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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 113 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Planning and Forecasting Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Douglas E. Sander and Robert B. Chapman Delta airport Consultants, inC. Raleigh, NC, and Atlanta, GA Stephanie A.D. Ward MeaD & Hunt, inC. Lansing, MI Summer Marr and Sarah Arnold Marr arnolD planning, llC Ames, IA, and Cincinnati, OH

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 113 Project 07­10 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­28406­6 Library of Congress Control Number 2014940548 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 113 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-10 PANEL Field of Design Kenneth L. Penney, Jr., KLJ, Rapid City, SD (Chair) Michael S. Hines, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, DC Richard T. Lanman, Auburn-Lewiston Municipal Airport, Auburn, ME David B. Lucas, AV Ports, Quonset State Airport, North Kingstown, RI Thomas F. Mahoney, Massachusetts DOT, East Boston, MA Sara D. McCook, United Airlines, Denver, CO Douglas R. Anderson, FAA Liaison Bill Dunn, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning (the Guidebook) pro­ vides practical guidance for planning airport facilities designed to accommodate general aviation (GA) aircraft. Airport practitioners will find the Guidebook helpful for translating anticipated GA activity into facility requirements and layouts. Although the Guidebook is geared to airport industry practitioners, the lay reader will also benefit from the sections that provide background on GA aircraft and activities and the unique facility needs of this segment of the industry. General aviation (GA) is the largest category of aviation and consists of all activity not considered to be commercial service or military. GA operations occur at airports of all sizes and types, including commercial service airports, GA airports, and military joint­use facili­ ties. The GA fleet is varied, ranging from single­engine aircraft to large business jets and helicopters; in addition, there is a broad range of GA activity, including flight training, rec­ reation, business, and agriculture. Yet current guidance for GA facility planning is limited and does not reflect the changes occurring in the industry. Research was needed to provide comprehensive guidance to help airport practitioners plan GA facilities that are responsive to industry needs, flexible, and cost­effective. The research, led by Delta Airport Consultants, included a review of FAA Advisory Circu­ lars and Orders, as well as other relevant literature. This was followed by industry outreach to understand current GA planning practice and needs. The research team visited numer­ ous airports and interviewed many stakeholders, including airport management, opera­ tions/maintenance staff, consultants, and service providers. This research, combined with the contractor’s expertise, was used to develop the Guidebook. Chapter 1 provides background and suggestions for using the Guidebook. A description of GA activity is provided in Chapter 2. The benefits of airport planning and its relevance to airport operations and long­term development are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides a framework for GA facility planning—discussing governing documents, grant assurances, financing, GA services, and the activity indicators that drive facility planning. Chapter 5 addresses planning for specific facilities, including terminals and fixed­base operator buildings, auto parking, aircraft parking aprons, hangars, fuel farms, wash racks, helicopter parking, and other facilities. A key feature of this guidance is adjacency consid­ erations (i.e., how various facilities should be located relative to each other based on func­ tion). The appendices consist of a list of abbreviations and terms, a discussion on how to size a parking area, a process for estimating the number of aircraft parking positions, and a bibliography of planning resources. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Purpose 2 Organization 2 Using the Guidebook 4 Chapter 2 General Aviation—Overview 4 GA Operation Types 5 GA Aircraft Types 7 Airport Types 9 GA Services and Facilities on an Airport 21 Models for Providing Services and Facilities 23 Chapter 3 Airport Planning—General 25 Airport Strategic Plan 25 Airport Master Plan 30 Standalone Airport Layout Plan 31 Environmental Planning 33 Chapter 4 General GA Facility Planning 34 Basic Principles 34 Key Governing Documents 36 GA Services—Airport Ownership/Operation Models 36 Planning Considerations 37 Grant Assurances 38 Financing GA Facilities 40 GA Facility Planning 41 Indicators of Activity that Drive GA Facility Planning 43 Chapter 5 GA Facility Planning by Type 43 Aircraft Aprons 57 Helicopter Parking Area 61 Conventional Aircraft Hangars 73 T­Hangars 80 Fuel Farm Facility 88 Aircraft Wash Facility (Wash Rack) 93 GA Terminal Building 99 FBO Building 101 Airport Administration Building 104 MES Buildings 111 Automobile Parking and Access C O N T E N T S

118 Appendix A Abbreviations and Terms 125 Appendix B Tie-Down Parking Areas 130 Appendix C Determining the Number of Aircraft Parking Positions 133 Appendix D Bibliography of Planning Resources

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning provides guidance for planning airport facilities that accommodate general aviation aircraft. The guidance is designed to help airport practitioners plan flexible and cost-effective facilities that are responsive to industry needs.

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