National Academies Press: OpenBook

Office Workstations in the Home (1985)

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1985. Office Workstations in the Home. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/168.
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Index A Abuse, risk of, 32 Acceptance of new ideas, 7 Addams, Jane, 79 Affiliation, need for, 68 AFL-CIO, 140 AFL-CIO Resolution on Computer Homework, 78,152-153 Allied Professionals Educational Consulting Services (APECS) 95, 97 Allison, Elisabeth, 115 ALMSA (Automated Logistics Management Systems Activ- ity), 24-32 Alternate work sites (AWS), 38-50 American Express Company case study, 8-15 American labor force, 112 APECS (Allied Professionals Ed- ucational Consulting Services), 95, 97 AT&T divestiture, 109, 111 Attitudes toward technology, 17-18 Attractiveness of homework, 137-138 Audit, external, 31-32 155 Automated Logistics Management Systems Activity (ALMSA), 24-32 AWS (alternate work sites), 38-50; see also Control Data Corpora- tion B Balance of trade, 91-92 Blackwell, Ann, 81, 85 Blue Cross/Blue Shield of South Carolina case study, 16-23 Brief, Arthur P., 66-75, 85,88 Bypass carriers, 110 Byrne, Dr. Richard, 17 C Career advancement, 98-99 Career development, 48 Carey, Matthew, 79 Case studies, 3-56 American Express Company, 8-15 Blue Cross/Blue Shield of South Carolina, 16-23

156 Control Data Corporation, 38-50 F International, 51-56 Mountain Bell, 33-37 overview, 5-7 U.S. Army, 24-32 CDC (Control Data Corporation), 98; see also Control Data Cor- poration entries Center for Futures Research, 9 Centralized message centers, 127 CETA (Comprehensive Employ- ment and Trninillg Act), 14 Chamot, Dennis, 76-84,85,88, 89, 92, 93 Change accelerating, 6 continuity versus, 74 technological, 133 Child care,113-114 Child labor, 79-80 laws, 62 Choice, 68, 78 freedom of, 21 Clerical positions, 134 Clerical workers, female, 112-124 Clustered work force, 16 Coaxial cable, 108 Collective bargaining, 63 Communications, 40, 54-55 costs, 109-110 devices, 27 difficulty of, 36-37 procedures for, 50 technology, 108 Competition, overseas, 91-92 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 14 Computer connect time, 29-30 "Computer Homework" resolu- tion, 78,152-153 Computerized monitoring, 118-119 Computers, personal (PCs), 7, 100-101, 133 Connect time, computer, 29-30 Connell, James, 17 Continuity versus change, 74 Contract organizations, 127-128 Contractors, independent, 60-61 Control Data Corporation (CDC), 98 AWS Employee Survey, 145-148 INDEX AWS Manager Interview Pro- tocol,149-151 case study, 38-50 Homework program, 41-42 Copiers laser beam, 109 telecopiers, 10-11 Cost/benefit analysis, 41 Cost curves, 105-107 Costello, Cynthia, 114 Costs communications, 109-110 telecommuting, 138 Cottage keyer project, 18-20 Couples, professional, 130 CPU efficiency rate, 28, 29 D DARCOM (Development and Readiness Command Material), 25,28,31 Decentralization of office work, 120 Delivery, work, 43 Demography, 134-,136 Development and Readiness Com- mand Material (DARCOM), 25,28,31 Dictation system, 8 Display, high-resolution, 108 "Dominetics," 1 Duplicate records, 99 EEarnings comparison, 22; see also Wages Education system, PLATO, 42-43, 48 EEO (equal employment opportun- ity),60,62 Efficiency rate, CPU, 28, 29 Electronic cottage concept, 14 Electronic homework, see Home- work Elisburg, Donald, 59-65, 85, 88-89 91-93 Emergency situations, 99 Employee morale, 30, 31 Employee Survey, Control Data AWS, 145-148

INDEX Employees defined, 60 professional, see Professional employees selection of, 139 Employment practices, fair, 140- 141 Energy expenditure, 69 Environment, work, 93 Equal employment opportunity (EEO), 60, 62 Equitable Life Assurance Society, 14 Equity concept, 88 Error rate statistics, 22 External audit, 31-32 Exxon SQIP-2150 telecopier unit, 10-11 F F International (FI) case study, 51-56 Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 60, 80 Fairness, philosophy of, 142 Family interaction, 34 Federation of the Handicapped, 90-91 Female clerical workers, 112-124 Female economic realities, 113 Female telecommuting, 141-142 FI (F International) case study, 51-56 File storage evolution, 106-107 Flexibility, work, 118 H Hackman, J. R., 70 Handicapped, Federation of the, 90-91 Handicapped population, 9-10 Handsets, telephone, 108-109 Hawthorn Effect, 137n Health, occupational, 64, 114-115, 142 Health insurance benefits, 20 High-resolution display, 108 Hine, Lewis W., 79 "Hold harmless" agreements, 27, 31 Home-based work, see Homework Home workstations law and, 13-14 printing capability of, 109 use and misuse of, 76-84 word processing, 8-15 Homebound, Project, 8-15 Homework abuses of, 88-89 attractiveness of, 137-138 ban on, 88-90 "Computer Homework" resolution, 78, 152-153 electronic concept of, 7 future of, 87-88, 103-144 limits on, 78-79 strengths of, 55-56 weaknesses of, 55 Homework program, Control Data Corporation's, 41-42 Hours and wages, 85-87 "Flexiplace," 1 Human resources organizations, 1?LSA (Fair Labor Standards Act), 128 60, 80 Forecast, technology, 105-111 Fraud, risk of, 32 Freedom of choice, 21 Fringe benefits, 63-64 G Geisler, Greg, 16-23, 85-87, 95-97, 99, 100 Goddard, Robert, 6 Gregory, Judith, 112-124, 126, 129 Gunnarsson, Ewa, 118 157 IBM, 100-101 IBM PC, 20 Ideas, new, acceptance of, 7 Independent contractors, 60-61 Individual needs and pressures, 129-131 Industrial Revolution, 5, 16 Information processing technol- ogy, 6 Information security, 98-99

158 Installation, communications system, 108 Insurance, medical, 63-64 Insurance claims, "paperless," 18 Interaction, social, 70-71 Interactive systems, 24 International competition, 91-92 IRS, 98 K Kawakami, Steven S., 81 Kiron, Alan, 1 L Labor movement, 87 relations, 63 standards, 60-63 unions, 63, 94, 116 Labor force, 134-136 American, 112 Lanier "Telestaff" central dicta- tion system, 10 Laser beam copiers, 109 Laws, 39, 59-65 child labor, 62 home workstations and, 13-14 zoning, 13, 64-65, 142-143 Lefcourt, Herbert, 21 Legalities, see Laws Location-independent organiza- tions,126-127 Logistics, 40 Organizational phenomenon, 2 Organizations contract, 127-128 human resources, 128 location-independent, 126-127 OSHA (Occupational Safety and and Health Administration), 13 Overhead costs, 77, 116 Overseas competition, 91-92 Miller, Don, 5-7, 95, 100-101 Minimum wage, 62, 79-80 Monitoring system, 11-12 computerized, 118-119 Morale, employee, 30, 31 Motivation, 67 work location and, 66-75 Mountain Bell case study, 33-37 N Naisbitt, John, 1 Nelson, Kristin, 120-121 New York City, 9 Nilles, Jack M., 1, 115,133-144 Nord, W. R., 74 o Occupational health, 64, 114-115, 142 Occupational safety, 64, 142 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 13 Office acculturation, 15 Office relocations, 120-121 Oldham, G. R., 70 Olson, Margrethe, H., 1-2, 114 125-132, 141 Optical character reader, 89 Optical fiber, 108 Optical storage, 106-107 Organizational needs and pres- sures, 128-129 M Magnetic recording, vertical, 107 Management, 2, 17, 40-41, 48, 100, 138-140 Manager Interview Protocol, Con- trol Data AWS, 149-151 Manning, Ronald A., 38-50, 95, 97, 98 McDavid, Mary, 24-32, 95, 98 Medical insurance, 63-64 Message centers, centralized, 127 Micronet, 53 Microprocessors, price of, 105-106 Microwave technology, 108 l~DEX p "Paperless" insurance claims, 18 Participation, level of, 49 Part-time work, 91, 94 Part-time workers, 119-120

INDEX PCs (personal computers), 7, 100- 101, 133 Personal interaction, reduction in, 44-45 Personal needs and pressures, 129- 131 Personnel, 41 Phelps, Nelson, 33-37, 95-100 Phones, see Telephone entries Physically disabled homebound people, 10 PIC (Private Industry Council), 14 Pickup work, 43 Piecework standards, 80, 86, 118 PLATO education system, 42-43, 48 Pratt, Joanne H., 95, 97-100 Printing capability, workstation, 109 Private Industry Council (PIC),14 Production log, 12 Productivity, 18, 40, 45-46, 70, 90, 95-97, 136-137 initial drop in, 36 intensification of pressures for, 117-119- measurements of, 50 statistics on, 21 Professional couples, 130 Professional employees, 83, 125- 126, remote work for, 125-132 Profit motive, 90 Profitability, project, 96 Programming, 51 development of, 7 Project Homebound, 8-15 Psychological phenomenon, 2 R Raney, James G., Jr., 8-15 Reagan, President Ronald, 9 Records, duplicate, 99 Relocations, office, 120-121 Remote work for professionals, 125-132 Reporting, 40 Retirement, 128 Rodgers, D. T., 74 Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 5 159 S Safety, occupational, 64, 142 Satellite technology, 108 Schiff, Frank, 1 Secretarial positions, 134 Security data problems, 98-99 SEIU (Service Employees Inter- national Union), 82 Selection, employee, 139 Semiconductors, 105 Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 82 Shirley,V.S., 51-56,95, 96, 99, 138 Shoji, Nancy, 95, 96, 98 Social interaction, 70-71 Social progress, 6-7 Social status, 71-72 Software, system, 108 Suburbanization, office, 120-121 Supervision console, 10-12 Support structures, 7 Sweatshops, 92 T Technological change, 133 Technology attitudes toward, 17- 18 communications, 108 female clerical workers and, 112- 124 Technology forecast, 105-111 Technology push, 1-2 Telecommuting, 1, 135-136 advent of, 6 costs of, 138 female, 141-142 future of, 2, 143 growth of, 99-100 origin of, 1 Telecopiers, 10-11 "Telemanaging," 14 Telephone handsets, 108-109 Telephone installation costs, 47 Telephone lines, 12 "Telework," 1 Terminal costs, 47 Terminals, video display (VDT), 59, 114-115

160 Texas Instruments Silent 700s, 21 Timekeeping form, 12 Toffler, Alvin, 9 Trade, balance of, 91-92 Travel costs, 47 U Unemployment compensation, 63-64 Unions, labor, 63, 94, 116 U.S. Army case study, 24-32 V VDT (video display terminal), 59, 114-115 Vedel, Gitte, 118 Vertical magnetic recording, 107 Video display terminal (VDT), 59, 114-115 Vision and video terminal viewing, 115 Vroom, V. H., 66 W Wages, 67-68, 72-73,82,85-87, 116 comparison of, 22 minimum, 62, 79-80 Wang WP-5,10 Wideband bypass carriers, 110 Wisconsin Physicians Service (WPS), 114 Withington, Frederic G., 105-111 Women, see Female entries Word processing workstations, 8-15 INDEX characteristics of, 66-67 new forms of, 1 office, decentralization of, 120 part-time, 91, 94 remote, for professionals, 125- 132 Work environment, 93 Work flexibility, 118 Work force categories of, 77-78 clustered, 16 productivity of, see Productivity reorganization of, 16-17 Work location and motivation, 66-75 Work pickup and delivery, 43 Work productivity, see Productiv- ity Work schedule, 53 Work selection criteria, 40 Work sites, alternate (AWS), 38-50 Working, see Work Workmen's compensation, 27-28 Workstations, home, see Home workstations WPS (Wisconsin Physicians Ser- vice), 114 y Yankelovich, D., 74 z Zalusky, John L., 76-84,85-92, 94 Zoning laws, 13, 64-65, 142-143

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Telecommuting—people working at home with computers connected to offices many miles away—could reshape the way America works. What are the effects of this phenomenon on workers, managers, and labor unions? What is the technology behind this arrangement? What are the legal implications surrounding telecommuting? In this volume, these issues are addressed by experts in computer applications and information systems, business and industry, training and operations, corporate forecasting and analysis, law, organizational behavior, and labor. Case studies of several actual telecommuting systems are presented.

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