The level of training should fit the complexity of the airport. Operation and maintenance of the airport in a safe and efficient manner is critical to the success of the airport organization, because it: • Reduces the airport’s capital requirements by finding and correcting deficiencies before they become failures. • Reduces the airport’s liability in case of an incident. • Can reduce the airport insurance costs through a credit for a properly operated and maintained airport. Key Definitions Aircraft operations area or air operations area (AOA): Any area of an airport used or intended to be used for landing, takeoff or surface maneuvering of aircraft, including runways, taxiways and, in some cases, ramp areas. Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 139: Certification of Airports: Federal regulations that pertain to airports that agree to meet certain operational and safety standards as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 139, also referred to as FAR Part 139, to accommodate scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft and that are issued an operating certificate by the FAA. Foreign object damage and foreign object debris (FOD): Foreign object debris is a substance, debris or article alien to an aircraft or aircraft system that could potentially damage the aircraft. Foreign object damage is any damage attributed to a foreign object that can be expressed in physical or economic terms and may or may not degrade the aircraft’s required safety or perfor- mance characteristics. Runway holding position (hold line): The purpose of holding-position markings are to prevent aircraft and vehicles from entering critical areas associated with a runway or naviga- tional aids or to control traffic at the intersection of taxiways. Runway incursion: A top FAA safety concern, runway incursions are defined by the FAA as “any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.” Runway incursions can be caused by pilot deviations, air traffic controller operational incidents and ground vehicle deviations. Establishing a Training Program Establishing a staff training program is crucial to the effective and safe operation of the airport and in preventing injury to people or damage to property. Regardless of the airport’s size, all personnel operating at an airport should be trained so they understand the specific requirements and operating procedures of the aviation environment. The staff training program should be established to align with the complexity of your airport. At a small airport without an ATCT, everyone operating at an airport should understand how pilots communicate, where to look for landing aircraft based on winds and how to avoid creating a runway incursion. At larger airports,

118 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports this training will include communicating with air traffic control and more detailed information on movement and nonmovement areas, among other topics. As detailed in ACRP Synthesis 49: Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment, the most common training program for small airports is on-the-job training conducted by the airport manager. To assist the manager in the training, several training tools are provided in ACRP WebResource 6. Personnel Personnel are the most important part of any staffing and training program. The airport sponsor (owner) needs a sufficient number of qualified personnel to ensure that the airport’s self-inspection and maintenance programs can be performed on a basis consistent with the schedules established for the airport. These personnel also must be equipped with the resources necessary to carry out their assigned functions. This equipment ranges from the vehicles used to access the inspection areas, to the tools needed to conduct preventive maintenance and minor repairs, to the replacement parts required. All personnel who access movement areas and safety areas and perform duties on the airfield must be properly trained to safely and effectively perform their duties without creating a safety hazard to themselves or the flying public. There are a number of components that should be part of a comprehensive training program. Key areas are described in the following sections. Comprehensive Training Topics Self-Inspection Programs Each airport, regardless of size and operational counts, should establish a self-inspection program. Although the FAA only requires a self-inspection program for Part 139 airports, many states have established procedures for inspections at airports and a time frame for those inspec- tions. It is strongly recommended that all airports adopt an inspection checklist similar to the Part 139 inspection checklist, as included in ACRP WebResource 6, that is comprehensive and, in almost all cases, will exceed the state requirements. While not required at many small airports, the Part 139 inspection checklist provides a comprehensive starting point that can be adapted to fit your airport. Driver Training Runway incursions are one of the FAA’s “hot button” issues. To reduce the likelihood of a runway incursion and to promote a safe operating environment for aircraft, a comprehensive driver training program should be developed for the airport, or commercially available training should be used. The training should include, at a minimum: • Purpose of the training program: An explanation of why driver training is required. Airport driver training programs are intended to prepare employees for operating safely on the airport’s surface. Reasons for the training include risk and liability reduction and reducing the likelihood of an incident resulting in property loss, injury or death. • Vehicle requirements for operating on the airport: Minimum requirements for any vehicle operating on the airport include oper- ating headlights, operating taillights, rotating or flashing yellow beacon, two-way aircraft transceiver and a properly inspected fire extinguisher. • Airport familiarization: This should include, at a minimum, a visual of the airport delineating the runways, taxiways, ramp or For airports operating with a UNICOM, the best practice for vehicle operations prior to entering the AOA should be as follows: • Announce intentions on UNICOM (specify correct frequency) • Wait for reply • Visually check for aircraft in the traffic pattern or on approach • Announce intentions a second time • If no reply, proceed onto the AOA • Continue to monitor UNICOM and maintain visual surveillance for aircraft

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 119 apron areas, lighting systems, electrical vault location, safety areas and communication requirements. At most small airports, UNICOM (universal communications), which is an air–ground communication facility operated by an entity that is not air traffic control, is used to provide advisory service at uncontrolled airports. The same frequency is also used by pilots for communications between aircraft at the airport as the primary means of communications. • Phonetic alphabet: The phonetic alphabet is a list of words that are used in aviation with the intent to reduce the possibility of a mis understanding. As an example, Taxiway A would be announced over the UNICOM as Taxiway Alpha. • Safety while driving on the airport: The safety considerations for operating a vehicle in an airport environment are numerous and include reviewing the airfield diagram on a regular basis, using access roads when available, being familiar with signage and markings, always being aware of the operating environment and avoiding distracted driving. • Practical experience: Upon completion of the driver training presentation, each trainee at an airport with an ATCT should operate at the airport with an experienced driver, until the trainer feels that the trainee is comfortable operating at the airport and communicating with ATCT. Airports with operating ATCT should conduct the training with minor modifications to the UNICOM requirements. A visit to the ATCT facility should also be scheduled to pro- vide an extra layer of understanding for those operations. For airports without an operating ATCT, the level of practical experience should be designed to meet the level of complexity of the airport and the availability of staff. The presentation Airport Drivers Training, available in ACRP WebResource 6, can be custom- ized for individual airports. ACRP Report 101: Best Practices Manual for Working in or near Airport Movement Areas offers a database of best practices, training tools and aids. There also is a video, “Staying Safe on the Airfield,” to introduce new staff to the airport driving environment. Driver Training of ARFF Personnel or Police Most city or county police and fire departments have little or no experience driving in the airport environment. When responding to an emergency at the airport, their first thought is to get to the scene as soon as possible. This may lead to those responders creating an unsafe condition by crossing active runways or taxiways. An important part of emergency planning is familiarizing first responders with the airport. Therefore, all first responders with the responsibility of responding to airport incidents or accidents should attend the airport’s driver training course. Airport Condition Reporting Any situation that has the potential to create a hazardous operating condition at the airport should be reported via the FAA’s Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) system. A hazardous condition could be any discrepancy noted in the airfield self-inspection or an off-airport condition, such as an obstruction in the approach. A consistent presence of wildlife, such as flocking birds, would also be a hazard. Reporting a known hazardous operating condition appropriately via a NOTAM is important to managing the liability of the airport sponsor. Therefore, it is important that staff responsible for issuing NOTAMs are appropriately training on the system used by the airport. The FAA is encouraging that all NOTAMs be filed electronically. Airport Advisories At nontowered airports, staff may provide advisories to pilots regarding wind, traffic and run- ways in use. ACRP Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Nontowered Airports provides a summary and case studies of practices used at nontowered airports with at least 50,000 annual operations. AVIATION PHONETIC ALPHABET A – Alpha B – Bravo C – Charlie D – Delta E – Echo F – Foxtrot G – Golf H – Hotel I – India J – Juliet K – Kilo L – Lima M – Mike N – November O – Oscar P – Papa Q – Quebec R – Romeo S – Sierra T – Tango U – Uniform V – Victor W – Whiskey X – X-ray Y – Yankee Z – Zulu

120 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Preventive Maintenance Program Preventive maintenance is designed to identify and correct deficiencies before failures occur, thus preventing costly repairs or replacements. A preventative maintenance program can and should be established in small increments, starting with the most critical infrastructure or facilities and ending with the least critical. A preventive maintenance program is an important part of asset management by extending the useful life of existing assets. Wildlife Hazard Management As identified in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-32: Reporting Aircraft Wildlife Strikes, each year in the United States, wildlife strikes to U.S. civil aircraft cause $718 million in damage to aircraft and about 567,000 hours of civil aircraft downtime. The FAA maintains a compre- hensive program to address wildlife hazards, with valuable information on the Wildlife Hazard Mitigation page of its website. Wildlife can, in almost every case, present a risk that can cause damage ranging from minor to complete loss and bodily injury of a minor to critical nature, or even death. Staff should be trained on the identification and elimination of wildlife attractants in order to substantially reduce this risk. Chapter 7 of ACRP Report 32: Guidebook for Addressing Aircraft/Wildlife Hazards at General Aviation Airports provides guidance about wildlife hazard management training for GA personnel. Section 4.9: Wildlife Management of this document addresses wildlife management in more detail. Basic First Aid and CPR Basic first aid and CPR training for airport staff can be very important to provide assistance to injured persons prior to the arrival of fire, rescue and emergency medical technician (EMT) or paramedic personnel, especially when those personnel are not located at the airport. The prompt response to an emergency is invaluable, in many cases, to reducing the severity of the injury or preventing death. There are several nonprofit organizations (American Heart Asso ciation, American Red Cross, etc.) that can provide basic first aid and CPR training on a low- or no-cost basis. Handling and Storing of Hazardous Substances and Materials A hazardous material is any item or agent, including biologic, chemical, radiologic or physical, that has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals or the environment. Harm may be caused either by the agent or item or through interaction with outside factors. Many agents have the potential to cause harm at various levels by themselves and through outside factors. For example, fuels can cause skin irritation, eye damage and respiratory issues. When fuel is combined with the outside factor of fire, it presents another level of harm. Hazardous materials that may be found at airports include, but are not limited to, aviation and vehicle fuels, paints, antifreeze, deicers and herbicides. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) are available from the manufacturers of most hazardous materials. If the MSDS are not included with the shipment of the chemical, they may be obtained from the manufacturer or located on its website. Hazardous materials handling and storage training can be found at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Chemical Hazards and Toxic Substances web page or through the Institute of Hazardous Materials Management website. Ramp/Apron Safety While apron safety is important at all airports, at airports with commercial service passenger operations, there are additional types of vehicles on the apron to service the aircraft. Also, at smaller commercial service airports, passengers may access the apron to board the aircraft. ACRP Synthesis 29: Ramp Safety Practices identifies current ground handling practices, safety measures and training.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 121 Professional Development and Continuing Education Regardless of how comprehensive the airport’s training program is, no program can be truly successful unless the training is continuous. At small airports with fewer training opportunities, outside opportunities should be sought for continued professional development and to stay current on industry issues and trends. Opportunities for an employee’s professional development can come from attendance at state, national and association aviation conferences and taking related coursework at a local community college, online or both. Some conferences offer recognized continuing education credits for attendance at sessions. Joining local chambers of commerce or service clubs (National Exchange Club, Kiwanis International, Lions Clubs International, etc.) helps get the word out about the airport as well as provides the opportunity to learn more about the area around the airport and the community the airport serves. ACRP offers periodic webinars based on completed research projects. You can subscribe to the TRB’s electronic newsletter (http://www.trb.org/Publications/PubsTRBENewsletter.aspx) to be notified about upcoming webinars. Also, some past ACRP webinars have been recorded. If a project has an available webinar, it is identified on the home page for the study products. ACRP webinars have typically been free for attendees. There are also training programs available through state, federal and association programs, as discussed in ACRP Synthesis 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices. Which training program works best for your airport will depend on the type and level of training required. ACRP Report 75: Airport Leadership Development Program can help existing and future airport leaders assess, obtain and refine airport-industry leadership skills. Most training can be located by an internet search for the desired training topic or content. The Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Execu- tives (AAAE) offer accreditation programs. ACI’s accreditation is a joint effort with ICAO and geared toward larger international airports. Generally, smaller airports are more involved with AAAE, so it can be a better fit for small airport managers. AAAE has two levels of accreditation. Certified member (C.M.) is open to any member of AAAE. To obtain C.M. credentials, the candidate studies the materials provided as part of registering for the program and must pass a 180-question, multiple-choice test about the material. The second level of accreditation, accred- ited airport executive (AAE), is only open to persons working in airport management at an airport. The first step toward the AAE accreditation is the C.M. accreditation. A candidate must have at least 1 year of full-time work experience at a public-use airport and a 4-year college degree or 8 years of airport civil management experience to start the AAE accreditation program. The candidate must complete a research paper, case study, proctored exam or advanced degree, and pass an oral exam with a panel of AAEs. The candidate must have at least 3 years of full- time management experience at a public-use airport prior to the oral exam. Managers at small airports that pursue the AAE accreditation may find it helpful to have a mentor at a larger airport with commercial service to provide exposure to larger airport operations. In addition to its accreditation program, AAAE offers other training opportunities. The Airport Certified Employee (ACE) programs cover airfield operations, airfield lighting maintenance, security, communications and airport trusted agent. These programs are designed to provide up-to-date certification within these areas. AAE, C.M. and ACE are recognized credentials within airport management. AAAE and the Aircraft Rescue Firefighting Working Group, collectively known as the ARFF Training Alliance, offer the Airport Master Firefighter and Airport Fire Officer programs. These are designed to enhance the knowledge of aircraft rescue firefighters, regardless of rank, and are self-study programs structured to provide ARFF personnel with an enhanced knowledge of ARFF operations as well as airport operations and administration. Some airlines

122 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports offer free aircraft familiarization tools. One such tool is the American Airlines ARFF Guide for iPad or eReader made available to familiarize responders with the aircraft that American Airlines flies. Reach out to airlines that serve the airport to see what training resources may be available. AAAE also offers an online Airport Security Coordinator Certification (ASC) program. Title 49 CFR Part 1542 requires that an airport security coordinator and a designated alternate attend ASC training (TSR 1542.3). This program is one way to fulfill that requirement. Additional information on all AAAE training and certification programs can be found on the AAAE website. The Airport Consultants Council (ACC) is another association that offers conferences and webinars to further one’s aviation knowledge. Many of the aviation associations also publish magazines. The articles provide an opportunity to read about current issues and how airports have approached the issues. Additionally a number of nonassociation industry magazines are free to airport managers and can be found by doing a web search on airport or aviation maga- zines. Some of the publishers also have free daily news briefs to which an airport manager can subscribe. Record Keeping A detailed record of training should be created and retained for each person receiving train- ing. At a minimum, the type of training received, the date of the training and the date a refresher, or retraining, is due should be documented. Record-keeping requirements are discussed in more detail in Section 4.8: Record Keeping.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 123 4.7 Equipment Management Key Insights At small airports, maintaining equipment is essential, because funding new equipment is a challenge. Snow removal equipment is eligible for FAA Airport Improvement Program funding, and aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment is eligible for Airport Improvement Program funding at Part 139 airports. Maintenance equipment is never Airport Improvement Program grant eligible. Key Definitions Aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF): A special category of firefighting that involves the response, hazard mitigation, evacuation and rescue of passengers and crew of an aircraft involved in an airport ground emergency. Equipment maintenance: A broad term used to describe the various processes that are used to keep equipment in proper working order. Equipment maintenance management program (EMMP): A systematic approach to keeping equipment in proper working order. Snow removal equipment (SRE): Equipment, typically trucks and tractors, used at an airport to remove snow. Establishing an Equipment Maintenance Management Program The idea behind any maintenance program is to ensure that the items being maintained are in compliance with any safety regulations that may apply, as well as remain capable of produc- ing the desired output. Developing and adhering to a maintenance program will reduce capital expenditures for new equipment by extending the useful life of existing equipment. An EMMP is a systematic approach to addressing routine and more extensive maintenance and, ultimately, the replacement of equipment. An EMMP is part of an overall plan to manage existing assets, as addressed in Section 5.1. Equipment Maintenance The steps used in any equipment maintenance plan will vary, depending on the type of equip- ment involved. In some cases, the maintenance schedule is simple and may require nothing more than periodic checks of filters or other removable components, coupled with more comprehensive checks of key components at specific points throughout the year. At other times, the maintenance process may require daily inspection of certain components as a means of identifying potential issues so that equipment downtime will not represent any serious impact on productivity. Records of inspections and component replacements should be created and maintained. These records will provide information on the intervals of parts replacement and the associated costs. These records are valuable in budgeting for the parts and supplies needed for the mainte- nance program and will help develop equipment replacement schedules. The inspections and servicing of vehicles should be scheduled during periods of inactivity, when possible. • ARFF equipment should be inspected and serviced during times when air carriers are not scheduled for operations. Preferably, the inspections should occur before the first operations

124 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports of the day. If more than one ARFF vehicle is available at the airport, only one vehicle at a time should be removed from service for inspection or maintenance. Taking any ARFF vehicles offline for an extended period of time should be done only after a careful consideration of potential impacts to the airport certification index. • SRE should be thoroughly inspected after the last event of the season, but no later than prior to the first snow event, and at intervals between snow events. This may result in the equipment being inspected more often but will help prevent failures during times of need. Inspecting the equipment as soon as possible before the first event will assist in obtaining replacement parts that may be required before the equipment is needed. Equipment Replacement Equipment purchases must be planned, because equipment has a major budget impact on most small airports. The development of an EMMP will help determine when these pur- chases will be required and will assist in making budget decisions. Maintaining good EMMP records will help estimate the life of equipment by monitoring changes in maintenance requirements. Even when a piece of equipment is still meeting its function, replacement of that equipment may be driven by parts that are no longer available. As equipment ages, it is possible that replacement parts may become unavailable, require longer-than-acceptable lead times to receive the part or require replacement more often than is financially feasible. Also, as more efficient equipment is developed, it may be cost effective to consider replacement. Equipment Grant Funding Eligibility Snow Removal Equipment SRE is grant eligible. The amount and size of equipment must be evaluated for each airport. The FAA Minneapolis ADO has published guidance for justifying the purchase of SRE. To summarize that guidance: • Generally, commercial service airports justify more SRE than GA airports. • Areas with average annual snowfalls above 30 inches per year receive a higher priority than those with averages below 30 inches. • More equipment is justified for airports with more activity. • The number of runways, taxiways and apron areas that are critical for aircraft operations are used to justify SRE. Typically, crosswind runways and supporting taxiways are not considered critical and are not included for SRE justification. These areas are identified in the airport’s snow and ice control plan. • The larger the equipment is, the fewer pieces of equipment that are needed; therefore, fewer are justified. • A request for SRE should include a description of the proposed equipment and estimated cost. If it is a replacement, an explanation for the replacement should be included, along with the planned disposition of the old vehicle. Airport Rescue and Firefighting Equipment (Part 139 Airports Only) ARFF equipment generally carries a high priority when the need is properly justified. An FAA Part 139 inspector’s recommendation is helpful in the justification and prioritization of replacing equipment or adding new ARFF equipment when the airport’s index changes. An FAA guide for specifying ARFF equipment is located in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-10: Guide Specification for Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) Vehicles.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 125 Procurement Requirements and Options New replacement equipment may be purchased through the public bid process. Specifica- tions must be compiled and the bid advertised as regulations require. An entity may be able to “piggyback” (term used when a state has set bid prices that local governments can use for purchases) on a state procurement or the acquisition of an identical piece of equipment bid on and acquired by another governmental agency. Used equipment may be acquired through online auctions for governmental entities. Military surplus equipment may also be acquired through the General Services Administration (GSA). The GSA provides an online guide to acquiring military surplus property. This equipment is generally free; however, the acquiring agency will be responsible for transporting the items from the donation site to the airport. Used equipment may be acquired from within an interagency governmental entity, such as the public works department. Acquiring used or surplus property should be undertaken with great care to ensure the equipment is serviceable or can be made serviceable with minimal cost. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5210-5: Painting, Marking and Lighting of Vehicles Used on an Airport provides guidance on the painting, marking and lighting of ground vehicles that will operate in an air operations area. The appropriate painting, marking and lighting allow a vehicle to be more conspicuous from the air and the ground. During any equipment acquisi- tion process, coordinate with the grant provision agency (federal, state, local) to ensure all grant assurances and pro- curement requirements are met.

126 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.8 Record Keeping Key Insights Acceptance of FAA grants has associated record-keeping responsibilities. Record keeping for training and condition assessments is prescribed by the FAA for FAR Part 139- certificated airports, but good record keeping is a best practice for all small airports. Key Definitions Airport Improvement Program (AIP): A program that provides financial grants to primarily public agencies for the planning and development of public-use airports that are included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. Airport sponsor: Typically a public agency or tax-supported organization that is authorized to own and operate an airport, obtain funds and property interests, and be legally, financially and otherwise able to meet all applicable requirements of laws and regulations. Occasionally, it is a private entity. Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program: A federal program developed to ensure qualified firms owned and controlled by minorities may take part in contracts supported with federal funds. Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 139: Certification of Airports: Airports that agree to meet certain operational and safety standards as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 139, also referred to as FAR Part 139, to accommodate scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft and that are issued an operating certificate by the FAA. Record Retention Two types of records are required to be retained by FAR Part 139-certificated airports. The first is the retention of training, NOTAM issuance and cancellation, and inspection and correction records required by the FAA for Part 139 airports to be retained, as described in Section 4.16: Operating Certificate Compliance. The retention of these types of records as generated by other small airports is, regardless of size, a best management practice. Records of airfield inspections, fueling inspections, ARFF equipment and vehicles, airport operations vehicles and training can be invaluable if there are legal proceedings against airport sponsors and their staff. These records can also provide beneficial documentation for insurance companies, providing quotes for airport liability insurance. The other type is the financial records that need to be maintained by any airport receiving FAA AIP grants. In addition, airports receiving state grants should be aware of the associated record-keeping requirements. Maintaining the associated financial records, aside from being a best practice, is necessary to receive grants and be prepared in the event of an audit. The FAA can conduct audits for grant-funded projects, but state financial agencies may also conduct audits of public entities that include publicly owned airports. Grant Records By accepting an AIP grant agreement, an airport sponsor agrees to maintain pertinent project accounts and records that fully support all project transactions and fully disclose the disposi- tion of all grant proceeds. Sponsors must maintain accounts and records in accordance with an accounting system that will facilitate an effective audit that conforms to the Single Audit Act of

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 127 1984 and Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133. Sponsors accept this obligation, as outlined in Grant Assurance 13: Accounting System, Audit and Record-Keeping Require- ments, whenever they accept an AIP grant offer. This grant assurance requires airport sponsors to retain the required records and make them available to the secretary and comptroller of the United States or any of their duly authorized representatives for the purpose of conducting an audit and examination. The grant records that need to be maintained fall into four categories: financial, procurement, administrative and project records. For details, see the sidebar. Grant Record Retention Grant records shall be retained for a period of 3 years. Generally, this 3-year period commences on the date of the final reimbursement, as specified in 49 CFR §18.42(c). For situations such as potential litigation or audit investigation, the sponsor may be required to retain the grant records beyond the 3-year period. Also, because grant agree- ments impose obligations that extend beyond the 3-year time frame, the FAA strongly recommends sponsors indefinitely retain the grant agreement and documents directly related to the grant agreement (Exhibit “A” property map, certificate of title, etc.). The record-keeping requirements for equipment and real property acquisitions also extend beyond the 3-year time frame. For equipment, the 3-year period for record reten- tion commences on the day the equipment is disposed of or replaced, subject to FAA concurrence. For real property, the 3-year period commences on the day the land is formally transferred, as approved by the FAA. DBE Program Reporting The U.S. DOT has a Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program for recipients of U.S. DOT federal financial assistance, which includes AIP grants. Therefore, the FAA has an Airport Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program. Airport sponsors must establish an overall DBE participation goal covering a 3-year fiscal period, if anticipating awarding FAA-funded prime contracts with a cumulative total value that exceeds $250,000 during any one or more of the fiscal years within the 3-year goal period. The airport sponsors are also required to annually submit the Uniform Report of DBE Commitments/Awards and Payments associated with contract award during that fiscal year. These reports are due December 1 for the prior fiscal year. The DBE Office Online Reporting System is used for the reporting. FAA Form 5010 An airport must ensure its FAA Form 5010: Airport Master Record is up to date. An airport can find its published 5010 data at Airport IQ™ 5010, which is maintained by a contractor to the FAA. The FAA Form 5010 is used to collect physical and operational information about an airport that is maintained on file with the FAA. Updates to Form 5010 commonly occur through the airport inspection process. Prior to an inspection, the airport operator should review the form and make note of any items that need to be updated. These updates should be passed on to the FAA in order for the records to be brought up to date. Between inspections, updates to the Form 5010 may also be necessary. For changes to the airfield, such as changes in runway length, an FAA Form 7480 must be filed. Other changes, especially temporary changes, are issued through NOTAMs. The entity that conducts the airport inspection can be contacted with other updates, such as obstructions that have been removed. RECORDS TO KEEP FINANCIAL RECORDS Invoices and billing statements Vouchers Canceled checks Receipts Final contractor payment request PROCUREMENT RECORDS Professional services contract Selection documentation Construction contract and associated documents Rationale for contract type Basis for contract price (cost and price analysis) Purchase orders (if applicable) Contract instruments (change orders, notice to proceed, etc.) Record of negotiations Audit certification of consultant overhead rates ADMINSTRATIVE RECORDS Grant agreement and amendments Sponsor certifications Project application Title VI certification (nondiscrimination) Drug-free workplace certification Exhibit “A” property map Certification of title (real property) Sponsor correspondence letters PROJECT RECORDS Final project report Record drawings Buy American documentation DBE documentation Summary of test results Daily records and reports of construction Final inspection report Summary of pay factor applications Source: FAA Central Region Airport Obligations: Record Keeping, accessed July 3, 2017.

128 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.9 Wildlife Management Key Insights Airports are required to address airport hazards, including wildlife, by a number of regulations and federal and state obligations. They may be required to conduct a wildlife hazard assessment and generally need to develop a wildlife management plan to address identified hazards. Habitat management techniques will vary greatly from environment to environment but may include airfield turf selection and upkeep; landscaping and agriculture management; improvements to airport structures to minimize perching, nesting or denning behaviors; and stormwater resource management. Be sure that all appropriate state and local permits are obtained for any taking (capture and release, or killing) of wildlife. Key Definitions Hazardous wildlife: Any species of wildlife, both feral animals and domesticated animals not under control, that are associated with aircraft strike problems, are capable of causing structural damage to airport facilities or act as attractants to other wildlife that pose a strike hazard. Wildlife attractants: Any human-made structure, land-use practice or human-made or natural geographic feature that can attract or sustain hazardous wildlife within the landing or departure airspace, apron areas or aircraft parking areas of an airport. Wildlife hazard assessment (WHA): An evaluation of wildlife-related attractants and potential hazards to aircraft operations, often mandated by the FAA following a hazardous event or new potential threat. Wildlife hazard management plan (WHMP): A document that identifies measures to alleviate or eliminate wildlife hazards, as identified in a wildlife hazard assessment. Wildlife Hazards Wildlife hazards present a substantial safety risk for aircraft operations. When left unaddressed, the hazards may result in tragic consequences on the airport that reach far beyond the fiscal impacts caused by a wildlife-related aircraft accident or incident. While many non-Part 139 airports are not required to conduct a WHA or develop a WHMP, consulting FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-33: Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or Near Airports is recommended because there may be low-cost measures the airport operator can implement to benefit users. The FAA also has available Wildlife Hazard Management at Airports: A Manual for Airport Personnel. ACRP Legal Research Digest 20: Airport Responsibility for Wildlife Management examines the issue from a legal perspective. Wildlife Hazard Assessment The first step in managing wildlife is to identify the species or wildlife attractants that are of concern to the airport, because a wide variety of mammal and bird species have been sighted on airports around the country. This assessment is accomplished by having a qualified wildlife biologist, with experience conducting airport assessments, perform a WHA. The FAA requires

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 129 operators of Part 139-certificated airports to conduct a WHA when these wildlife-triggering events occur: • Multiple wildlife strikes are experienced by an air carrier. • An air carrier aircraft sustains substantial damage from striking wildlife. • An air carrier aircraft experiences an engine ingestion of wildlife. • Wildlife of size and type capable of causing the events just described is observed to have access to the aircraft movement area or airport traffic pattern. At a Part 139 airport, repeated wildlife strikes necessitate a WHA, as defined in FAR §139.337. Repeated wildlife strikes at a non-Part 139 airport may also necessitate a WHA. Even if a WHA is not requested by the FAA, small airport managers should consider conducting a WHA from a safety risk management (SRM) perspective if aircraft using their airport have experienced multiple wildlife strikes, substantial damage from a strike or wildlife engine ingestion. When an airport operator wants a WHA for the airport, a qualified wildlife biologist must be retained to conduct the assessment. The biologist must meet the qualification standards set per FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-36: Qualifications for Wildlife Biologist Conducting Wildlife Hazard Assessments and Training Curriculums for Airport Personnel Involved in Controlling Wildlife Hazards on Airports. These qualifications include meeting the credentials of a GS-0486 series wildlife biologist (as defined by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management) or being designated a certified wildlife biologist by The Wildlife Society, and having passed an airport wildlife hazard management training course accepted by the FAA and having conducted at least one WHA while working under the supervision of a qualified airport wildlife biologist. A WHA may be initiated because of a triggering event. If there is a triggering event, the WHA will evaluate what caused the event and when and where it happened so immediate corrective action can be taken. In addition, the WHA will include a yearlong assessment of wildlife activity at and around the airport. The WHA examines the nature of wildlife species that have access to the airport, including their seasonal or movement patterns and protection statuses. It also identifies and evaluates the location of features that attract wildlife. Each of the species should be evaluated by the biologist for the degree of hazard presented to aircraft. The analysis must include a prioritized list of recommendations to address the hazards through the mitigation of wildlife attractants. More information on WHA development and requirements is contained in Chapter 5 of ACRP Report 32: Guidebook for Addressing Aircraft/Wildlife Hazards at General Aviation Airports. Wildlife Hazard Management Plan Based upon the findings of the WHA, an airport may be required to prepare a WHMP to manage the wildlife hazards identified in the assessment. At a Part 139 airport, the WHMP must be prepared to meet the requirements of FAR §139.337. The WHMP identifies personnel responsible for plan implementation, identifies and describes wildlife attractants at or near the airport, identifies appropriate wildlife management techniques and prioritizes appropriate management measures, such as habitat modification and land-use changes. The plan must also recommend necessary equipment and supplies. In addition, it establishes training requirements for identified personnel, as well as the WHMP review and update procedures. Because plan implementation is contingent on the commitment of airport resources to hazard management strategies, the interests of airport stakeholders must be considered part of the process. If federally listed or proposed endangered or threat- ened species or critical habitats are present on the airport preparing a WHMP, a biological assessment must be prepared and submitted along with the draft plan to the FAA for review and approval.

130 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Wildlife Strikes All strikes at all airports, regardless of the measure of aircraft damage (or lack thereof), should be recorded. Strike records should then be correlated to types of species that have caused the strike and severity (actual or potential) of strike damage. Airport operators should be aware that the number of reported strikes is likely to increase after the initial implementation of the WHMP because of program implementation and increased wildlife education and awareness of airport staff and users. Wildlife strike records can be used within the framework of a safety management system (SMS) and for SRM purposes, as discussed in Section 4.11: Safety Manage- ment System of this guidebook. More information on SMS in wildlife hazard management can be found in ACRP Report 145: Applying an SMS Approach to Wildlife Hazard Management. Best Practices to Deter Wildlife or Implement Wildlife Management In addition to the measures and methods identified as a part of the airport WHA or WHMP, airports are advised to evaluate and implement the best practices in habitat management, airport design and airport operational implementation in order to further reduce wildlife hazard impact potential. These strategies may include the following: • Identifying, reducing or removing on-airport wildlife attractants, such as food sources and natural habitats • Designing on-site wet stormwater ponds in accordance with FAA guidance to reduce attrac- tion of wading birds • Installing wildlife management fencing • Identifying and managing mowing height to deter wildlife • Seeking to control, by the means of land use and zoning measures, the location of wildlife attractants, such as sanitary landfills or transfer stations that handle putrescible waste • Conducting regular fence checks and removing any animal carcasses off airport property to deter scavengers • Engaging with the airport’s U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service office to obtain valuable expert technical assistance for wildlife management Federal funding may be available to implement some of the best practices for wildlife hazard management; however, in certain cases (such as funding for wildlife fencing), the FAA requires a wildlife management plan to be in place. Additional ACRP research to assist airports with wildlife management is available in the following: • ACRP Synthesis 23: Bird Harassment, Repellent and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and near Airports • ACRP Synthesis 39: Airport Wildlife Population Management • ACRP Synthesis 52: Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports Wildlife management needs to be an ongoing process. In addition to birds and mammals, insects can also be an issue, especially for the staff maintaining the airport. In the south, fire ants are attracted to electrical systems. Wasps can also be attracted to electrical equipment, especially the housing, and bees that build nests in the ground can be found near equipment and buildings. While these insects generally do not pose a direct threat to aircraft, they can attract larger species that could have an impact on aircraft.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 131 4.10 Airport Obstruction Management Key Insights The airspace around each facility and the critical obstruction surfaces that must be protected are unique to each facility, influenced by the facility design, operational procedures and instrument approach types. While FAR Part 77 is the most prominent and familiar set of obstruction evaluation criteria, it serves only as the initial means of obstruction identification and evaluation. A final hazard determination will consider many additional factors and impacts on standards and criteria. Local zoning can help enforce federal regulations that do not have any enforcement authority and provide practical protection for an airport and its airspace. Comprehensive local zoning ordinances for the protection of airport landing areas is a best practice. Key Definitions Airspace hazard: An airspace obstruction that has been studied and determined to have a substantial adverse effect, affecting a significant volume of aeronautical activity. Airspace obstruction: An object, structure or element of terrain that exceeds federal obstruc- tion standards, as defined in FAR Part 77. Substantial adverse aeronautical effect: An impact on navigable airspace that necessitates a change to an instrument approach procedure, an approach minimum, or an element of an air- port or a navigational aid, or a change in a vectoring altitude, so as to meet minimum procedure or facility design standards. The impact has to affect at least one daily operation (or a similar cumulative annual number of operations) in order to be considered significant. U.S. terminal instrument procedures (TERPS): Procedures for instrument approach and departure of aircraft to and from civil and military airports. Navigable Airspace Standards U.S. Code Title 49 §40103 establishes and affirms that the United States government has exclusive sovereignty of airspace of the United States, and directs the administrator of the FAA to develop plans and policies for the use of navigable airspace. While recent court cases have attempted to challenge the aforementioned provisions of the law at altitudes below 500 feet, the FAA continues to analyze and issue determinations regarding the impacts that structures and vegetation have on the navigable airspace. This process is carried out with the goal of protecting people’s safety in the air and on the ground, the operational safety of the nation’s aviation facili- ties and the public investment therein. While the FAA Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis (OE/AAA) process examines the impacts of proposed or existing obstructions on navigable airspace and results in the FAA’s issuance of hazard determinations for structures and vegetation, the protection of airport air- space from encroachment is contingent upon local government authorities. The FAA does not have, nor does it exercise, a local enforcement authority. While the FAA will work to ensure aviation safety through all available means, such as the cancellation of an approach, an increase in minimums, a runway threshold displacement or procedure limitations, only the local govern- ment zoning entities possess leverage to enforce height or use limitations within their jurisdictional limits. Airspace protection by the federal government is not wholly possible without coordinated

132 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports and vested collaboration between the FAA, the airport sponsors, the airport users and the local communities. Obstruction Evaluation The FAA Air Traffic Organization utilizes the expertise of the FAA obstruction evaluation specialists and technicians to determine the nature and magnitude of airspace impacts by natural or man-made objects on navigable airspace. Off-airport analysis is accomplished through the FAA OE/AAA process, under the auspices of 14 CFR Part 77: Safe, Efficient Use and Preservation of the Navigable Airspace, also referred to as FAR Part 77. FAA Standard Operating Procedure 9: FAA Aeronautical Study, Coordination and Evaluation establishes the process for these airspace studies. The purpose of the process is to examine those objects that exceed the Part 77 notice criteria, establish whether the objects exceed any of the imaginary surfaces prescribed by Part 77 and determine whether the objects cause a substantial adverse impact that affects a significant volume of aeronautical activity. ACRP Report 38: Understanding Airspace, Objects and Their Effects on Airports contains a broad range of valuable information and resources related to Part 77 and the FAA evaluation process. The criteria and the actual imaginary surfaces identified in Part 77 serve as an initial means to identify potential adverse impacts on navigable airspace and establish the potential presence or absence of an adverse aeronautical effect. These criteria, contained in FAR §77.17: Obstruction Standards include objects and traverse ways as follows: (a) An existing object, including a mobile object, is, and a future object would be, an obstruction to air navigation if it is of greater height than any of the following heights or surfaces: (1) A height of 499 feet AGL [above ground level] at the site of the object. (2) A height that is 200 feet AGL, or above the established airport elevation, whichever is higher, within 3 nautical miles of the established reference point of an airport, excluding heliports, with its longest runway more than 3,200 feet in actual length, and that height increases in the propor- tion of 100 feet for each additional nautical mile from the airport up to a maximum of 499 feet. (3) A height within a terminal obstacle clearance area, including an initial approach segment, a de- parture area, and a circling approach area, which would result in the vertical distance between any point on the object and an established minimum instrument flight altitude within that area or segment to be less than the required obstacle clearance. (4) A height within an en route obstacle clearance area, including turn and termination areas, of a Federal Airway or approved off-airway route, that would increase the minimum obstacle clearance altitude. (5) The surface of a takeoff and landing area of an airport or any imaginary surface established under [FAR] §77.19, §77.21, or §77.23. However, no part of the takeoff or landing area itself will be considered an obstruction. (b) Except for traverse ways on or near an airport with an operative ground traffic control service furnished by an airport traffic control tower or by the airport management and coordinated with the air traffic control service, the standards of paragraph (a) of this section apply to traverse ways used or to be used for the passage of mobile objects only after the heights of these traverse ways are increased by: (1) 17 feet for an Interstate Highway that is part of the National System of Military and Interstate Highways where overcrossings are designed for a minimum of 17 feet vertical distance. (2) 15 feet for any other public roadway. (3) 10 feet or the height of the highest mobile object that would normally traverse the road, whichever is greater, for a private road. (4) 23 feet for a railroad. (5) For a waterway or any other traverse way not previously mentioned, an amount equal to the height of the highest mobile object that would normally traverse it. FAR Part 77 Surfaces The surfaces outlined in FAR §77.19, §77.21 or §77.23 include the following: • Primary surface: A surface longitudinally centered on a runway. When the runway has a specially prepared hard surface, the primary surface extends 200 feet beyond each end of

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 133 that runway; but when the runway has no specially prepared hard surface, the primary surface ends at each end of that runway. The elevation of any point on the primary surface is the same as the elevation of the nearest point on the runway centerline. The surface width varies from 250 feet to 1,000 feet, based on the runway category and approach type. • Approach surface: A surface longitudinally centered on the extended runway centerline and extending outward and upward from each end of the primary surface. An approach surface is applied to each end of each runway based on the type of approach available or planned for that runway end. • Transitional surface: Surfaces that extend outward and upward at right angles to the runway centerline, and the runway centerline is extended at a slope of 7 to 1 from the sides of the primary surface and from the sides of the approach surfaces. Transitional surfaces for those portions of the precision approach surface, which project through and beyond the limits of the conical surface, extend a distance of 5,000 feet measured horizontally from the edge of the approach surface and at right angles to the runway centerline. • Horizontal surface: A horizontal plane 150 feet above the established airport elevation, the perimeter of which is constructed by swinging arcs of a specified radii from the center of each end of the primary surface of each runway of each airport and connecting the adjacent arcs by lines tangent to those arcs. The radii of the arcs are 5,000 or 10,000 feet, depending on runway category or approach type. • Conical surface: A surface extending outward and upward from the periphery of the hori- zontal surface at a slope of 20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. The complex geometrical shape that combines the various imaginary surfaces is unique to each airport. A sample graphic of surfaces is shown in Figure 9. It is recommended that an air- port sponsor develop and keep current a graphic of airport-specific imaginary surfaces for the purposes of communicating obstruction management concerns to elected officials, zoning and planning officials, and members of the public. The standards contained in Part 77 do not serve as the ultimate indicator of a particular object being a hazard to air navigation. These criteria serve as an indicator that further evaluation and review of an airport’s aeronautical activities are needed to make a determination of an object’s impact on air navigation. In the process of that evaluation, the FAA considers additional standards and criteria. Those criteria and critical surfaces—which include the airport design criteria defined by FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13: Airport Design, instrument approach procedure design criteria defined by FAA Order 8260.3D: United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Proce- dures (TERPS) and considerations of impacts on air navigation facilities—form the basis for the FAA’s ultimate determination of an obstruction’s impact on air navigation. Critical Airspace Surfaces and Their Impacts FAA Order 8260.3D defines critical surfaces and criteria utilized to design instrument proce- dures at an airport. Because of the specifics of the approach procedure design based on facility conditions and critical aircraft, the precise dimensions of individual surfaces is unique to the facility and particular approach. The surfaces include the following: • Visual area surface: The 20:1 visual area surface is defined within Section 3.3.2.c of the TERPS order. The surface has a vertical slope of 20:1, extending from the runway’s threshold elevation to the decision altitude of the specific approach. It begins 200 feet prior to the runway threshold and is intended to protect aircraft during the last stages of an approach, which follows the transition from instruments to visual guidance. All objects that penetrate the surface must be lowered or lighted to allow pilots to maintain visual separation. If they cannot be lowered or lighted, the visibility minimums associated with the approach will likely be increased, or use of the procedure at night will likely be disallowed to maintain safety.

134 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Figure 9. FAR Part 77 surfaces. Plan View Isometric View • Final approach segment: This is the segment of an approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. The segment begins at the final approach fix and ends at the missed approach point or decision altitude, and the dimensional criteria/slope vary based on airport conditions and approach type. All objects that penetrate this segment must be lowered or removed; otherwise, the approach minimums will likely be increased, or the approach may be deactivated to maintain flight safety. • Missed approach segment: The segment of the approach procedure, which protects the safety of aircraft executing a missed approach procedure. Although (like the final approach segment) the dimensional criteria for this surface will vary from procedure to procedure, the area considered for obstacles generally will have a width equal to that of the final approach segment at the missed approach (or decision altitude point) and will expand uniformly to the width of the initial approach segment at a point 15 nautical miles from the missed approach point. • Departure obstacle clearance surface: A 40:1 surface originating at the location and elevation of the departure end of the runway, which is used to evaluate required climb performance from a particular departure runway end to the nearest (shortest distance) obstacle in the seg- ment. Impacts to this surface may result in the addition of required climb gradient restrictions to the departure end of the runway.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 135 The FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13 approach and departure design standards define the dimensions and slopes of the surfaces used to guide planning and development of the facility: • Vertical guidance surface (VGS), formerly referred to as the glide path qualification sur- face: An imaginary 30:1 surface, applicable to precision approach or approaches with vertical guidance, extending from the runway threshold along the runway centerline to the decision altitude point. Impacts on the VGS may require nonstandard glide path angles or even approach discontinuation. • Threshold siting standards: Runway threshold siting criteria, based on runway approach type and airplane design group. FAA design standards require the runway threshold to be positioned so that there are no obstacle penetrations to the appropriate approach surface. Impacts on the threshold siting surfaces may result in threshold displacements or the implementation of declared distances on the runway, reducing runway utility. These standards generally align more closely with TERPS standards than FAR Part 77 to account for the new instrument approach capability using a global positioning system. Technical Resources Available to Airport Sponsors While there are a number of proprietary or custom software solutions available for procure- ment by airport sponsors wishing to conduct airspace analysis and obstruction evaluations on the airport’s behalf, the FAA offers a number of free resources that should be referenced and used regularly by the airport sponsors, managers or staff. When an airport sets up an account for the FAA’s Airport GIS website, the FAA Surface Analysis and Visualization Tool analyzes object penetrations to the visual area surface of instrument approaches using a risk-based approach. The tool allows the FAA and airport owners and sponsors to discover, verify and mitigate objects identified as penetrations to the 20:1 visual area surface. It assesses surface penetrations against the requirements of TERPS and FAA advisory circulars and evaluates the effects of existing and proposed object penetrations, based on Part 77. It is important to note that although the tool can be used to evaluate a major- ity of the visual surface areas for most straight-in approaches, it does not evaluate all possible conditions pertaining to certain visual segments of instrument approaches. The FAA Notice Criteria Tool assists users in determining the applicability of Part 77 notice criteria to a specific object or structure. It utilizes the coordinates, site elevation and object height supplied by the user to establish whether a Form 7460-1: Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration must be filed with the FAA Air Traffic Organization or FAA ADO. Lastly, the FAA OE/AAA website contains a number of resources that allow airport sponsors and managers to search for proposed or existing obstructions within specified ranges of their facility, subscribe to alerts notifying them of proposals filed with the FAA and reference other resources related to obstruction marking and lighting, wind turbine installations, etc. Establishing a Proactive Obstruction Management Program Proactive airport obstruction monitoring and mitigation serve to protect the safety and utility of the airport and its elements. The process will vary from airport to airport, based on state and local conditions and regulatory requirements. However, some of the basic steps and best practices remain the same. To establish and implement an effective obstruction management program, the following should be undertaken: • Step out of your office. Be attentive to the development around your airport. Watch for new structures, cranes, lights, traffic signals and even landscaping that may affect your airport’s airspace.

136 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports • At a minimum, conduct an annual review of existing instrument approaches. Do not be caught by surprise if a new approach changes the dimensions and criteria of critical surfaces applicable to your facility. • Identify and utilize all available regulatory measures for obstruction mitigation or removal. The FAA relies on local zoning controls for obstruction management at the local government level. Determine if state airport protection zoning regulations exist, and work toward estab- lishing local zoning to protect your airport approaches from encroachment. • Identify the critical surfaces specific to your airport’s airspace, i.e., where an impact would result in a substantial adverse effect. While Part 77 surfaces are generally sufficient for the majority of small airports, airports that have approaches with vertical guidance, are located in rapidly developing areas or have historically been subject to airspace encroachment should seek to base their obstruction management criteria on surfaces defined by threshold siting criteria and TERPS. • Conduct a thorough obstruction survey and analysis, identifying all penetrations to the surfaces that would result in operational impacts, such as the loss of an approach procedure, increase in minimums or loss of night approaches. Following collection and analysis of obstruction survey data, promptly develop an action plan aimed at removing or reducing the height of all objects that penetrate the critical surfaces. This should be carried out to the maximum extent possible prior to the submittal of survey data to the FAA through Airports GIS, in order to avoid adverse impacts on the airport procedures. • Create and implement a plan of vegetation removal or hazard mitigation, which is practi- cable and legally defensible. Create and implement a vegetation maintenance and growth management plan that addresses imminent impacts to critical airport surfaces. Use federal requirements and state and local regulations (if applicable) to create an obstacle action plan that establishes mitigation or removal actions for each structure or object penetrating a critical surface. • Create and codify (through land use or zoning controls) a composite map of critical surfaces, supported by obstruction mitigation and removal requirements. Airports that have access to GIS resources should consider developing a composite map of surfaces, which combines all critical surfaces for the particular airport and allows airport staff to analyze existing or potential airspace impacts to the lowest, most critical surface at any given point around the facility. • Educate your local planning and zoning officials. They can be the airport’s first line of defense when a potential airspace obstruction is proposed. • Create a set of offset critical surfaces to account for vegetation growth for the period of the next 6 to 10 years. As an addition to the composite map, a second map can be created with surface offsets, which can be used to carry out hypothetical analyses of vegetation growth over the next 6 to 10 years. As previously mentioned, airport sponsors should verify the existence of airport protection zoning regulations at the state level and use those regulations to protect the facility. Depending on your state’s regulatory framework, airport or airspace protection zoning may be available as an airspace obstruction prevention or mitigation measure. Airspace protection zoning may include the following: • A requirement to notify the airport sponsor and the FAA of any proposed construction or alteration exceeding federal obstruction notice criteria • A requirement that the tall-structure proponent submit Form 7460-1: Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration to the FAA for review and airspace analysis • A requirement that any tall structure that exceeds Part 77 standards undergoes local or state permitting or zoning variance process • A requirement that all structures that exceed Part 77 standards be marked and lighted in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular 70/7460-1: Obstruction Marking and Lighting

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 137 • Vegetation removal and control regulations • Provisions for the enforcement of said requirements, appellate and judicial process conditions, and available remedies Coordinate the development and implementation of airport protection zoning regulations with your state DOT or aviation (or aeronautics) office and seek the implementation of local regulations through a stakeholder-driven process, with a focus on protecting the airport safety and public investment in transportation resources. More detailed information on matters related to airport land-use compatibility and airspace protection can be found in ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land-Use Compatibility and ACRP Report 38. Section 5.6: Land-Use Com- patibility and Zoning includes information on airspace zoning ordinances. Lastly, be mindful that obstruction management is the responsibility of the airport and its sponsor. It is also an obligation under the federal grant assurances. The airport is responsible for notifying the FAA of any obstruction data discrepancies or inconsistencies, reviewing the visual area impacts using the tools provided by the FAA and protecting the facility and airspace from encroachment. The bottom line is that if detrimental obstructions promulgate at your airport, the FAA will seek to maintain flight safety by changing operations at your airport, such as increasing minimums or discontinuing instrument approach procedures, requiring threshold displace- ments that will limit usable runway length, etc.

138 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.11 Safety Management System Key Insights The FAA’s proposed rulemaking published July 12, 2016, would require a safety management system to be developed and implemented at any Part 139 small airport designated by U.S. Customs and Border Protection as a port of entry, including designated international airports, landing- rights airports or user-fee airports or a Part 139 airport with more than 10,000 annual operations (takeoffs and landings). Per the proposed rule (which has not been finalized), airports that are required to develop a safety management system will have 24 months to implement a safety management system, with an implementation plan required within 12 months. Since June 2001, FAA Airports staff have used the formal safety risk management component of safety analysis to support their approval decisions on airport planning, development and standards proposals. Key Definitions Hazard: A condition, object or activity with the potential to cause damage, loss or injury. Modification to standards (MOS): Any approved nonconformance to FAA standards to airport design, construction or equipment procurement. MOSs are issued by the FAA on a case-by-case basis while maintaining an acceptable level of safety. Risk: The chance of loss or injury measured in terms of severity and probability. Safety management system (SMS): A top-down, organization-wide approach to managing safety risk and assuring the effectiveness of safety risk controls. It includes systematic procedures, practices and policies for managing safety risk. Safety risk assessment (SRA): Assessment of a system or component, often by a panel of system subject matter experts and stakeholders, to compare an achieved risk level with the tolerable risk level. Safety risk management (SRM): A standard set of processes to identify and document hazards, analyze and assess potential risks and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Safety Management System There are inherent risks associated with aviation and airports. The goal is to minimize the risk through the mitigation of hazards. The purpose of an SMS is to proactively, nonpunitively identify and address potential safety hazards, with a goal to eliminate or avoid accidents or incidents before they occur. It is a tool for an airport operator to translate concern for safety into actions to mitigate hazards and seek continual improvement. Per ACRP Report 1: Safety Management Systems for Airports, Volume 1: Overview and Volume 2: Guidebook, an SMS includes a management commitment to safety, proactive identification of hazards, actions taken to manage risks and an evaluation of safety actions. This management commitment is essential to the implementation of an SMS, because only through management commitment will there also be the necessary financial commitment. ACRP Legal Research Digest 19: Legal Issues Related to Developing Safety Management Systems and Safety Risk Management at U.S. Airports addresses the implementation of an SMS at airports from a legal perspective.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 139 An SMS may benefit your airport by enabling lower insurance premiums. To identify if there is a benefit, contact your airport’s insurer. In addition, a reduction in incidents is always a benefit. There are four components, or pillars, of an SMS, as described in FAA Advisory Circular 150/ 5200-37: Introduction to Safety Management Systems for Airport Operators. Safety policy defines the airport organization’s approach to managing safety, including management’s commitment to safety and the overall safety vision. The safety policy of an SMS should include the commitment of senior management to implement an SMS, a commitment to continual improvement, the encouragement of employees to report safety issues without fear of reprisal, a commitment to provide the necessary safety resources and a commitment to make safety the highest priority. Generally, it will also include the identification of an SMS champion, responsible for the SMS. SRM is a systematic, explicit and comprehensive approach for managing risk at an airport. It is a formal process within an SMS that: • Describes a system, • Identifies the hazards, • Determines the risk, • Assesses and analyzes the risk and • Treats the risk (mitigate, monitor and track). ACRP Report 131: A Guidebook for Safety Risk Management for Airports provides guidance on using SRM in daily operations as well as conducting a safety risk assessment on a specific pro- posed action. ACRP Synthesis 71: Airport Safety Risk Management Panel Activities and Outcomes enhances ACRP Report 131 with additional tools, templates and a quick reference guide. Safety assurance is the process to ensure the organization is meeting safety requirements. Safety assurance will include performance monitoring, SMS assessment, internal safety assess- ment and management review. The safety assurance program should identify safety performance indicators; monitor compliance through self-auditing; allocate resources for safety oversight; review feedback from inspections, safety analysis and audits; and communicate findings to staff for implementation. Safety promotion is the fostering of the safety culture through training and information sharing and continual improvement. The training related to safety promotion should include overall SMS indoctrination as well as specific job-related training. A process to document and validate the effectiveness of the training is important. Risk Levels The goal of SRM is to mitigate risk to the lowest feasible level. SRM uses three levels of risk: • High: Unacceptable level of risk. The proposal cannot be implemented or the activity continued unless hazards are further mitigated to reduce the risk to a medium or low level. • Medium: Acceptable level of risk. Minimum acceptable safety objective. The proposal can be implemented or the activity can continue, but tracking and management are required. All medium-level risks should be assessed to determine if the level of risk can be further mitigated. • Low: Target level of risk. Acceptable without restriction or limitation. The identified hazards are not required to be actively managed but are documented. When hazards are evaluated, they are ranked according to severity and likelihood of their risks, as shown on the risk matrix in Figure 10. Even within a risk level, hazards should be ranked

140 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports so that the hazard with the highest level of risk is addressed first. As part of developing an SMS, an airport should revise the risk matrix and define the likelihood and severity for the airport’s operations. FAA Use of Safety Management Systems While most small airports will not be required to have an SMS, they may still be involved in an SMS-related activity because FAA Airports has implemented an SMS for its operations. The FAA implementation of an SMS for its lines of business is defined in FAA Order 8000.369: Safety Management System. The standards that FAA Airports uses for SRM are defined in the following: • FAA Order 5200.11: FAA Airports (ARP) Safety Management System (SMS) • FAA Office of Airports Safety Management System (SMS) Desk Reference • FAA Standard Operating Procedure 4: Safety Risk Management (SRM) Under the FAA Office of Airports Safety Management System (SMS) The FAA evaluates projects using the appropriate safety assessment screening form included in FAA Order 5200.11, Appendix D. This FAA Order also defines the process the FAA uses to determine the need to complete a safety assessment screening form. A small airport may be part of FAA-required SRM for projects such as the following: • FAA review of a new or revised ALP • Construction project coordination, review of approval, including construction safety and phasing plans • Approach for project-specific request for modifications of standards • Modification to design standards Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-37, Figure 3-1, Feb. 28, 2007 Figure 10. Predictive risk matrix.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 141 4.12 Winter Operations Key Insights Notices for Airmen for airfield condition assessments should accurately reflect current conditions. Requirements are more stringent for Part 139 airports, which necessitate a snow and ice control plan for airports where snow and icing conditions occur. Non-Part 139 airports should consider the elements in a snow and ice control plan for planning their operations. It is recommended that all airports train employees on equipment and practice operations, espe- cially at night, and prior to the first typical snow event of each season. Key Definitions Memorandum of agreement (MOA) or memorandum of understanding (MOU): A docu- ment outlining the cooperative agreement and the roles and responsibilities of each party to the agreement. Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM): Chart providing the criteria to assist airport operators in identifying the runway conditions during winter or rain events. Snow and ice control plan (SICP): A document describing the airport’s approach to snow removal operations, including pre- and post-season subjects, as well as the procedures for address- ing winter storms and notifying users of airfield conditions. Snow removal equipment (SRE): Equipment, typically trucks and tractors, used at an airport to remove snow. Takeoff and landing performance assessment (TALPA): A method to accurately and consis- tently determine the runway condition when a paved runway is not dry. Windrow: A long line of piled snow. Airfield Clearing In northern climates, winter operations during snow events present a unique set of challenges to maintain operating surfaces in “no worse than wet” conditions. Contaminants on a runway impede airplane acceleration by absorbing energy in compaction and displacement and by impinging on parts of the airplane after being kicked up by the tires. During deceleration, slush-, snow- and standing water-covered pavements—especially iced surfaces—hamper deceleration rates due to a reduction in the friction coefficient of the runway and the potential for hydro- planing. Thus, airports need a plan to remove snow and ice safely and efficiently from the airport’s operational surfaces. If a Part 139 airport is located where snow and icing conditions occur, a formal SICP is required as part of the airport certification manual (ACM); otherwise, it is noted that an SICP is not needed. While not a requirement at non-Part 139 airports where snow and icing conditions typically occur, the process of preparing and using an SICP will help the airport identify the priority of areas to be cleaned, the equipment available and the personnel responsible for reporting the field conditions.

142 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports In a required SICP, two to three types of priority areas—based on the airport’s safety require- ments, aircraft operations and navigational aid facilities—will be identified. The sizing of the priority areas should take into account the airport’s resource capabilities and the actual aircraft operational needs. Priority 1 areas are those that directly contribute to safety and the re-establishment of aircraft operations at a minimum acceptable level of service. The Priority 1 areas will generally consist of the primary runway(s) with taxiway turnoffs and associated taxiways leading to the terminal, portions of the terminal ramp, portions of the cargo ramp, ARFF station ramps and access roads, mutual aid access points (including gates), emergency service roads, access to essential NAVAIDs and centralized deicing facilities, as appropriate to each airport. Priority 2 areas are those not essential to re-establishing a minimum acceptable level of service for aircraft operations. Items in this category normally include crosswind or secondary runways and their supportive taxiways, terminal and cargo apron areas not cleared under Priority 1, commercial ramp areas, overnight parking, access roads to secondary facilities and airfield facilities not essential to flight operations or not used on a daily basis. Priority 3 areas, if included in the SICP, include all other areas not addressed under Priority 1 or 2. This typically includes the perimeter security road and service roads within the AOA. Equipment Selection The goal is for airports to have sufficient equipment to clear within a “reasonable” time 1 inch of snow weighing 25 pounds per cubic foot. The guidance for a “reasonable” clearing time is based on the number of operations at a commercial or noncommercial service airport, as shown in Table 9. To meet these clearing time requirements, typically, only some portions of the terminal or cargo apron are included in the Priority 1 area. These clearing times are used to determine necessary equipment. Only the equipment deemed necessary in the FAA guidance is eligible for grant funding. Snow Removal Equipment FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-20: Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment provides guidance to calculate the recommended minimum type and number of SRE, including snow plows, high-speed rotary plows (snow blowers), brooms and spreaders. The types of equipment an airport needs depend on the area to be cleared, the acceptable clearance time, the average annual snowfall amount and available budget. Typically, an airport has a mixture of SRE based on these factors. The following are common types of SRE used at airports: • Snow plow: Typically used as the primary means of snow control and to windrow the snow. Plows are available in a variety of types and sizes. Clearance Time (hours) Annual Airplane Operations (includes cargo operations) Commercial Service Airports Noncommercial Service Airports 40,000 or more 0.5 2.0 10,000 but fewer than 40,000 1.0 3.0 6,000 but fewer than 10,000 1.5 4.0 Fewer than 6,000 2.0 6.0 Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-30D, Change 1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2, March 8, 2017 Table 9. Snow removal clearance times.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 143 • High-speed rotary plow: The rotary plow, often referred to as a snow blower, relocates the snow from the windrows, over the lights and signs, to an area beyond the safety area and to an acceptable height. • Broom: The broom has several uses in snow removal. Brooms can be used to remove light snowfalls or water accumulations left by melting snow. • Spreader/sprayer: These pieces of equipment deploy sand or anti-icing agents (chemical deicers). • Loader: The loader is critical for moving snow to either melting areas or into trucks for transport around or off the airport to a predetermined disposal location. • Multifunction: More common at large airports, multifunction equipment is typically a vehicle that can accomplish multiple tasks in a single pass, such as plow, broom and spread. At small airports, “multifunction” can also refer to equipment that can be outfitted to accom- plish several snow removal functions. A loader can be configured to complete broom or plow operations. A dump truck can accomplish plowing, be used with a broom or, if equipped with a spreader, spread sand. In addition, some SRE may also be used for other airport maintenance functions during warm-weather seasons. Using multifunction equipment can have a positive impact on budget expenditures and staff-hour requirements. SRE Acquisition At smaller airports, an available budget for SRE is a critical factor. SRE is eligible for AIP grants; however, it is generally a lower-priority project, so it is most likely funded with the airport’s nonprimary AIP entitlement funds or state apportionment AIP funds. Some states may also provide grants separate from the FAA or as a partial match to the AIP grant. AIP funding restrictions will apply when using AIP funding for equipment purchases. Although state grant restrictions vary, these will usually apply to those grants. The AIP funding restrictions include the following: • Sole-source suppliers may not be used. (An airport cannot specify a preferred brand to match other equipment.) • Local procurement preferences may not be used. (Purchases may not be restricted to a local vendor.) • Nonstandard features beyond those allowed in the FAA advisory circulars may not be added using grants. If these are desired, they may be added using local funding. • Limits on multipurpose use of AIP-acquired equipment may apply. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-20 provides the guidance on equipment purchases; however, refer to SAE International publications as guidance for the detailed equipment specifications. A common method for small airports to obtain SRE is to acquire used equipment from larger airports or other governmental entities. Some governmental units, including the armed forces, typically publish acquisition lists for the availability of surplus used equipment. This equipment may be available for free to other governments, except transportation charges, or it may be sold to the highest governmental entity bidder. SRE Storage Building In addition to SRE being eligible for AIP funding, buildings to store the SRE when not in use are eligible for grants. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-18: Buildings for Storage and Maintenance of Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment and Materials provides guidance for the site selection and design of buildings used to store and maintain airport snow and ice

144 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports control equipment, store approved materials and provide personnel areas required to support the requirements under the airport operator’s winter storm management plan. Depending on the quantity, separate facilities may be needed for the storage of anti-icing and deicing chemicals and materials. Snow and Ice Control Plan In addition to having SRE, an airport should have a plan for how to effectively use the equipment to clear the highest-priority areas first. Preparation of the SICP assists the airport with three major functions: (1) pre-season planning, (2) snow removal and notice activities and (3) post-season assessment. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-30: Airport Field Condition Assessments and Winter Operations Safety assists airport operators in developing an SICP. The pre-season planning and post-winter season assessments are used by the airport operator to plan for the upcoming or following winter seasons, respectively. This phase may include revising the SICP after the winter season ends. During snowfall season, the plan identifies the procedures and sequence of actions to be taken by the airport operator during winter storms. It also identifies the responsibilities and process for notifying airport users in a timely manner when less than satisfactory conditions exist at the airport, including the closure of runways. An airport snow and ice control committee may be formed to assist with the planning and assessment of snow and ice control operations. The size and function of the committee will vary by airport size and geographical location. Common members of a snow and ice control committee include airport operations staff, airline station personnel, FBOs, ATCT personnel and other key users. For Part 139 airports, as determined by the administrator, each certificate holder whose airport is located where snow and icing conditions occur must prepare, maintain and carry out a SICP in a manner authorized by the administrator. FAA advisory circulars contain methods and procedures for snow and ice control equipment, materials and removal that are acceptable to the administrator. The SICP must include, at a minimum, instructions and procedures for the following: • Prompt removal or control, as completely as practical, of snow, ice and slush on each movement area. • Positioning snow off the movement area surfaces so all air carrier aircraft propellers, engine pods, rotors and wing tips will clear any snowdrift and snowbank as the aircraft’s landing gear traverses any portion of the movement area. • Selection and application of authorized materials for snow and ice control to ensure that they adhere to snow and ice sufficiently to minimize engine ingestion. • Timely commencement of snow and ice control operations. • Prompt notification (in accordance with FAR §139.339) of all air carriers using the airport when any portion of the movement area normally available to them is less-than-satisfactorily cleared for safe operation by their aircraft. An editable template for the SICP based on the Part 139 SICP template is included in ACRP WebResource 6. While most small airports where snow and icing conditions occur are not required to have an SICP, it is a best practice to consider all the items contained in the Part 139 plan and prepare a plan tailored to the level of activity at the airport. ACRP Synthesis 67: Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets focuses on snow removal strategies, especially for small airports.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 145 Snow Removal Responsibilities When planning snow removal operations, the airport manager should consider who is available to conduct the operations and any snow removal requirements included as part of a tenant’s lease. All entities that will conduct snow removal should practice together before the season to be familiar with the airfield and equipment at all times, even in the dark. If an airport has an ATCT, all snow removal units operating in aircraft movement areas must maintain radio communication with the ATCT or be under the direct control of a designated supervisor, who in turn is in direct communication with the ATCT. If no tower exists, the common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) or UNICOM should be monitored at all times. Options for staffing snow removal operations include in-house staff, sponsoring govern- mental agency staff, contractors and tenants: • In-house staff: Utilization of airport staff and airport-owned equipment for winter operations is the most effective way to ensure the clearing is completed in accordance with the SICP. Considerations for this include the availability of staff or additional staff to be added during the events and whether the budget is sufficient to pay additional staff or overtime for existing staff and to provide the equipment necessary to perform the operations. • Governmental agency staff: Cities and counties in areas of snow are usually staffed and equipped to handle snow events. They may not, however, have sufficient staff and equipment to add the requirements of the airport SICP. If this method is chosen, an MOU or MOA should be utilized to document the expectations and responsibilities of both entities. • Contractors: Private contractors may be used to perform or augment the airport’s functions, as contained in the SICP. The written agreement with the contractor should include required response times, equipment requirements, staffing, training required, disposal requirements and damage responsibility. • Tenants: All airport leases and agreements should be clear and specific and cover the duties and responsibilities of lessees to carry out their assigned snow and ice control duties. When planning staffing for snow removal operations, remain aware of driver fatigue. Consideration should be given to monitoring the “windshield time” of drivers (length of shift) operating SRE, because operator fatigue could become a contributing factor for runway incur- sions. In response, some airport operators have implemented limits on driver-operating hours. Provisions for suitable areas to allow drivers to rest at the airport between shifts and on breaks should be considered. Feeding staff who are on duty or on standby is important to maintain- ing safety and morale. Remember that, during severe conditions, staff may not be able to report for duty or leave the airport for meals and rest. It is not uncommon to have low visibility or whiteout conditions during a snow event. It is important for equipment operators to maintain visual contact with their surroundings during snow-clearing operations, especially for opera- tions in an echelon formation (a group of equipment operating together). The SICP should specify procedures to follow if visibility suddenly drops to near zero, or whiteout conditions exist while clearing operations are in progress. Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment In an effort to provide more consistent reporting of runway conditions, on October 1, 2016, the FAA initiated the use of takeoff and landing performance assessment (TALPA). The TALPA initiative aims to reduce the risk of runway overruns by providing airport operators with a method to accurately and consistently determine the runway condition when a paved runway is wet. This information will enable airplane operators, pilots and flight planners to more accurately determine the distance required to stop on a wet or contaminated paved runway.

146 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Snow Removal Best Practices Runways: Focus runway snow-clearing operations on keeping the entire primary runway(s), as near as practicable, bare from snow accumulations or ice buildup. Use displacement plows, in tandem if more than one, to windrow snow into a single windrow that can be cast over the edge of runway lights by a rotary plow. Rotary plows should throw snow a sufficient distance from runways’ and taxiways’ edges so adequate clearance is available between airplane wings and engine nacelles and the cast snow banks. Taxiways: Much like runways, taxiways should be cleared to the extent that will allow the safe movement of aircraft transitioning from the runway to the terminal ramp. Aprons: A sufficient area of the apron should be cleared to allow for the parking of all aircraft expected to use the airport during the snow event. Airfield signs, lights and NAVAIDs: Keep these clean of contaminants to maintain the legibility of signage. Priority should be given to lights and signs associated with hold lines, direction and location signs and instrument-landing-system critical areas. Common methods to remove snow from signs include using a truck mounted with an air-blast unit, spraying the faces of signs with an approved liquid deicer or hand shoveling. LED lights are a challenge to find in a snow bank. Control of snowbanks: Snow clearing should not allow snow banks, mounds or ridges exceeding 2 feet to be placed along the edges of the prescribed snow clearance areas. Snow banks should not be placed off the approach ends of runways. Controlling drifting snow: Preventing snow from drifting onto operational areas at airports during severe winter storms reduces the duration and frequency of snow clearing. • Snow fences: Snow fences that are properly designed and located can reduce windblown snow across airfields. Prior to any snow fence installation in the vicinity of a NAVAID system, the airport operator must contact the local FAA technical operations staff for approval. • Snow trenches: Snow trenches that catch and store drifting snow may be considered by airports with heavy snowfalls. This approach is considered an expedient way to control snow from drifting after it has been cleared to the edge of the runway. Snow disposal: In areas where large accumulations of snow and prolonged tem- peratures below freezing prevent snow from melting, consideration should be given to how and where the disposal of snow will be accomplished. • Hauling: Snow can be hauled to a remote area of the airport or to a predes- ignated area off the airport. • Snow melting: Snow melters or melting pits can be used to dispose of the accumulated snow. These should be located outside the Priority 1 area.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 147 Federally obligated airports are required to use TALPA procedures to conduct runway assess- ments and to report those conditions in newly formatted field condition (FICON) NOTAMs. Runway conditions must be reported in one-third sections. Using NOTAM Manager, the electronic NOTAM filing will expedite the process and make it easier. As with all NOTAMs, a record of the dissemination (issuance and cancellation) of NOTAM information must be retained by the airport operator. Reporting TALPA will allow pilots and flight planners to use the information, along with manufacturer’s aircraft-specific data, to determine the runway length needed to safely stop an aircraft after an aborted takeoff or a landing. Additional information about TALPA and its use is available on the FAA’s website. Runway Friction Measuring With the use of TALPA, Mu values for runway friction can no longer be directly or infor- mally reported. However, FAA-approved friction-measuring equipment may still be employed to help determine the effects of friction-enhancing treatments. This equipment can show the trend of a runway as to increasing or decreasing friction. Guidance on continuous friction- measuring equipment is in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5320-12: Measurement, Construction and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces. Also, Appendix D of FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-30 contains a list of decelerometers that meet the FAA technical specifications. Friction-measuring equipment needs to be calibrated. As the equipment operator, the airport staff is responsible for ensuring that the equipment is correctly calibrated in accordance with its operations manual. Runway friction survey requires advance coordination because, while the tests are being conducted, the runway may be closed to airplane operations. As part of coordinating the friction surveys, an air traffic control clearance or communication on the CTAF or UNICOM when the tower is closed or there is no tower is essential for safety. When using a decelerometer to obtain an accurate friction assessment, a minimum of three braking tests are conducted and averaged for each runway zone with a vehicle speed of 20 miles per hour. After conducting friction-measuring tests, the Mu value can be used with the RCAM to identify runway conditions when contaminants are present. Using the runway condition description and Mu value, the airport operator can identify the “code” representing the runway condition to report via the NOTAM system. Budgeting for Snow Removal Budgeting for winter events can be difficult, because annual snowfall accumulation predictions can be unreliable. Also, the timing of winter storms, whether they are during the workday or at night and weekends, will affect how much staff overtime is involved. The frequency of events and severity and whether ice is involved are factors that can greatly affect the overall equipment and staffing costs. To better account for the variability of snow removal costs, an analysis of the budget expen- ditures of a select number of previous years should be used. The budgeting process should include a means to address overages resulting from higher-than-expected operations. Also, the budget calendar year should be considered if the snow season falls in more than one budget year. SRE maintenance and replacement should also be included in the annual budget process to

148 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports ensure that the equipment is operational throughout the snow season. Allocating budget funds to a reserve account for future acquisitions should also be considered. Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing An FBO or specialized aviation service operation may offer aircraft deicing or anti-icing ser- vices to its users, airports or tenants. Deicing operations are most common at large commercial service airports but may also be used at small airports with commercial service or transient corporate operations and can be utilized for any aircraft. It is also common for based-aircraft owners, especially corporate operators, to keep their aircraft in heated hangars. Keeping an aircraft free of frozen precipitation is important to prevent the loss of lift. All sur- faces cannot necessarily be cleaned and protected in the same conventional deicing or anti-icing manner as the control surfaces. Some areas require only a cleaning operation, while others may need protection against freezing. For example, the use of hot air may be required when deicing the landing gear or propellers. Deicing is defined as the removal of snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is applying chemicals that not only deice, but remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time or prevent the adhesion of ice. The use and storage of deicing agents is subject to environmental regulations that usually require the capture of used fluids and their appropriate disposal, such as permitted discharge to a sanitary sewer. If deicing is occurring at an airport, it is essential that the entity conducting the deicing has obtained the appropriate permits and prepared the appropriate pollution prevention documents.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 149 4.13 Special Events Key Insight Special events can be taxing on airport staff and operations but can provide benefits to the airport through awareness of the airport, its economic contributions to the community and development opportunities. Key Definition Special event: An activity that occurs for a limited or short duration, presented to a live audience. Benefits of Special Events Special events can be aeronautical or nonaeronautical and, while they add to an airport operator’s workload, can pay dividends, such as the following, in community relations: • Enhance public awareness of the airport. Most people in the community are probably aware of the airport but do not understand the airport’s role. The airport staff should join with businesses at the airport and take advantage of any special event to promote the benefits the airport brings to the community. Examples of benefits that might be promoted are Angel Flights, economic benefits, employment numbers and opportunities, and youth educational opportunities such as the Experimental Aircraft Association’s (EAA) Young Eagles® flights or the United States Air Force’s Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program. • Stimulate interest in and growth of the airport and aviation. Take the opportunity during special events to promote land and buildings available for aeronautical and nonaeronautical lease, employment opportunities at the airport, businesses at the airport and educational classes offered at local colleges and high schools. • Foster community support. Providing an overview of the benefits the airport contributes to the community will help generate community support. • Provide economic benefits. Depending on the type and size, most special events provide an economic benefit to the community. Catering and participants/attendees making use of local restaurants, hotels and stores will bring additional revenue to the community, including sales tax revenues. • Generate revenue for the airport and charitable organizations. Most special events are organized by charitable organizations as a fundraiser for the organization. Special events may be sponsored by the airport or an outside entity, in which case an airport use agreement should be made. Airport staff should be involved in all phases of a special event in order to be aware of all plans for conducting the event. Aeronautical Special Events Aeronautical special events include air shows, fly-ins, airport open houses (if aircraft are on display) and EAA Young Eagles or Eagle Flights® events. Air shows involve aerobatic demonstra- tions and are especially complex, because detailed coordination with the FAA is required. These coordination activities include the application for waiver, FAA Form 7711-2, and in some cases the issuance of NOTAMs or temporary flight restrictions (TFRs). The FAA issuance of a waiver can be initiated online at the FAA’s Flight Standards Information Management System website. The International Council of Air Shows website is an excellent source of information for air show organizers.

150 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Aeronautical events that do not involve aerobatics are less complicated but still require a high degree of planning to ensure the safety of participants, guests and the flying public. Nonaeronautical Special Events Nonaeronautical events can include car shows, distance runs, concerts, building dedications or the use of airport facilities for charitable events (dances, banquets, etc.). An airport or any part of the AOA developed or improved with federal funds may not be closed for special, nonaeronautical outdoor events without prior FAA approval. Nonaeronautical events on the landside may require FAA notification if they interfere with navigable airspace. Prior FAA approval is required by federal law and reflected in Grant Assurance 19: Operation and Maintenance. You should contact your FAA ADO several months before the event to initiate the process to obtain the appropriate approval for a special event. An FAA Southern Region newsletter provides a good summary of items to consider related to airport compliance and nonaeronautical events. Conducting Special Events Similar preparation and execution are needed for aeronautical and nonaeronautical events. ACRP Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports contains information about planning for aviation events. A video on the topic is available from an ACRP webinar on special events planning. The Wisconsin Bureau of Aeronautics has a nonaeronautical events reference document to assist its airports in meeting the requirements for such events. The fol- lowing subsections summarize some of the information contained in ACRP Synthesis 41. Planning Phase The planning phase should be initiated at least 12 months prior to the event date. During the initial planning phase, the following questions should be answered: • What are our goals for holding the event? • What are the reasons for holding the event? • Who will be responsible for holding the event? • What type of event will we have? • What will be our event theme? • When will the event be held? • Where will the event be held? • What will be the duration of the event? • Should an events organization team be hired? Organizing Phase The organization phase typically begins immediately after the planning phase, usually 11 months before the event. Numerous items must be considered and enacted during this phase that includes establishing committees to handle issues such as event promotion, sponsorships, volunteers, event setup and teardown, crowd containment and parking. Establishing a realistic budget during this phase is critical to the event’s success. Event Execution Phase This phase consists of putting into motion the planning and organization that have occurred over the previous year. The length of the event’s execution will vary depending on the complex- ity of the event and will include all setup activities—including parking, crowd control, entrance and exit points and facilities such as tables, chairs and tents—and the event itself.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 151 Return to Normal Operations and Event Analysis Often referred to as the cleanup phase, this phase is frequently overlooked and under-planned. The proper execution of this phase is critical for the airport’s safe return to normal operations. Proper planning and execution must occur, or the event organizers may not be allowed to use the airport as a venue for the event in the future. Volunteers and adequate staffing must be scheduled for the timely execution of this phase. An event debriefing should be scheduled as soon as possible after the event to discuss what went right or wrong. Supporting Off-Airport Special Events In addition to hosting special events, a small airport may be called on to support a special event in the community, such as a larger athletic competition, tradeshow or other significant gatherings, to which attendees will fly in. In some instances, the airport may be asked to help arrange a flyby for the event. This could occur during outdoor events and parades, or at any outdoor event where the national anthem is played. ACRP Synthesis 57: Airport Response to Special Events and the ACRP webinar on special events planning provide insights from other airports’ experiences.

152 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.14 Americans with Disabilities Act Key Insights The Americans with Disabilities Act was adopted in 1990 and is codified in 42 U.S.C. Chapter 126. The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation and all public and private places that are open to the general public. As a public place open to the general public, small airports must meet Americans with Disabilities Act requirements. Key Definitions Alteration: A change to a facility, including but not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, and changes or rearrangement in structural parts and elements. Auxiliary aids: Qualified interpreters, note takers, transcription services, writing materials, telephone headset amplifiers, assistive listening devices, assisted listening systems, telephones compatible with hearing aids, closed- and open-caption decoders, text telephones (telephone devices such as TTYs), videotext displays or other aural delivery devices, qualified readers, taped text audio recordings, Braille materials, large-print materials or other materials for visual delivery. Disability: With respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment. Public accommodation: A facility, operated by a private entity, with operations that affect commerce and provide one or more of the following: lodging, food and beverage service, exhibition or entertainment, places for public gathering, sales or rental of goods or services, public transportation, recreational services, educational services, social services and places for exercise or recreation. Public entity: Any state or local government, or any department, entity, special district or other instrumentality thereof. Service animal: A dog that has been trained to do work or perform tasks for an individual with a disability. The tasks performed by the dog must be directly related to the person’s disability. Undue burden: Significant difficulty or expense. Overview of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is codified in 42 U.S.C. Chapter 126. The require- ments of the act cover virtually all private and public entities. The ADA contains five titles: • Title I—Employment: Reasonable accommodations must be made to allow an otherwise qualified disabled employee to perform the essential functions of the job or to enjoy the privi- leges and benefits afforded to other employees. • Title II—Public Services: State and Local Government: Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in state and local government services. The public entity’s services, programs or activities, when viewed in their entirety, must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 153 with disabilities. The standard applies to all existing facilities, but public entities are not necessarily required to make each of their existing facilities accessible. • Title III—Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities: Provides for nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in full and equal enjoyment of goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages or accommodations offered by a place of public accommodation. • Title IV—Telecommunications: Requires telephone and internet companies to provide a nationwide system of interstate and intrastate telecommunication relay service that allows individuals with hearing and speech disabilities to communicate over the telephone. • Title V—Miscellaneous Provisions: Provisions for relationships to other laws, state immu- nity, impact on insurance providers and benefits, prohibition against retaliation and coercion, illegal use of drugs, and attorneys’ fees provisions. It also provides a list of certain conditions that are not to be considered as disabilities. Application to Small Airports FAA Advisory Circular 150/5360-14: Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities provides systematic guidance specific to airport compliance with current laws and regulations regarding serving individuals with disabilities. ACRP also has several resources addressing accom- modating travelers with disabilities, including ACRP Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports, ACRP Synthesis 90: Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises, and ACRP Report 177: Enhancing Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Person with Disabilities. Title I—Employment In employing staff at small airports, the airport operator must make reasonable accommoda- tions for any qualified employee with a disability. If a position requires an employee to accomplish specific tasks, such as lifting, seeing, hearing or driving a vehicle, these must be included in the job description. While many small airports employ a small staff that must be able to accomplish multiple tasks, airport operators should consider whether all tasks are requirements of the position and what accommodations could be made. For example, if a position is office support, there may be more opportunities to make reasonable accommodations for a person with a dis- ability than a position that involves frequently working on the airfield. Title II—Public Services: State and Local Government Most publicly owned small airports are owned by a governmental entity. Therefore, the facility and services offered should be accessible. Therefore, small airports should consider how access to the facility can be provided, as well as customer service and accommodation of service animals. The ADA National Network provides a list of ADA customer service quick tips. ADA.gov provides answers to frequently asked questions about service animals and the ADA. Barriers to access at a small airport should be modified. If barriers cannot be removed but can be improved, the improvement should be made. When making improvements, the first priority should be to provide access to the airport from public sidewalks, parking or trans- portation. These improvements would include measures such as install- ing an entrance ramp, widening entrances and providing accessible parking spaces. Access to public meetings of the airport’s governing body is impor- tant. If this access cannot be accommodated at the airport, the meetings Allowable Questions to Determine if a Dog is a Service Animal • Is the dog a service animal required because of a disability? • What work or task has the dog been trained to perform? Do not request documentation or a demonstration or inquire about the nature of the person’s disability.

154 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports should be moved to an ADA-accessible location, typically another facility of the sponsoring governmental agency. The second priority should be to take measures to provide access to the areas of the airport where goods and services are available to the public, such as adjusting the layout of display shelves, rearranging tables, providing Braille and raised-character signs, widening doors, providing visual alarms and installing ramps. The third priority should be to take measures to provide access to restroom facilities. These measures include items such as removing obstructions for a clear route to the facilities, widening doors, installing ramps, providing accessible signs, widening toilet stalls and installing grab bars. The fourth priority for an airport is any other measure necessary to provide access to the goods, services and facilities. Where a small airport can demonstrate that barrier removal is not readily achievable, the public accommodation shall not fail to make its goods, services or accommodations available through alternative methods, such as providing curb service, retrieving merchandise from inaccessible shelves or relocating activities to accessible locations. If a small airport is developing a new facility that will be available to the public, all provisions of the ADA should be considered in its design and development. Title III—Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities When private entities lease space from a public entity to provide public services (e.g., FBO or concessionaires), the services are subject to ADA requirements. Final responsibility for adherence with Title II and Title III requirements rests with the public entity, which must meet the require- ments directly or through the agreements it executes with lessees and sublessees. The airport is obligated to ensure compliance, either through its own actions or through the lease conditions placed on the tenant. Title IV—Telecommunications At small airports with commercial passenger service, a telecommunications company may install a telephone, known as a TTY (text telephone) or TDD (telecommunication device for the deaf ), to allow persons with hearing or speech disabilities to communicate by sending text over the phone. The availability of mobile phones with text functions has greatly enhanced the communication opportunities for persons with hearing and speech disabilities.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 155 4.15 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Key Insights The community may look to the airport manager, as an aviation professional, for information about operating unmanned aircraft systems. The FAA provides resources to assist in answering questions. Unmanned aircraft systems have existed since the 1970s, primarily in the military and other governmental agencies. More recent technological innovations have enabled the rapid increase in small, more affordable unmanned aircraft systems that can be operated by nonpilots. Because the FAA is charged with ensuring the safety of the National Airspace System, growth in the operating of small unmanned aircraft systems by individuals and organizations has challenged the FAA to respond in an effective and constructive manner. FAR Part 107 contains the regulations for nonhobbyist small UAS operators. Part 107 does not apply to model aircraft, which is regulated under Section 336 of Public Law 112-95. Key Definitions FAR Part 107: Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Part 107 establishes the registration of airmen and the certification and operation of small (weighing less than 55 pounds) unmanned aircraft systems within the United States. National Airspace System (NAS): The airspace, navigation facilities and airports of the United States along with their associated information, services, rules, regulations, policies, procedures, personnel and equipment. Remote pilot airman certificate: FAA authorization to operate an unmanned aircraft system for other-than-recreational purposes in the United States. This replaces the previous certificate of authorization under Section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Remote pilot in command with UAS rating: A certified remote pilot airman responsible for the small unmanned aircraft systems operation. Section 333 exemption: Part of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 that predates FAR Part 107; a case-by-case approval process for commercial operations of unmanned aircraft systems in the National Airspace System that provides operators with a safe and legal entry into the National Airspace System, subject to certain requirements and restrictions. Small unmanned aircraft: An unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds (25 kilograms), including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft. Small unmanned aircraft system(s) (sUAS): A small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements, including communication links and control components that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System. Unmanned aircraft: An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft system(s) (UAS): An unmanned aircraft and its associated elements, including communication links and control components that are required for the safe and effi- cient operation of the unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System.

156 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Visual line of sight: Unaided (corrective lenses and/or sunglasses exempted) visual contact between a pilot in command or a visual observer and an unmanned aircraft system, sufficient to maintain safe operational control of the aircraft, know its location and be able to scan the airspace in which it is operating, to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. Visual observer: A person designated by the remote pilot in command to help him or her and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. Managing UAS Operations at Small Airports Because the UAS regulatory framework and industry are quickly evolving, best practices guidance is subject to being quickly outdated while the FAA continues to refine its UAS-related regulations. Thus, this section provides some basic background on UAS operating require- ments and guidance for the first steps to develop individual airport approaches to manage UAS impacts on operations and local airspace: • Know the regulations. Stay up to date on the evolving regulations related to UAS integration into the NAS and what operations are permitted, including where and at what altitude. ACRP Legal Research Digest 32: Evolving Law on Airport Implications by Unmanned Aerial Systems provides guidance to better understand the basic legal and operational issue by civil UAS. • Engage with the local UAS community. This can be accomplished by reaching out to the local Academy of Model Aeronautics chapter, through hobby stores or local UAS hobby organizations. Even engaging with the local community to educate them about the airport, and the areas that should be kept clear around the airport, is beneficial. • Engage with the state aeronautics agency. Seek technical assistance and guidance on state guidelines related to minimizing impacts from UAS operations on airport operations and airspace. • Engage with the local planning or zoning authorities. Create a clear and enforceable zoning ordinance or policy that aims to minimize impacts by unauthorized UAS operations. UAS Regulations Three federal regulations have been important to the evolution of UAS operations: • Section 333: Part of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 that grants the FAA the authority to determine and grant UAS operators the authorization to operate in the NAS, subject to certain restrictions and requirements. While superseded by Part 107, Section 333 is still applicable for some types of UAS operations, such as a UAS weighing more than 55 pounds. • FAR Part 107 (Part 107): Federal regulations that provide rules on remote pilot certification, aircraft registration and marking, aircraft airworthiness and the operation of sUAS in the NAS. Part 107 provides the means to obtain certification to operate as a remote pilot in command of an sUAS for commercial purposes. • Special Rule for Model Aircraft (Section 336 of Public Law 112-95): Federal regulations that provide the means by which model aircraft can be operated safely in the NAS. It had been the basis for recreational operation of sUAS until the passage of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018. Governmental entities such as law enforcement, public universities, state governments and local municipalities can operate sUAS under Part 107 or obtain a certificate of waiver or autho- rization. Because universities are developing degree programs in UAS, some small airports have

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 157 the opportunity to partner with these institutions to support the UAS operations with the appropriate approvals and agreements. State regulations vary widely from state to state. Some states have been waiting for the federal regulations before promulgating their own rules, because the federal government has jurisdiction over the airspace. Other states have been more active in instituting restrictions on operations by certain types of sUAS through imple- menting notification requirements. States have also passed regulations to address privacy concerns related to the use of sUAS over private property or by law enforce- ment organizations. State aeronautics agencies are a good resource for up-to-date information on state regulations. Local regulations, like state regulations, vary broadly. Your local government planning or zoning organization is a resource regarding any potential regulations that may exist. One of the common localized regulations is the designation of no-fly sUAS zones. Unmanned Aircraft Operations There are two classes of UAS: small (weighing less than 55 pounds) and large UAS. Many sUAS are hand-launched or need limited space for takeoff and landing, allowing their operations to occur off airport. Within the large UAS class are more aircraft-like UAS that require airport facilities for their operations. ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer focuses on large UAS and provides lessons learned from airports experienced in UAS operations; however, it was published in 2015 while the industry was rapidly changing and before Part 107. With the rapid proliferation of sUAS, most small airports will more frequently come in contact with, or field questions on, sUAS operations. The FAA’s UAS website is a good resource for answers to frequently asked questions and other information on UAS operations. It also provides updates as requirements change, such as with the signing of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 that establishes new conditions for recreational use of UASs, also referred to as drones. There are two types of sUAS operations: recreational or hobby and nonrecreational (com- mercial) use. Table 10 summarizes the similarities and differences between the two types of operations. Until the passage of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, only pilots in command MODEL AIRCRAFT OPERATION (AC91-57A) 1. The aircraft is flown strictly for hobby or recreational use. 2. The aircraft operates in accordance with a community-based set of safety guidelines and within the programming of a nationwide, community-based organization. 3. The aircraft is limited to no more than 55 pounds, unless otherwise certified through a design, construction, inspection, flight test and operational safety program administered by the community-based organization. 4. The aircraft operates in a manner that does not interfere with, and gives way to, any manned aircraft. 5. When flown within 5 miles of an airport, the operator of the model aircraft provides prior notice of the operation to the airport operator and the airport traffic control tower (if one is located at the airport). Model aircraft operators flying from a permanent location within 5 miles of an airport should establish a mutually agreed-on operating procedure with the airport operator and tower. Characteristic Commercial Recreational Remain clear of nonparticipating personnel Maintain visual line of sight Airspace restrictions 400 feet AGL maximum altitude Units required to register with FAA (between 0.55 and 55 lbs.) Pilot certification: Part 61 or remote pilot Initial and recurring training Use Compensation of services or deliverables Strictly for personal use *Requirement changed with FAA Authorization Act of 2018. New requirements being implemented. Source: FAA UAS website, accessed December 1, 2018. Table 10. Commercial versus recreation sUAS flying.

158 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports of nonrecreational operations were required to hold a remote pilot certificate. The purpose of the remote pilot certificate is to provide an understanding of the NAS, flight rules and other pertinent information to operators. This is necessary, because under Part 107, a remote pilot is no longer required to be a Part 61 licensed aircraft pilot. To be licensed as a Part 107 remote pilot, a person must pass an aeronautical knowledge test—or hold a Part 61 pilot certificate with a flight review within the last 24 months—and complete an FAA-provided sUAS online training course. The person also must be vetted by the TSA and be at least 16 years old. Unfor- tunately, there are many recreational operators of sUAS who are not well versed on those requirements. With the passage of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 that repealed use of the Special Rule for Model Aircraft for recreational drone operations, the FAA is evaluating the change in law and how implementation will proceed. Recreational drone operators are to follow all current policies and guidance and should monitor the FAA’s UAS website for updates. Airport managers should look for opportunities to educate the recreational sUAS community about the poten- tial safety hazards of operating UAS near airports. ACRP has released a draft guidebook about “Managing Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the Vicinity of Airports.” UASs over 0.55 pound are required to be registered with the FAA. sUASs (between 0.55 pound and 55 pounds) are registered through www.registermyuas.faa.gov. UASs of 55 pounds or heavier use a different registration process than sUASs. There are civil and criminal penalties for the UAS owner if the UAS meets requirements for registration but is not registered. UAS Opportunities and Challenges UASs provide small airport managers with opportunities and challenges. There are opportu- nities to use this new technology to benefit the airport by gathering data or monitoring activity at and around the airport. For example, the UAS technology provides reduced-cost opportuni- ties to gather aerial mapping data, especially for items such as approach surveys or for aiding construction observation with aerial photography. They may also provide an opportunity to generate revenue, if UAS operators desire to lease facilities. However, small airport managers should be familiar with Part 107 prior to engaging any of these services. When a UAS operator is selling services, he or she is considered a commercial operator and must meet the commercial operator regulations. If the airport operator is conducting the UAS operation for the benefit of the airport, it is not a recreational operation and should comply with Part 107 requirements. Local law enforcement and news agencies also frequently use sUAS. sUAS may operate up to 400 feet AGL, or higher as long as the sUAS remains within 400 feet of a structure. Aircraft most commonly operate below 400 feet AGL when arriving and departing airports. Thus, sUAS operations around airports or around structures pose the greatest poten- tial for conflict with aircraft. sUAS operations in Class B, C, D or E airspace are allowed with an appropriate waiver or authorization from the FAA and permission from the tower. Small UAS operations in Class G, uncontrolled airspace, are allowed without prior permission. An sUAS operator initiates a waiver request on the FAA’s website. Thus, if a small airport has a tower, UAS pilots must contact the tower to obtain permission for their planned flights. If a small airport is surrounded by uncontrolled airspace at 400 feet or below, no permission is required. However, airport managers may be contacted by recreational operators of sUAS that operate under model aircraft standards, because they are required to notify the airport operator when flying an sUAS within 5 miles of an airport. There are also flight restrictions for sUAS for security-sensitive airspace, airspace under TFR, restricted or special-use airspace, stadiums and sporting events (prohibited within 3 miles) and wildfires. The FAA has an app, B4UFLY, to make operators aware of where they should and When doing community out- reach, look for opportunities to educate potential recreational sUAS operators on airport operations and the B4UFLY app.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 159 should not fly and where there may be conflicts. B4UFLY displays active TFRs. B4UFLY is geared toward recreational pilots, but commercial operators may also find it useful. Under the Section 333 exemption, all sUAS operators were required to file a NOTAM before each flight. The Part 107 regulation does not address NOTAM filing. However, waivers or authorization granted for sUAS operations in Class B, C, D or E airspace typically include the requirement to file a NOTAM. While not required for flying in Class G airspace, especially at or near an airport, it is a best practice to file a NOTAM. Remote pilots can file a NOTAM through the Flight Service website or by calling (877) 487-6867. Other operations within the NAS should also file a NOTAM. This allows aircraft pilots to receive notices of UAS activity when obtaining a flight briefing. There are commercial apps under development that allow recreational sUAS pilots to digitally notify airports and gather airspace information. As a small airport manager, remember that aircraft and UAS share the NAS and members of the community are likely to look to you for guidance, so use the tools available, especially through the FAA’s UAS website, to stay up to date.

160 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.16 Operating Certificate Compliance Key Insights Although non-air carrier airports are not required to meet FAR Part 139 certification standards, many states have statutory provisions that require public-use airports to meet minimum licensing or certification criteria. Part 139 airport certification criteria apply only to those airports certificated under FAR Part 139 to support scheduled or unscheduled air carrier operations. Those airports must meet the Part 139 certification requirements. The Part 139 certification process was put in place to ensure safety in air transportation and involves an inspection of the airport for compliance with the certification requirements and the retention of required records. Key Definitions Airport operating certificate (AOC): A certificate issued under FAR Part 139 for the opera- tion of a Class I, II, III or IV airport. Scheduled operation: Any common carriage passenger-carrying operation for compensation or hire conducted by an air carrier, for which the air carrier or its representatives offer in advance the departure location, departure time and arrival location. Unscheduled operation: Any common carriage passenger-carrying operation for compensa- tion or hire, using aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats, conducted by an air carrier for which the departure time, departure location and arrival location are specifically negotiated with the customer or the customer’s representative. Airport Certification The Part 139 AOC is a permit by the rules, for which an airport commits to meeting the established requirements without continuous oversight by the regulatory agency (FAA) in exchange for obtaining and keeping the certificate. An inspection is usually conducted annually to ensure the airport is in compliance with the certification requirements. When the inspection identifies a condition that needs correction, the airport is notified that corrective action must be taken to prevent loss of the AOC. Although the nomenclature (certificate, license, etc.) may vary, most non-Part 139 airports, if required to be licensed, are licensed by their state aeronautics agencies per established state standards in order for the airports to be available for public use. State requirements usually address items such as minimum runway size, airfield marking and lighting requirements, maintenance of clear approaches and safety areas on or around the airport, fueling facility safety and airport security requirements. The inspection schedule for airports will again vary on a state-by-state basis. Small airports that serve scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 30 seats, or serve scheduled air carrier operations in aircraft with more than 9 seats but fewer than 31 seats, are certificated by the FAA under FAR Part 139: Certification of Airports. Additional Part 139 certification information is also on the FAA’s airport certification web page. Since state requirements vary, airport managers should closely coordinate compliance with their respective state aeronautics agencies.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 161 Part 139 Operating Certificate The AOC is categorized into four airport certificate classes based on the type of air carrier operations anticipated at the airport. The certificated airports are categorized as: • Class I airport: An airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of large air carrier aircraft (31 seats or more) that can also serve unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft, scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft or both. • Class II airport: An airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft (fewer than 31 seats) and the unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft. A Class II airport cannot serve scheduled large air carrier aircraft. • Class III airport: An airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft. A Class III airport cannot serve scheduled or unscheduled large air carrier aircraft. • Class IV airport: An airport certificated to serve unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft. A Class IV airport cannot serve scheduled large or small air carrier aircraft. Part 139 Compliance Requirements An AOC issued by the FAA in accordance with Part 139 is effective until the certificate holder surrenders the certificate or it is revoked by the FAA administrator. The certification process was put in place to ensure safety in air transportation and involves an inspection of the airport for compliance with the certification requirements and the retention of required records. The ACM details how the airport operator will comply with the requirements of Part 139 and is defined in 14 CFR §139.203. The airport operator prepares the ACM, and the FAA reviews and approves it. The ACM can be amended by the airport or upon request by the FAA. An airport operator must demonstrate that its airport meets the standards of one of the Part 139 certification classes in order to be considered for Part 139 certification. If the FAA concurs that the operations at the airport require Part 139 certification, the airport operator must demonstrate the airport will meet the requirement through the preparation of the ACM and procedures outlined in that manual. For Class I, II and III airports, the ACM contains 29 elements, as described in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5210-22: Airport Certification Manual: 1. Lines of succession of airport operational responsibility 2. Each current exemption from the requirements of Part 139 that has been issued to the airport 3. Any limitations imposed by the administrator 4. A grid map or other means of identifying locations and terrain features on and around the airport that are significant to emergency operations 5. The location of each obstruction required to be lighted or marked within the airport’s area of authority 6. A description of each road and each movement area, including its safety areas, available for air carriers 7. Procedures for avoidance of interruption or failure during construction work of utilities serving facilities or NAVAIDs that support air carrier operations 8. A description of the system for maintaining records 9. A description of personnel training 10. Procedures for maintaining the paved areas 11. Procedures for maintaining the unpaved areas 12. Procedures for maintaining the safety areas

162 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 13. A plan showing the runway and taxiway identification system, including the location and inscription of signs, runway markings and holding-position markings 14. A description of, and procedures for maintaining, the marking, signs and lighting systems 15. A snow and ice control plan (or note that it is not required, as in a warm climate) 16. A description of the facilities, equipment, personnel and procedures for meeting the ARFF requirements 17. A description of any approved exemption to ARFF requirements 18. Procedures for protecting persons and property during the storing, dispensing and handling of fuel and other hazardous substances and materials 19. A description of, and procedures for maintaining, the traffic and wind direction indicators 20. An emergency plan 21. Procedures for conducting the self-inspection program 22. Procedures for controlling pedestrians and ground vehicles in movement areas and safety areas 23. Procedures for obstruction removal, marking or lighting 24. Procedures for protection of NAVAIDs 25. A description of public protection 26. Procedures for wildlife hazard management 27. Procedures for airport condition reporting 28. Procedures for identifying, marking and lighting construction and other unserviceable areas 29. Any other item that the administrator finds is necessary to ensure safety in air transportation Class IV airports are exempt from some of the requirements. An FAA certification inspector typically conducts an annual inspection to ensure the airport is complying with the ACM. The FAA can also make unannounced inspections. If the FAA identifies any issues during its inspection, it issues a corrective letter, and the airport must correct the situation. An important part of demonstrating compliance is for the airport to complete its self- inspection program as detailed in its ACM. Maintaining the appropriate records that show compliance with inspection, training, accidents or incidents, and condition assessment dis- semination (e.g., NOTAMs) is equally important. Training records must be maintained for 24 consecutive calendar months from the completion date of the training. Daily inspection reports and corrective action reports must be maintained for 12 consecutive calendar months. NOTAMs issued and canceled should be maintained for 24 months. Fuel system and fuel delivery vehicle inspection reports must be retained for 36 months. Aviation organizations that support airport management offer training regarding accurate document management and other Part 139 certification requirements. An airport’s FAA certification inspector can also be a helpful resource. The annual inspection will include a physical inspection of the airfield, aircraft rescue and firefighting response as well as record inspections. The annual Part 139 inspection typically includes the following: • Preinspection in-briefing with airport management. During this meeting, an inspection schedule and meetings with applicable airport personnel will be agreed on. • Administrative inspection of airport files, paperwork, etc. This includes updating the Airport Master Record (FAA Form 5010) and review of the ACM; NOTAMs issued and cancelled; the airfield self-inspection forms, including corrective actions for discrepancies; and fuel facilities’ quarterly inspection reports including training inspection records, such as for driver training or self-inspection. • Movement area inspection: This will include a check of the approach slopes of each runway end; an inspection of the movement areas in order to ascertain the condition of pavement, Good record organization and retention assist in an efficient Part 139 inspection.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 163 markings, lighting, signs, and abutting shoulders and safety areas; observation of ground vehicle operations; ensuring the public is protected against inadvertent entry and jet or propeller blast; a visual check for the presence of any wildlife; and inspection of the traffic and wind direction indicators. • Aircraft rescue and firefighting inspection: A timed response drill will be conducted with a review of ARFF personnel training records, including the annual live-fire drill and docu- mentation of basic emergency medical care training, as required. Equipment and protective clothing will be checked for operation, condition and availability. • Fueling facilities inspection: This will consist of conducting an inspection of all fuel farm facilities and mobile fuelers, a check of airport files for documentation of quarterly inspections of the fueling facility and a review of certifications from each tenant fueling agent concerning completion of fire safety and line service training. • Night inspection: Conducted to evaluate runway, taxiway and apron lighting, signage, pave- ment marking, airport beacon, wind-cone condition and lighting and obstruction lighting for compliance with FAR Part 139 and the ACM. A night inspection shall be conducted if air carrier operations are conducted or expected to be conducted at night or the airport has an instrument approach. • Post-inspection briefing with airport management: At the end of the inspection, the inspector will meet with appropriate airport staff to discuss findings and provide any safety recom- mendations. The inspector will issue a letter of correction that notes any violations or dis- crepancies. If any are found, airport staff and the FAA will agree on a reasonable date for the correction of those discrepancies or violations.

164 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.17 Customs Service Key Insights Where present, the most common type of U.S. Customs and Border Protection service at small airports is user-fee service, in which user fees should be set to cover the cost of the service. For aircraft entering the United States, if the destination airport does not offer customs service, the aircraft must first arrive at an airport with customs service and be cleared before continuing as a domestic flight to its final destination. Ongoing, sufficient demand for customs service and customers willing to pay the fees is essential before investing the time, effort and money to pursue offering customs clearance services on a user- fee basis. Key Definitions Port of entry: An official location where U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers or employees are assigned to accept entries of merchandise and passengers, collect duties and enforce the provision of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection and related laws. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP): A federal law enforcement agency that regulates and facilitates international trade, collecting import duties and enforcing U.S. regulations, including trade, customs and immigration. User-fee airports (UFAs): Small airports approved by a commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection to receive, for a fee, the service of a U.S. Customs and Border Protection officer for the processing of aircraft, their passengers and cargo entering the United States. Customs Service for International Arrivals All international arriving passengers, whether on a commercial service aircraft, GA aircraft or using other modes of transportation, must go through customs at a United States port of entry. At the port of entry, any material brought into the United States is declared, personal identification is verified through the inspection of passports and luggage is inspected and searched, if appropriate. The aircraft is also inspected and must be cleared. Materials not per- mitted, especially agricultural products, are confiscated and disposed of according to regulations. Even trash from aircraft is disposed of as special waste. At small airports with frequent international operations, typically by corporate operators, the airport may desire to make the U.S. customs service available to make the airport more attractive to aircraft operators and enhance the level of customer service at the airport. There are two types of CBP service: port of entry and UFAs, as detailed on the CBP website. The most frequently available CBP service at small airports is user fee based. UFA Qualifications As detailed on the CBP website, four criteria must be met for UFA consideration: • The volume or value of business at the airport is insufficient to justify the availability of inspection services at the airport on a nonreimbursable basis. • The current governor of the state in which the airport is located supports the designation in writing to the CBP commissioner.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 165 • The requestor (e.g., airport authority) agrees to reimburse CBP for all costs associated with the services, including the expenses of staffing a minimum of one full-time inspector. • The requestor completes an agriculture compliance agreement with FBOs and garbage haulers for handling the international garbage. If the volume or value of international business is insufficient to justify the availability of inspection services on a nonreimbursable basis, a small airport in need of customs service can apply to be considered for inclusion in the UFA program. When considering becoming a UFA, it is recommended the airport operator survey anticipated users to determine the anticipated demand for CBP services. While the provision of CBP services is typically undertaken as a customer service initiative, the airport operator is ultimately responsible for the cost, so it is important to find out if there is sufficient activity to cover at least most, or all, of the operating costs. It is typically also needed to justify the investment in an approved inspection facility for the CBP. If there is sufficient need for the UFA, the next step is to obtain support of the state’s governor. The user survey data demonstrating the need for CBP services can help in making this request. As further detailed on the CBP website, when the UFA application is being considered, the following will occur: 1. Receipt of letter from the state’s governor supporting UFA designation 2. Initial site visit, during which a CBP official discusses workload and services 3. Development of facilities per CBP requirements (by the airport operator or designee) 4. A final site visit, during which the CBP official verifies that facilities are 85 percent complete and adequate for inspection services to be provided 5. A successful site visit, during which the CBP official discusses workload and services and verifies that facilities are adequate for inspection services to be provided 6. Completed MOA with CBP, which states the responsibilities, fees and hours of service CBP must have available staff, or authorization and budget appropriation to hire additional staffing, before considering new ports of entry or UFAs. Generally, a UFA will pay a flat fee to CBP and be reimbursed by users. Overtime costs for arrivals outside normal CBP hours will incur, and additional costs passed along to the user should be in the set fee schedule. The development of facilities to meet CBP requirements can be a significant cost and should be carefully considered before pursuing UFA designation. Some small airports that are already operating as a UFA are being required to upgrade their facilities. The airport operator must provide CBP with a suitable facility at no charge to the federal government. At a minimum, the primary elements in a UFA facility include space for passenger waiting (pre- and post-entry) and processing, an office, a computer/communications room, a storage room, an interview room, a search room, a hold room, an agricultural quarantine inspection area, public toilets and entry and exit vestibules. The number of passengers processed per hour is used to determine the size of elements for a CBP facility. There also must be a dedicated apron area appropriately marked to avoid unauthorized entries or contact with persons or objects. Within the elements of the CBP, there are very specific requirements for the types of materials used, such a specific types of finishes, windows, locks, hinges, etc. While the airport operator is ultimately responsible for the CBP fees, UFAs generally establish a fee schedule for the users of the service to cover the CBP costs. The fee schedule is usually tied to aircraft size, with additional overtime charges, if applicable. After establishing the fees, a UFA needs to periodically review its fees against the CBP costs to the airport and activity levels. At small airports offering customs service, it is beneficial to publish the current UFA fee levels so that arriving aircraft know the costs in advance. This information can be included on the airport’s website. The website can also include information regarding scheduling the customs service.

166 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.18 Joint-Use Airports Key Insights Joint use of an airport is when there are civilian and military operational components based at the airport. The federal government has the right to use airport facilities without charge, except in cases of substantial use. When there is substantial use, the federal government can contribute a reasonable share of the cost of maintaining and operating the landing area in proportion to such use. Key Definitions Airport joint-use agreement: An agreement between a military unit and a civilian airport that delineates responsibility and outlines payment arrangements. Fair market value (FMV): An estimate of the market value of a property, based on what a knowledgeable, willing and unpressured buyer would probably pay to a knowledgeable, willing and unpressured seller in the market. Joint-use airport: An airport owned by the Department of Defense, at which military and civilian aircraft make shared use of the airfield (FAR §139.5). This term may also be used to refer to the mixed military and civilian use of a civilian airport. Joint-use areas: The areas of a civilian airport that are used by civilian and military aircraft. This is generally limited to runways and taxiways. Substantial use: A situation in which a military unit has a significant enough impact on a civilian airport that reimbursement for operations and maintenance costs is warranted. Joint-Use Considerations Joint-use airports can benefit the governmental entity and the civilian entity through more economical operations by sharing facili- ties. While the governmental entity is commonly a National Guard or Reserve unit, it can be any federal department or agency. When there is a military tenant on a civilian airport, the airport operator must be aware of any unique needs for protection of military assets, such as setbacks to facilities. These special requirements should be considered and included in all planning for the airport. This can be accomplished by including the military tenant as a key stakeholder in the planning process. FAA Grant Assurance 27: Use by Government Aircraft requires an airport that has received federal funding to be available to the federal government for the landing and takeoff of aircraft at all times without charge, unless it is substantial use. Unless agreed to otherwise, substantial use is, as defined by Grant Assurance 27, as follows: a) Five or more government aircraft are regularly based at the airport or on land adjacent thereto; or b) The total number of movements (counting each landing as a movement) of government aircraft is 300 or more, or the gross accumulative weight of government aircraft using the airport (the total movement of govern- ment aircraft multiplied by gross weights of such aircraft) is in excess of 5 million pounds. Grant Assurance 27: Use by Government Aircraft [The airport sponsor] will make available all of the facilities of the airport developed with federal financial assistance and all those usable for landing and takeoff of aircraft to the United States for use by government aircraft in common with other aircraft at all times without charge, except, if the use by govern- ment aircraft is substantial, charge may be made for a reasonable share, proportional to such use, for the cost of operating and maintaining the facilities used.

Operations—Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 167 The Surplus Property Act, under both the War Assets Administration Regulation 16 and Surplus Airport Property Instruments of Transfer (Public Law 80-289), also grants the United States the right to make nonexclusive use of the landing area of the airport without charge. While the U.S. government is granted the right to use the landing area without charge, it can still be a tenant at the airport. Under the AIP, there is no requirement for free rent, except for specifically named federal government infrastructure, such as ATCT and NAVAIDs, and some other federal agencies, such as CBP. While FAA Grant Assurance 24: Fee and Rental Structure requires an airport to be as self-sustaining as possible and Grant Assurance 22: Economic Non- discrimination requires the airport to be available for public use on reasonable terms without unjust discrimination, rental rates to the military do not need to be FMV, because they are considered part of the nation’s defense system. While the military may not pay fair market value, its presence at an airport typically adds value to an airport or for the community. At some small airports, the military entity provides the ARFF or ATC services that, while focused on the military operations, also benefit civilian users. In cases where the airport sponsor proposes to charge the federal government to use the airport under the joint-use provision, the sponsor must negotiate an airport joint-use agree- ment. The airport sponsor needs to negotiate directly with the federal government agency or agencies using the airport. The FAA does not act as a negotiator but only oversees compliance with Grant Assurance 27. FAA Order 5190.6: Airport Compliance Manual’s Appendix J-1: Airport Joint-Use Agreement for Military Use of Civilian Airfields contains guidance for negotiating fair and reasonable charges to the government for the joint use of the public airport’s flying facilities. Part 139 Certification At joint-use airports owned by the U.S. government with civilian commercial or charter operations, the civilian entity must obtain a Part 139 certificate and comply with Part 139 requirements for all elements of the airport it is responsible for operating. The FAA’s website on Part 139 certification at U.S. government-owned airports provides additional details on how Part 139 regulations are applied in these situations. At joint-use airports, federal grant assurances do not apply to areas within exclusive Department of Defense control. Grants Airport Improvement Program A civilian-owned airport with joint use is still eligible for AIP grants, as described in Section 3.10: Grant and Capital Improvement Funding. While military and federally owned aircraft may not be counted toward critical aircraft annual operations for AIP funding, for infrastructure used by the military unit, there may be opportunities to receive financial support from the military. This should be coordinated through the military tenant. Military Airport Program The FAA also has a program to assist former military airports in transitioning to civilian owner- ship and use. These facilities may continue to have a military unit present at the airport, but the ownership of the airport transitions from the Department of Defense to a local civilian airport sponsor. At joint-use airports, federal grant assurances do not apply to areas within exclusive Department of Defense control.

168 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Within the AIP is a military airport set-aside. The purpose of this funding is to assist a civilian sponsor of a military airfield in the conversion and development of aviation facilities for the public. A maximum of 15 airports per fiscal year may participate in the AIP Military Airport Program. Each airport can participate for a maximum term of 5 years. The airports in the Military Airport Program can include up to three GA airports per year. Additional details are provided on the FAA’s Military Airport Program web page.

Next: Chapter 5 - Asset Management Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future »
Guidebook for Managing Small Airports - Second Edition Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports. Second Edition is designed to help airport practitioners, owners, operators, managers, and policymakers of small airports, who may have varying degrees of experience and backgrounds, to fulfill their responsibilities in such areas as financial management, oversight of contracts and leases, safety and security, noise impacts, community relations, compliance with federal and state obligations, facility maintenance, and capital improvements.

The first edition has been edited and reformatted for currency, relevance, and usability and updated with additional information and new subject areas (e.g., unmanned aircraft systems, geographic information systems, digital Notices to Airmen, social media, and federal and state obligations).

Since the publication of ACRP Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports (2009), a significant amount of research that could be of direct benefit to small airports has been completed, and the Federal Aviation Administration, state agencies, and trade and industry groups have developed and initiated new policies and guidance. In addition, small airports are facing new industry challenges not addressed in the first edition (e.g., unmanned aerial systems). Therefore, an update was needed.

ACRP WebResource 6: Resources for Managing Small Airports is a companion to ACRP Research Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports, 2nd edition. The web resource serves as an electronic library delivering additional resources and tools to allow small airport managers to dig deeper into topics of interest frequently encountered in their airport manager roles. It also contains implementation resources and tools associated with recommendations in the guidebook.

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