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Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning (2014)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - GA Facility Planning by Type." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

43 C H A P T E R 5 This chapter provides detailed guidance on planning and preliminary design of each facility type and will be particularly useful to airport management and consultants as they begin planning the specific layout, sizing, and conceptual floor plans of facilities. Guidance for each facility generally includes the following: • An introduction, including questions one might ask for the particular facility being planned. The answers to these questions help orient the planner. • Location and type. Each facility has certain principles the planner should strive to meet regarding the facility’s location relative to other facilities on the airport. • Size. The desired size of each facility and how that is determined is discussed. • Layout. There are many factors that dictate the specific layout or floor plan of a facility. • Other Considerations. These may include a facility’s relationship to other facilities, security, or considerations specific to the facility being planned. • Plan Evaluation. This is a brief list of issues for evaluating the plan of a specific facility. One of the key documents used in the layout of facilities is FAA’s AC 150/5300-13A, Airport Design. Chapter 5 uses several of the terms from that AC (e.g., Aircraft Design Group, Object Free Area (OFA) and taxiway/taxilane). Appendix A of this Guidebook provides a glossary of terms used throughout the Guidebook, including Chapter 5. Readers not familiar with terms used in this chapter may need to refer to Appendix A. This chapter provides guidance in planning and developing certain GA facilities. The guidelines presented will not always work in every situation. The Guidebook user should adapt the guidance to specific short-term and long-term airport and facility needs. Aircraft Aprons An aircraft apron is usually the largest facility on an airport, except for the runway and possibly the parallel taxiway. An apron requires significant planning because of the short-term and long-term impacts to the airfield and other GA facilities. It is important to pick the right location and size the apron properly so that the apron interacts well with other GA facilities and so that airport operations are not limited and safety is not compromised. Questions to ask when planning an aircraft apron: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about aircraft aprons? • Will the apron be for based or transient aircraft or both? • Will the apron accommodate hangars? • How many tie-down positions are needed? GA Facility Planning by Type

44 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • What Airplane Design Group will the apron be designed for? • Will the apron be planned for a terminal or FBO building? • Will the apron need to be expanded in the future? • Are there significant engineering issues such as cut/fill challenges? Drainage challenges? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? Location An apron location should • Provide safe and easy ingress and egress for aircraft from taxiways and taxilanes. • Maximize the available space. • Provide space for other GA facilities like hangars or a terminal building. • Provide sufficient parking area outside the required object frees areas and setback requirements. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Provide vehicle access. • Ensure that pilots and passengers do not have to cross a taxiway to reach their aircraft. The location of the apron will depend on the size needed and the size of the apron will depend on how much space is available in the proposed location. Whether planning for an Aircraft Design Group I or Aircraft Design Group II apron, it is recommended that the basis for the apron layout be planned around tie-down positions for Group I aircraft. Given that most Group II aircraft are larger and generally more expensive than Group I aircraft, very few are stored long term on an apron. Type Three types of apron are discussed below. Transient Parking Apron A transient apron is usually a higher activity, lower density apron where aircraft do not stay very long. These aprons have high turnover with various size aircraft ranging from small single-engine piston to medium-sized business jets. Based Parking Apron A based apron is usually a lower activity, higher density apron where aircraft are stored long term. These aprons have low turnover with similar size and type of aircraft, usually small single-engine piston and small twin- engine piston. Hangar Apron A hangar apron is usually only used by aircraft based in the adjacent hangars. (See the conventional hangar section for more on hangar aprons.) Size & Layout There are two ways to approach the sizing of an apron. One is based on the space available in the location chosen for the apron; the other is based on the number of tie-down parking positions needed. Exhibits 5-1 through 5-8 will help in deciding what size apron can be constructed in the area chosen. Exhibit 5-1 describes the types of aprons based on their depth. Depth Types will be used throughout the planning process with other aspects of the apron. Refer to Appendix B for calculations. This depth is recommended based on the existing and most common tie-down Smaller airports usually only have one apron, which is sized to accom- modate both transient and based aircraft parking.

GA Facility Planning by Type 45 Exhibit 5-1. Apron depth types. (continued on next page) DEPTH TYPE EXHIBIT DESCRIPTION A Single row of tie- down positions Single taxilane B2 2 single rows of tie- down positions Single taxilane C Single row of tie- down positions 2 taxilanes D Nested row of tie- down positions 2 taxilanes

46 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-1. (Continued). E Single row of tie- down positions Nested row of tie- down positions 2 taxilanes F2 2 single rows of tie- down positions Nested row of tie- down positions 2 taxilanes G 2 Nested rows of tie- down positions 3 taxilanes Notes: 1. See Appendix B for information on this dimension. 2. Recommended only for based aircraft aprons because of the presence of tie-downs along the edges of the apron. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. DEPTH TYPE EXHIBIT DESCRIPTION

GA Facility Planning by Type 47 Group I Aircraft Apron depths (66-ft-deep parking area) Depth Type Minimum Depth X (ft) A 112 B 145 C 191 D 224 E 257 F 290 G 369 Example: if an area is selected for a Group I apron adjacent to a taxiway, and there is only 250 feet from the taxiway OFA to a building, there is a not enough depth for Types E, F, and G. Type D is the largest apron depth possible that still meets standards. Group II Aircraft Apron Depths (66-ft-deep parking area) Depth Type Minimum Depth X (ft) D 296 E 329 F 362 G 477 (75-ft-deep parking area) Depth Type Minimum Depth X (ft) D 305 E 338 F 371 G 495 (100-ft-deep parking area) Depth Type Minimum Depth X (ft) D 330 E 363 F 396 G 545 Notes: 1. Types A and B are not considered because Group II aircraft will most likely require taxi-through operations and two taxilanes. 2. Type C is not recommended since Type D is a more appropriate size for Group II. Exhibit 5-2. Minimum apron depths. configurations in use. The apron sizing guidance in this Guidebook is primarily for Group I and Group II aircraft. Group III aircraft will require special planning and consideration due to the size required to accommodate them. Exhibit 5-2 presents minimum apron depths based on AC guidelines. As depicted in the figures in Exhibit 5-1, these dimensions do not include any taxiway-to-taxiway separation dis- tances or adjacent taxiway OFAs. For information on the parking area depths, see Appendix B. Exhibits 5-3 and 5-4 present minimum apron widths based on current AC guidelines. The total width includes parking area, taxilanes, and taxilane object free areas (TLOFAs). The most common layout of an apron is parallel to the runway or parallel taxiway. This orientation usually allows for the maximum use of space. Aprons may also be perpendicular to the runway or taxiway. A guiding principal when planning an apron, or for any facility, is that the most space is usually gained from making the parking areas and taxilanes as parallel or perpendicular as possible to the runway, parallel taxiway, and other facilities. In some cases when the existing infrastructure (e.g., hangars and terminal) are not parallel to the parallel taxiway, a combination of parallel and perpendicular works best.

48 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning The larger an apron, the better access will be required. Multiple access points to an apron are very important for an apron that is very active. However, if at all possible, the apron should be separated from the parallel taxiway as depicted in Exhibit 5-5. Direct access from parking positions onto a parallel taxiway increases the chance of conflicts and should be avoided if possible. Sometimes the limited space available for apron parking may require direct access. Additional marking and signage may be needed to reduce the risk of conflicts as a result of this configuration. The layouts in Exhibit 5-6 illustrate this situation and alternatives to avoid direct access. The apron layouts in Exhibit 5-5 depict the parking areas parallel to the adjoining taxiway. Exhibit 5-6 lists reasons for choosing how to orient a parking apron. Exhibit 5-7 depicts an apron not deep enough for any Group II apron depths. By turning the taxilanes, a Group II and two Group I parking areas can be accommodated. This layout is best used for based aircraft Exhibit 5-3. Minimum apron widths for Group I aircraft. Single access with deadend taxilanes1 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 223’ WIDE 247’ WIDE 271’ WIDE 295’ WIDE 319’ WIDE2 A 3 3 4 4 5 B 7 7 9 9 11 C 3 3 4 4 5 D 5 6 7 8 9 E 8 9 11 12 14 F 12 13 16 17 20 G 10 12 14 16 18 Single access with taxilanes on all sides1 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 302’ WIDE 326’ WIDE 350’ WIDE 374’ WIDE 398’ WIDE A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A B N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A C 3 3 4 4 5 D 5 6 7 8 9 E 9 10 12 13 15 F 14 15 16 19 22 G 10 12 14 16 18 Dual access with taxilanes on all sides1 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 302’ WIDE 326’ WIDE 350’ WIDE 374’ WIDE 398’ WIDE A3 3 3 4 4 5 B3 8 8 10 10 12 C 3 3 4 4 5 D 5 6 7 8 9 E 8 9 11 12 14 F 13 14 17 18 21 G 10 12 14 16 18 Notes: 1. See Exhibit 5-5 for layout 2. Maximum number of tie-downs recommended for dead end taxilanes 3. Dual access with single taxilane only For Types A, B, and C, each additional tie-down position requires an additional 48 feet of width. For Types D, E, F, and G, each additional tie-down position requires an additional 24 feet of width.

GA Facility Planning by Type 49 with assigned tie-down locations or FBO aprons where the parking locations can be controlled. The deadend taxilanes could cause issues with pilots unfamiliar with the layout. Extending the deadends to the adjacent taxiway would solve this issue, but multiple entry and exit points off a taxiway could cause safety issues. Significant marking and signing could help to mitigate those issues. Exhibit 5-8 provides examples of different layouts for the same area near a GA terminal building. The alternative layouts involve relocating the taxiway to the standard separation distance from the runway to achieve greater depth for the apron area. After the taxiway is relocated, the apron can be reconfigured in several different ways. Each layout has its advantages and disadvantages. It will be up to the airport owner or operator to decide which layout best meets the airport’s needs. A combination of the angles of the existing infrastructure (e.g., taxiway, runway, and buildings) and making the parking areas and taxilanes parallel and perpendicular will create pavement unusable for taxiing or parking. Anytime infrastructure layouts create odd angles, there will be unusable pavement. The key is to find the layout that minimizes the unusable pavement or positions it in a useful location. Most of the layouts shown in Exhibit 5-8 have unusable pavement in front of hangars or the terminal building. This pavement could be used for parking ground support equipment or aircraft for maintenance or for loading or unloading passengers. In northern regions, Exhibit 5-4. Minimum apron widths for Group II aircraft. Single Access with deadend taxilanes3 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 283’ WIDE 307’ WIDE 331’ WIDE 355’ WIDE 379’ WIDE4 D 6 7 8 9 10 E 9 11 12 14 15 F 14 16 18 20 22 G 12 14 16 18 20 Single access with taxilanes on all sides3 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 398’ WIDE 422’ WIDE 446’ WIDE 470’ WIDE 494’ WIDE D 6 7 8 9 10 E 11 12 14 15 17 F 17 19 21 23 25 G 12 14 16 18 20 Dual access with taxilanes on all sides3 DEPTH TYPE NUMBER OF TIE-DOWN POSITIONS PER GIVEN WIDTH AND DEPTH TYPE 398’ WIDE 422’ WIDE 446’ WIDE 470’ WIDE 494’ WIDE D 6 7 8 9 10 E 9 11 12 14 15 F 15 18 19 22 23 G 12 14 16 18 20 Notes: 1. Types A and B are not considered because Group II aircraft will most likely require taxi-through operations and two taxilanes. 2. Type C is not recommended since Type D is a more appropriate size for Group II. 3. See Exhibit 5-5 for layout. 4. Maximum number of tie-downs recommended for dead end taxilanes For Types A, B, and C, each additional tie-down position requires an additional 48 feet of width. For Types D, E, F, and G, each additional tie-down position requires an additional 24 feet of width.

50 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Deadend taxilane Taxilanes on all sides Dual access Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-5. Apron layout. Parking & Taxilanes Parallel to Taxiway Parking & Taxilanes Perpendicular to Taxiway Easy to navigate Apron is not deep enough for dual taxilanes (Type D) Simplifies parking Parking with the prevailing wind direction Good for unattended aprons Helps to separate multiple lease areas on the apron Provides the option for multiple sized parking areas Note: Or parallel and perpendicular to the runway Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-6. Reasons for different layout types.

GA Facility Planning by Type 51 the unusable pavement could be used for snow stockpiling so long as such use does not interfere with aircraft operations and safety. Security Other than providing a perimeter fence around the entire airport and apron area lighting, there are no special security recommendations for aprons. The TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004, should be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Engineering and Construction Engineering issues that should be considered follow: • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the apron to be adjusted to fit the space available. • Grades in the area. Do not plan to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • Apron grades need to be flat enough for aircraft to be tugged or pushed into position but sloping enough to drain. • Possible need for internal drainage for fuel trapping. • Construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities. • Regulations re deicing and possible need for containment and removal. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-7. Apron layout perpendicular to taxiway.

52 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Alternative 1. Alternative 2. Exhibit 5-8. Sample apron layouts.

GA Facility Planning by Type 53 Exhibit 5-8. (Continued). Alternative 4. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Alternative 3.

54 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Constricted Aprons Exhibit 5-9 shows an example of an apron for a Group II airport. The apron provides a Group II taxilane on three sides of the parking positions, but does not provide for Group II parking. If a Group II aircraft were to park in the single row of parking positions, it would violate the taxilane object free areas (TLOFAs) and might have difficulty pulling out because the taxilane between the rows of parking is sized for only Group I aircraft. That same Group II aircraft would have difficulty parking in the nested parking positions because there is no Group II taxilane to access them. If the apron shown in Exhibit 5-7 used the Depth Type E configuration, the same number of tie-down positions could be accommodated with full Group II taxilanes for the nested tie-down positions. Large GA Aircraft Parking Aprons GA aprons at commercial service airports and larger GA airports that serve Group III aircraft and larger will most likely be custom planned. If the apron is managed by a full-time staff that can direct aircraft to parking positions and provide wing walkers, the aircraft can be parked more closely together, thus requiring smaller area per aircraft overall. This also allows them to manage the greater range in the size of the aircraft that use the apron. A typical large aircraft parking apron may have rows of parking areas with no tie-down or parking positions marked to allow flexibility for spacing. The only marking may be either a taxilane centerline or the outlines of the parking areas. If smaller aircraft will need to be tied down, these aircraft can be moved to another section of the apron that has tie-down positions for smaller aircraft. Exhibit 5-10 presents examples of actual FBO GA parking aprons that demonstrate layouts and parking configurations for various sized aircraft without designated parking positions. Source: Google Maps, USDA Farm Service Agency Exhibit 5-9. Example of constrained parking apron. Be careful of positioning multiple FBOs on the same apron. This can be very confusing to pilots unfamiliar with the airport and to the FBO staff.

GA Facility Planning by Type 55 Facility-to-Facility Relationships The type and number of interaction with other GA facilities depends on the type of apron being planned. A based aircraft apron needs very little interaction with other facilities. A based apron can be a remote facility with only the need for vehicle access and automobile parking. A based aircraft apron would interact well with t-hangars because they both typically store only small aircraft. A transient apron will interact well with many different GA facilities. When planning a transient apron consider whether or not there will be a terminal building, FBO building, or hangars adjacent to the apron that need direct access to the apron. Smaller airports need to consider if there will be a self-service fuel farm facility in the vicinity and ensure that apron operations are not disrupted. (More detail on this interaction and the interaction of dedicated hangar aprons with hangars and automobile parking and access is provided later in this chapter.) Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-11 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for an aircraft apron. Source: Google Maps, USDA Farm Service Agency, Digital Globe, Commonwealth of Virginia Exhibit 5-10. Samples of actual FBO aprons.

56 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning The Ideal Apron Transient The ideal transient apron would include the following characteristics: • Low density • Sized for Group II aircraft or larger • Expandable • At least two access points • Full circulation around parking positions • Ample area lighting • Pull-through parking positions • Adjacent to the terminal building • Passenger boarding area • Graded for adjacent hangars • Vehicle access • Visibility from the runway or parallel taxiway • Easy egress to the non-secure side of the fence • Ample parking for several large and small aircraft • Good drainage • Ample signage • Locations for fuel sump dump, chocks, fire extinguisher, and other items • Parking/storage location for ground support equipment Based The ideal based apron would include the following characteristics: • High density • Vehicle access • Sized for Group I aircraft or larger • Expandable • Vehicle access • Nearby vehicle parking with simple walking access • Good drainage • Locations for fuel sump dump, chocks, fire extinguisher, and other items Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s aircraft parking needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-11. Aircraft apron development plan evaluation.

GA Facility Planning by Type 57 Helicopter Parking Area Planning for a helicopter parking area on an airport requires special consideration given the nature of helicopter operations and the impact of rotor wash on the surrounding area. A helicopter parking area is not a helipad. A helipad is used by rotorcraft for takeoff and landing operations. A helicopter parking area is not used for takeoff and landing, but for the temporary parking of helicopters. A dedicated area for helicopter parking is most often used by only transient aircraft. Based helicopter parking is most often in a hangar. For additional information on heliports, see AC 150/5390-2C “Heliport Design.” When planning a helicopter parking area, ask the following: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about a helicopter parking? • Are there significant engineering issues such as cut/fill challenges? Drainage challenges? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and does that need to factor into planning? • Will the facility need to be expanded in the future? • How many helicopter parking spaces are needed? • What types of helicopters are expected to use the parking area? • Will vehicles need access to the helicopter parking area? • Will the helicopter parking area be used by emergency services? • Is the helicopter parking area for based or transient aircraft or both? Location A helicopter parking area location should • Provide a safe and easy taxiway route to and from the facility. • Ensure that rotor tips are outside taxiway and TLOFAs. • Ensure that aircraft or airfield operations (e.g., ARFF) are not impacted. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Avoid rotor wash near small and light aircraft. • Avoid above ground objects that may interfere with main and tail rotors. • Provide safe and efficient access for emergency services vehicles. • Provide fuel tender access to the rotorcraft. • Allow rotorcraft to park in any direction to account for the wind. • Be within reasonable proximity to pilot facilities in either a GA terminal building or FBO building. The location of the helicopter parking area must weigh the benefits of having an area dedicated to a limited type of aircraft and the effect on the surrounding development area versus the effects of not having a dedicated area and mixing fixed-wing and rotorcraft on the same parking apron. • A good rule of thumb for separation between helicopter parking positions and parked small fixed-wing aircraft (less than 12,500 pounds) is 100 feet. A larger separation may be required for larger helicopters that must air taxi which creates a greater amount of turbulence. • The Aeronautical Information Manual (dated February 9, 2012) addresses helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft in relation to wake turbulence in Chapter 7, Section 3. It recommends a separation of three rotor diameters.

58 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Size & Layout The size of the parking area will depend on the size and number of rotorcraft expected. There are two parts to a helicopter parking area: (1) where the rotorcraft parks and (2) the supporting pavement around the parking area. The supporting pavement provides access to the rotorcraft for fuel tenders, emergency services vehicles, and other service vehicles. Exhibit 5-12 depicts a typical helicopter parking area layout. If emergency or support vehicle access is not required, the access ramp leading to the support area can be reduced in width to 25 to 35 feet, depending on the size of the helicopter using the facility. Exhibit 5-13 presents typical sizes for helicopter parking areas for commonly used rotorcraft. The helicopter parking areas can be configured in several ways. Exhibit 5-14 depicts sample helicopter parking. Turning the square concrete parking area 45 degrees allows greater flexibility in parking the aircraft by positioning the greatest amount of concrete along the axis of the aircraft in different directions to account for the wind. The area surrounding the concrete parking area can be either concrete or asphalt. If the helicopter parking area is to be used for emergency service operations, sufficient pavement should be provided to allow emergency service vehicles access to all sides of the aircraft. One of the best methods to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making helicopter Exhibit 5-12. Typical helicopter parking layout. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc.

GA Facility Planning by Type 59 Helicopter Manufacturer Model Parking Area (ft) Support Area (ft) Clear Area (ft) AgustaWestland AW109, AW119 25 x 25 50 x 50 80 x 80 Bell 47, 206, 407, 212, 222, 427, 429 Eurocopter EC120, EC130, EC135, EC145, EC155 MD Helicopters MD 500 Robinson R22, R44, R66 AgustaWestland AW139, AW169, AW189 35 x 35 70 x 70 100 x 100 Bell 205, 214, 412, 525 Eurocopter EC175, EC225 Sikorsky S-70, S-76, S-92 Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-13. Common civilian rotorcraft. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-14. Sample helicopter parking.

60 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning parking areas parallel and perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Given that helicopter parking aprons are within the perimeter fence, there are no special security recommendations. The TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004, should be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Engineering & Construction Engineering issues to be considered during the planning process: • Stormwater and erosion control measures that may require the size of the apron to be adjusted to fit the space available • Grades in the area. Do not plan up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities • Apron grades need to be flat enough for aircraft to be tugged but sloping enough to drain • Whether or not internal drainage for fuel trapping will be required • The construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities Facility-to-Facility Relationships Not many other GA facilities interact well with helicopter parking areas due to the nature of helicopter operations and the effect of rotor wash on the surrounding area. They should not be close to hangars or other buildings but should be within a reasonable distance of a terminal or FBO building. If the helicopter aprons are to be used by emergency service vehicles, good ground access is important. The Ideal Helicopter Parking Area The ideal helicopter parking area would include the following characteristics: • A concrete parking area • A paved support area on all sides • Edge lighting • Located a safe distance from small and light aircraft • Located such that additional positions may be constructed • Located within reasonable distance to pilot facilities • Configured for parking in different directions • Located outside taxiway and TLOFAs • Clear of future development opportunities • Located reasonably close to vehicle access point Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-15 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for a helicopter parking area.

GA Facility Planning by Type 61 Conventional Aircraft Hangars The most effective hangar planning also includes apron planning, access planning, and auto- mobile parking planning. There will be considerable cross-over with these other facilities because they are so interconnected. Conventional hangars are expensive and require considerable plan- ning because of the impacts to the airfield and other GA facilities. It is important to pick the right location, size, and type of hangars so that they interact well with other GA facilities and to maximize development space. When planning for a hangar or group of hangars, ask • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about hangars? • Can associated facilities (e.g., access road, auto parking, and apron) be developed in balance with the hangar? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • What are community goals and standards that will affect the building plans? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and does that need to be factored into planning? • Will the building need to be expanded in the future? • What types of hangars are needed? • What sizes of hangars are needed? • Are different size hangars needed? • How much developable space is available? • Is there room for infill or is greenfield development required? • Is space needed for office or workshop space attached to the hangar? • Do the hangars have to interact with other facilities or can they be remote? • Will the hangar need airside and landside access? Location & Orientation A hangar location should • Provide enough space to park the largest aircraft that can fit in the hangar outside the hangar and be clear of all OFAs. • Not present an obstructed view to or from the terminal building or an FBO building. • Ensure that employees do not have to cross active airfield pavements to reach the facility. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Meet AC 150/5300-13A and FAR Part 77 guidelines. • Maximize the space available and not restrict additional development around it. Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-15. Helicopter parking area development plan evaluation.

62 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Be near utilities needed for office or shop areas. • Be with similar sized hangars. • Ensure that vehicle access and parking space is available. A hangar should be oriented so that • In regions that have ice and snow, doors do not face north blocking the apron in front of the door from the sun. • In hot and sunny regions, doors do not face south so that the inside of the hangar does not receive direct sunlight in the afternoons heating up the hangar. This is especially important in maintenance hangars not conditioned with cool air. • The primary wind direction is not into the hangar. These location and orientation objectives cannot always be met given the orientation of the runway, existing airfield infrastructure, and the need to maximize development space. Type & Size Storage Hangar A storage hangar typically consists of three walls, a roof, and a large door and serves to keep parked aircraft out of the elements. If other functions take place in the hangar, it is probably another type of hangar. Storage hangars can be built to whatever size is needed; however, some hangar sizes are more common than others. Exhibit 5-16 provides information for several common hangar sizes and door heights to accommodate a single aircraft. For instance, a 70-ft-by-70-ft hangar with a 20-ft-high door opening will accommodate approximately 70% of the current GA fleet. If the hangar is to be used for only one aircraft, the size of the hangar needs to be planned using the wingspan and length of that aircraft. A good rule of thumb to determine the width of the hangar is to add 10 feet to the wingspan of the design aircraft. The 10 feet provides room for the door infrastructure and a buffer between the wings and the door. For example, the Hawker 850 has a wingspan of 54 feet. With the 10-ft addition, the Hawker 850 requires a minimum 64-ft wide hangar. The same rule of thumb applies to determining the depth of the hangar. The 10 ft rule of thumb may not work for all cases and, if a particular aircraft is in mind for the hangar, the 10 feet may be reduced. For the door height, allow a buffer of at least 1 foot between the top of the tail and the door opening. The larger the hangar, the more flexibility there is with the types and number of aircraft that can be stored in that hangar. A 100-ft-by-100-ft hangar may store one Gulfstream IV, four King Air 100s, or eight Beech Baron 58s. The use of the hangar will help determine what size is needed. If the hangar is to be a community storage hangar with multiple tenants, a bigger hangar will provide more flexibil- ity. The downside to a community hangar is that if someone wants their aircraft and it is in the back, other aircraft will have to be moved first. This type of hangar works well when there is a FBO or aircraft manager in charge of the hangar. Hangar Size Square Footage Door Height % of fleet Sample Aircraft 60 x 60 3,600 16 feet ~28 Citation CJ2 70 x 70 4,900 20 feet ~70 Hawker 850 80 x 80 6,400 24 feet ~84 Falcon 50 100 x 100 10,000 26 feet ~98 Gulfstream GIV 120 x 120 14,400 26 feet ~98 Gulfstream GIV Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-16. Typical hangar sizes (Group I & II aircraft). Given that hangar tenants come and go, make sure the hangar size provides flexibility for future tenants and the airport.

GA Facility Planning by Type 63 Maintenance Hangar A maintenance hangar can serve as a storage hangar and as a hangar for conducting mainte- nance on aircraft. Sizing a maintenance hangar depends on the size of aircraft and the type of maintenance to be performed. The hangar should be sized to handle multiple aircraft at once. A heavy maintenance hangar will require more space per aircraft due to the tasks involved. An avionics hangar will require less space per aircraft. A maintenance hangar will also require space for tools, equipment storage, parts storage, offices, restrooms, and breakrooms. These spaces can be either constructed within the footprint of the hangar or as an external addition to the hangar. The amount of additional work space needed will depend on the function of the space. This space can either be an integral part of the hangar or constructed as an addition to the hangar. A typical external addition would be 25 feet to 30 feet along the length of the hangar. This space could be added to either the side of the hangar, the back, or both if the space is needed. The amount of space needed will depend on the needs and function of the hangar. Corporate Hangar A corporate hangar is usually a storage hangar with office space. The office space can be constructed as an integral part of the hangar or as an addition to the sides or back of the hangar. The additional space may include an office, restroom, conference room, break room, storage, and a lobby area. The size will depend on what type and how many aircraft are to be stored. Paint Hangar The only difference between maintenance hangars and paint hangars is that a paint hangar usually has to meet different building code requirements regardless of size. This type of hangar will usually require sprinkler and/or foam deluge systems. See National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 409 for additional information. Executive Hangar When a conventional box hangar is too big and a t-hangar too small, an executive hangar can be a good compromise. An executive hangar is a single structure divided into multiple units sized to accommodate large multi-engine piston and turboprop aircraft as well as small to mid-size jets. Each unit will usually range between 2,500 and 4,000 square feet. An executive hangar usually consists of two to six units. Exhibit 5-17 depicts a typical executive hangar with parking apron. Executive hangars provide flexibility for an airport that does not need the hangar space to accommodate a large aircraft, but needs to house aircraft too large for a standard t-hangar. Adding bathrooms and a small office space will make the hangars more marketable to corporations and businesses. An 18-ft-high door opening will provide additional flexibility. These hangars can be custom sized; however, several hangar manufacturers have standard sizes for these types of hangars. Similar to a t-hangar, executive hangars can be expanded. Executive hangars can be almost anywhere a conventional hangar or a t-hangar (which will be covered in the next section) can be located. Executive hangars tend to fit better with t-hangars because of the size of the aircraft and the tendency to house multiple smaller aircraft that could fit in a t-hangar. It is very important to make certain that the properly sized taxilane or taxiway is available for the Airplane Design Group II aircraft that can fit in the executive hangars. Although not required, allowing space for aircraft to park outside the hangar and outside a taxiway or TLOFA increases the safety and marketability of the hangar facility. Non-Hangar Space If the hangar is to be used for corporate, charter, or FBO purposes, office space may need to be provided. This space can either be an integral part of the hangar or constructed as an addition

64 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning to the exterior of the hangar. A typical external addition would be a 25- to 30-ft wide addition to the length of the hangar. This space could be added to either the side of the hangar, the back, or both if the space is needed. The amount of space needed and the functions of the space will depend on the function of the hangar and the needs of the tenants. Building Codes and Hangar Spacing Federal, state, and local building codes play an important part in determining the location and size of hangars. Most states have adopted the International Building Code (IBC) and International Fire Code (IFC) for building construction. Both documents include requirements for aircraft hangars. It is important to review the local codes and meet with the local fire marshal and building code office to determine what guidelines are to be followed and how the local officials interpret the codes. How the codes are interpreted can have a significant impact on how the hangars are planned. There are numerous combinations of hangars based on size, type of construction, and hangar group (not to be confused with FAA Aircraft Design Groups). For this Guidebook, the most common type will be discussed. The most common classification of hangar is a Hangar Group III with Type II (000) construction. The (000) means there is no fire rating to the exterior walls, structure, and floor. A Hangar Group III hangar is one floor, has a door height of 28 feet or less, Type II (000) construction, and a maximum fire (floor) area of 12,000 sf. If the fire area is larger than 12,000 sf, additional fire protection will be required, either through the use of fire-resistant building materials or a sprinkler system or both. Spacing Common planning dimensions to use based on the IBC and IFC are 50 feet between hangars and/or other buildings and 30 feet between hangars and roads/parking lots. Hangars can be closer than 50 feet to each other and other buildings if other construction conditions (e.g., a firewall or fire-resistant building materials) are met. These conditions are in NFPA 409, “Standard of Aircraft Hangars.” During the planning for the hangar, the separation requirement Exhibit 5-17. Executive hangar with apron. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc.

GA Facility Planning by Type 65 should be discussed and a decision made on what spacing to use. A 50-ft separation will take up the most apron frontage, but will probably result in a less expensive hangar. Reducing the separation may allow room for additional hangars, but the hangars may be more expensive due to the additional construction costs from fire protection measures. Depending on the demand, the extra cost for the fire protection measures may reduce the marketability of the hangar site. If planning a hangar with sliding pocket doors, take into account the pocket or supports needed for the sliding door panels. Other door options are available, including bi-fold and hydraulic. Neither of these requires any additional space outside the footprint of the hangar. If there are pockets or sup- ports outside the footprint of the hangar, the local fire marshal may deem them part of the hangar and require the 50 foot separation from them or 2-hr rated firewall for the pocket or support. Exhibit 5-18 provides simple guides for hangar spacing examples and guidelines. Also consult local codes for building setbacks from property lines, lease lines, and roadways. The IBC also has instructions for building setbacks. Layout One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and/or perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making hangars parallel and perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Exhibit 5-19 provides possible layout spacing. Exhibit 5-18. Simplified planning guide for NFPA Group III aircraft hangars.1 No. of Hangars Size () Total Square Footage Distance to nearest hangar Fire Protecon Minimum Distance to other building (Terminal) or hangar Minimum Distance to parking and roads 1 all single hangar sizes up to 12,000 at least 50' no fire protec on 50' on all sides 30' 1+ mul ple hangars up to 24,000 at least 50' no fire protec on 50' on all sides of each hangar 30' 1+ mul ple hangars up to 24,000 less than 50' no fire protec on 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 2 120 x 120 24,000 at least 50' no fire protecon 50' on all sides of each hangar 30' 2 120 x 120 24,000 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 2 120 x 120 24,000 less than 50' with fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 3 120 x 120 36,000 less than 50' Select hangar is considered a Group II Hangar and must have fire protecon see NFPA 409 for Group II guidance 30' (continued on next page)

66 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-18. (Continued). 4 80 x 80 25,600 less than 50' Select hangar is considered a Group II Hangar and must have fire protecon see NFPA 409 for Group II guidance 30' 2 60 x 60 7,200 at least 50' no fire protecon 50' on all sides of each hangar 30' 2 60 x 60 7,200 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 3 60 x 60 10,800 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 6 60 x 60 21,600 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 7 60 x 60 25,200 less than 50' Select hangar is considered a Group II Hangar and must have fire protecon see NFPA 409 for Group II guidance 30' 1Type of Construction: Type II (000) Source: NFPA 409 2 80 x 80 12,800 at least 50' no fire protecon 50' on all sides of each hangar 30' 2 80 x 80 12,800 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 3 80 x 80 19,200 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' No. of Hangars Size () Total Square Footage Distance to nearest hangar Fire Protecon Minimum Distance to other building (Terminal) or hangar Minimum Distance to parking and roads 2 100 x 100 20,000 at least 50' no fire protecon 50' on all sides of each hangar 30' 2 100 x 100 20,000 less than 50' no fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 2 100 x 100 20,000 less than 50' with fire protecon 100' on all sides of hangar group 30' 3 100 x 100 30,000 less than 50' Select hangar is considered a Group II Hangar and must have fire see NFPA 409 for Group II guidance 30' protecon

GA Facility Planning by Type 67 Hangar Group III Box Hangar Spacing. Exhibit 5-19. Examples of possible layout spacing. (continued on next page)

68 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Hangar Group III Box Hangar Spacing with Door Pocket. Exhibit 5-19. (Continued).

GA Facility Planning by Type 69 Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a conventional hangar include tamperproof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the hangar to sufficiently illuminate the area. Additional and more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system with cameras. If the building is part of the security perimeter, appropriate airside access security measures will need to be incorporated into the building. The TSA guidelines on security for GA airports can be found in “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004. It is recommended that these guidelines be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Hangar Apron A hangar apron is an apron which provides access to conventional hangars. A hangar apron can be a large area for multiple hangars or a small area for a single hangar. Hangar aprons allow for variable size hangars and associated infrastructure. Exhibit 5-20 shows sample layouts of different hangar apron configurations. The figures in Exhibit 5-20 depict hangars parallel to one another. Hangars perpendicular to one another are not shown due to their less economical and operational features. There is a greater chance of conflict between aircraft in front of adjacent hangars, and there tends to be either a loss of revenue-generating space or limited access. Perpendicular hangars would work best when the hangars are owned and operated by the same entity so as to control aircraft conflicts and use of space. Although perpendicular hangars are possible, they are not recommended for the previously mentioned reasons. If perpendicular hangars are proposed, ensure adequate separation is provided to reduce the chance of conflict. Utilities Hangars having office or shop space will require access to water and sewer connections. This may dictate the locations of the hangars and will affect the budget. Exhibit 5-19. (Continued). Hangar Group III Small Box Hangar Spacing Note: Group III refers to the hangar group from NFPA Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc.

70 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Engineering & Construction Engineering issues that should be considered include • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the apron to be adjusted to fit the space available. • Grades in the area. Do not plan to construct up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • The locations of security fence and gates. • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the larger buildings. • The construction and phasing impact on existing facilities. Facility-to-Facility Relationships Conventional hangars interact with many other types of facilities (e.g., aprons, automobile parking, and automobile access). Conventional hangars may also interact with a GA terminal building or FBO building as either an attached facility or adjacent facility. As much as possible, conventional hangars of similar size should be planned together. If sizes vary, group the smaller Exhibit 5-20. Sample layouts of different hangar apron configurations. (continued on next page) Note: This configuration is not recommended for facilities expected to provide services (e.g., maintenance, charter, and instruction) Hangar Apron Pod with no Aircraft Parking

GA Facility Planning by Type 71 hangars together separate from the larger hangars. The larger hangars have a larger building footprint, and the apron parking areas, taxilanes, and automobile parking space requirements are also larger. Executive hangars and smaller box hangars interact well with each other and can often be remote areas similar to t-hangars. Place the right size hangar on a large or main apron. A smaller conventional hangar (60′ × 60′) should not be next to a terminal or FBO building. This space should be reserved for a large storage or maintenance hangar that has high visibility and the potential for generating revenue. The section on automobile parking discusses parking for a hangar. When planning a hangar apron, consider the size the facilities and the anticipated parking requirements and appropriate flexibility provided for such. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-21 provides a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for conventional hangars. Exhibit 5-20. (Continued). Notes: 1. This configuration should only be used when environmental conditions (sun, snow, wind) dictate hangar orientation 2. This configuration is not recommended for facilities expected to provide services (e.g., maintenance, charter, and instruction) Alternate Hangar Apron Pod with Limited Aircraft Parking (continued on next page)

72 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-20. (Continued). Hangar Apron Pod with Aircraft Parking. (continued on next page) Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Meets local building code Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-21. Conventional hangar development plan checklist.

GA Facility Planning by Type 73 Exhibit 5-20. (Continued). Hangar Apron Pod with Central Aircraft Parking T-Hangars Effective t-hangar planning also includes access planning and automobile parking planning. There will be considerable cross-over with these other facilities because they are all interconnected. Pick the right location and size so they interact well with other GA facilities and maximize development space. Questions to ask when planning t-hangars: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about t-hangars? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and does that need to factor into planning? • What type t-hangars are needed? • What size t-hangars are needed? • Are different size t-hangars needed?

74 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • How much developable space is available? • Is there room for infill or is greenfield development required? • Is roadway access to the t-hangars and parking required? • Do the t-hangars have to interact with other facilities or can they be remote? • Will the building need to be expanded in the future? • Will the t-hangar be built as a larger group or a single standalone facility? Location & Orientation A t-hangar location should • Not obstruct the view to or from the terminal building or an FBO building to the runway. • Ensure that hangar tenants do not have to cross active taxiways or runways to reach the facility. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Meet AC 150/5300-13A and FAR Part 77 guidelines. • Maximize the space available and not restrict additional development around it. • Be near needed utilities. • Be with similar sized hangars. • Ensure that vehicle access and parking space is available. • Not be on a primary taxiway. A t-hangar should be oriented so that in regions that have ice and snow, the doors do not face north, blocking the apron in front of the door from the sun and so that the primary wind direction is not into the hangar. These location and orientation situations cannot always be avoided due to the orientation of the runway, existing airfield infrastructure, and the need to maximize development space. Type & Size There are two common types of t-hangars: standard and nested. The standard t-hangar configuration produces a longer and narrower building than a nested t-hangar. Standard t-hangars work where the existing infrastructure or available development property is not wide enough for a nested t-hangar. Layouts for nested and standard t-hangars are depicted in Exhibit 5-22. The nested t-hangar configuration produces a shorter and wider building than the standard t-hangar. This type will optimize the developable space and reduce the required taxilane pave- ments. This type also allows for the construction of a larger rectangular unit or jet pod on the ends of the building for larger aircraft. Nested t-hangars are the most common t-hangars. T-hangars come in all sizes. They can be custom sized or a typical size can be chosen from one of the several hangar manufacturers. For planning, the following dimensions can be used for the most common sized t-hangars. If larger aircraft are expected, a wider or deeper hangar can be used. Exhibit 5-23 presents typical hangar dimensions from several t-hangar manufacturers for Group I aircraft. Building Codes and Hangar Spacing T-hangars follow the same building code requirements as conventional hangars with regard to fire protection and building separation and setback. Depending on the size of the t-hangar and the local requirements, t-hangars between 12,000 square feet and 24,000 square feet may need a firewall so that no space within the building shell exceeds 12,000 square feet. T-hangars over

GA Facility Planning by Type 75 Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Nested T-Hangar with Jetpod Group T-Hangar Spacing and Dimensions Exhibit 5-22. Planning t-hangar building dimensions.

76 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning 24,000 square feet may require special fire protection measures. Consult NFPA 409 and the local fire marshal for additional guidance. Most t-hangars accommodate Group I aircraft. To maximize space, multiple t-hangars should be spaced the width of a Group I taxilane OFA which is 79 feet. Exhibit 5-24 provides dimensions for nested t-hangar groups. Using the dimensions in Exhibit 5-24 for a single row of 10-unit nested t-hangars with a single exit, the area needed for the t-hangar, including the TLOFA, will be a minimum depth of 210 feet and a length of 310 feet. Exhibit 5-25 includes a typical layout. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making t-hangars parallel and perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Another way to maximize space is to share taxiways and taxilanes as much as possible. This will reduce the “wasted” space reserved for OFAs. Exhibit 5-23. Planning t-hangar building dimensions. No. of Units Nested T-hangar Standard T-hangar 6 147’ long by 52’ wide 200’ long by 36’ wide 8 189’ long by 52’ wide 263’ long by 36’ wide 10 231’ long by 52’ wide 326’ long by 36’ wide 12 273’ long by 52’ wide 389’ long by 36’ wide 14 315’ long by 52’ wide 452’ long by 36’ wide 16 357’ long by 52’ wide 515’ long by 36’ wide 18 399’ long by 52’ wide Not common 20 441’ long by 52’ wide Not common Sources: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc., Erect-a-Tube, Inc., Fulfab Exhibit 5-24. T-Hangar Area Dimensions Nested T-Hangar Depths (Group I) No. of Rows Depth (ft) 1 210 2 341 3 472 4 603 5 734 6 865 Note: For each additional row add 131 feet Nested T-Hangar Lengths (Group I) No. of Units Length (ft) Single Exit Dual Exit 6 226 305 8 268 347 10 310 389 12 352 431 14 3942 473 16 4362 515 18 4782 557 20 5202 599 Notes: 1. For each additional unit and odd numbered units add 21 feet 2. Not recommended. See Exhibit 5-26 3. See Exhibit 5-26 for single and dual exit examples

GA Facility Planning by Type 77 Group T-Hangar Spacing and Dimensions Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Nested T-Hangar with Jetpod Exhibit 5-25. T-hangar spacing and dimensions.

78 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a t-hangar include tamperproof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the hangar to sufficiently illuminate the area. Addi- tional and more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system with cameras. Shade ports cannot offer any additional security beyond the locked aircraft and area lighting around the building. If the building is part of the security perimeter, appropriate airside access security measures will need to be incorporated into the building. The TSA has guidelines on security for GA airports. These guidelines can be found in “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004. It is recommended that these guidelines be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations T-Hangar Clusters and Access When numerous t-hangars are clustered together to maximize development space, maneuvering many small aircraft may require multiple avenues of taxi. A good planning rule of thumb is that if there are more than 12 hangar units on a single taxilane, a second exit or taxi route should be provided. The more hangar units there are on a taxilane with one exit increases the chance of conflicts between departing and arriving aircraft. All instances cannot be avoided and sometimes the space constraints and budget will not allow multiple exits, but multiple exits will help to mitigate conflicts. Exhibit 5-26 depicts this situation. Exhibit 5-26. T-hangar exits. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc.

GA Facility Planning by Type 79 In addition to multiple exits from the taxilanes where a large number of t-hangars are concen- trated, dual taxilanes or bypass hold aprons may be required for aircraft to maneuver to and from the taxilanes. Use AC-150/5300-13A for parallel taxilane separation. Exhibit 5-27 depicts both options. Utilities For large clusters of t-hangars that are remotely located or do not have convenient access to a restroom, it may be beneficial to plan for a restroom in one of the end storage units. This will require access to water and sewer connections and may dictate the locations of the hangars and may affect the budget. Shade Ports An inexpensive alternative to a t-hangar is a shade port. A shade port provides overhead shel- ter from rain, snow, and sun. Shade port locations and dimensions can follow the guidelines for both standard and nested t-hangars. Shade ports do provide flexibility due to the less expensive construction cost compared to a t-hangar, and they are less expensive to move if needed for other development. They do not provide the security of enclosed hangars. Dual Taxilane Source: Google Earth, Digital Globe Bypass Apron Exhibit 5-27. T-hangar dual taxilane and bypass apron.

80 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Safe and efficient traffic flow Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Works well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-28. T-hangar development plan checklist. Engineering & Construction Engineering issues that should be considered include • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the apron to be adjusted to fit the space available. • Be aware of the grades in the area. Do not plan or construct up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • Security fence and gate locations. • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the long and narrow buildings. • Taxilane grades that need to be flat enough for aircraft to be pulled into and out of the hangars but sloping enough to drain. • How construction and phasing may impact existing facilities. Facility-to Facility Relationships T-hangar interaction with other GA facilities can be significant or none at all. The primary purpose of a t-hangar unit is to shelter a single aircraft. If the airport fuel is delivered only from a fuel tender, the aircraft may not need to leave the t-hangar area except to get to and from the runway. T-hangars can be remote to other facilities, because they generally do not need other facilities on a regular basis. The most common other facility discussed in this Guidebook that the t-hangar interacts with would be access and parking. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-28 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for t-hangars. Fuel Farm Facility A fuel farm facility can be one of the most costly facilities on an airport that has limited or no funding from state or federal sources. Careful planning is needed to provide a fuel facility that meets the existing and long-term needs of the airport or fuel farm facility owner. Questions to ask when planning an aviation fuel farm facility: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about a fuel farm facility? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet facility needs? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • Will the facility need to expand?

GA Facility Planning by Type 81 • What types of fuel are needed? • What are the local environmental requirements? • Is the fuel to be dispensed by fuel tender or will it be a self-service facility? • Will the facility be used by multiple FBOs or operators? • Will the facility be remote or close to the terminal and main apron? • Is the facility inside the perimeter fence, outside the perimeter fence, or on the perimeter? • Will there be secondary containment for the tanks? • Will there be secondary containment for the fueling transfer vehicles? • Will there be dedicated parking with secondary containment for fuel tenders? Location & Type The fuel farm facility should be located • To provide safe and easy ingress and egress for the fuel delivery truck. The delivery trucks should not have to cross active airfield pavements to reach the facility. • To provide safe and easy ingress and egress for the fuel tenders. • To provide safe and easy ingress and egress for aircraft to and from a self-service area. • Outside taxiway and TLOFAs. • So that self-fueling aircraft are parked outside OFAs. • So that it does not interfere with other aircraft or airfield operations (e.g., ARFF). • So that it is not next to a parallel or primary taxiway. • Near necessary utilities. • So that it does not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • To avoid prop wash and jet blast. The two primary components to planning the location of a fuel farm are (1) access to the site for the fuel delivery truck and access to the site from either fuel tenders or aircraft and (2) proximity to other facilities. When considering the location and access to the site for the delivery truck, the unfamiliarity of the driver with the airport and maneuverability are critical. The facility should not require the delivery vehicle to interact with aircraft activity. The delivery vehicle should not have to cross any aprons, taxiways, t-hangar taxilanes, or runways to reach the facility. The ideal location would be such that the delivery vehicle does not have to enter the secure fenced portion of the airport. This would eliminate any chance of a confused driver wandering onto the wrong piece of airfield pavement. Delivery trucks are long and heavy—this does not work well with lighter airfield pavements and tight spaces. Maneuvering by delivery trucks on light airfield pavements not designed for heavy fuel trucks will greatly reduce the life of the pavement and increases the chance of foreign object debris (FOD). The ideal flow for a delivery truck would be to drive straight through the loading area instead of having to back in or back out. Exhibit 5-29 depicts several different locations for small self-service fuel farm facilities near the main apron and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The type of fuel farm facility will depend on the existing and long-term needs of the fuel farm operator and the budget. Semi-Permanent. A semi-permanent fuel farm will consist of one or two fuel tanks with minimal infrastructure—this provides the option of relocating the fuel farm facility in the future with minimal expense. The tanks are usually double-walled with all the mechani- cal equipment integrated with the tank. The infrastructure usually consists of a concrete foundation for the tank. These are usually self-service facilities, but can also be used by

82 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning fuel tenders. Utilities for this type of facility usually include power and communica- tion. Exhibit 5-29 depicts this type of facility with three possible locations relative to the terminal area. Permanent. A permanent fuel farm facility includes significant infrastructure and provides room for the long-term needs of the airport or operator. A large secondary concrete contain- ment facility with room for expansion is usually constructed. The tanks, piping, and mechanical equipment are assembled on site which allows for multiple sized tanks and expansion capabili- ties. A containment area for fuel truck transfers is also usually included. These facilities can also be remote from the terminal area so as not to interfere with future development. These are usually constructed when fuel tenders are used to fuel aircraft, but can also have a self-service capability. Utilities for this type of facility usually include power, communication, and possibly sanitary sewer. Exhibits 5-30 and 5-31 depict this type of facility. Size & Layout The size of an aviation fuel farm will depend on the amount and types of fuel needed which are determined by the projected fuel usage based on historical figures or determined from the Note: Dark areas indicate secondary containment areas Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-29. Small self-service fuel farm locations.

GA Facility Planning by Type 83 master plan. Once the type and amount of fuel needed is determined, the local or regional fuel suppliers should be contacted to determine fuel delivery schedules. The size of the tank chosen for each type of fuel may depend on how often the type of fuel can be delivered and the cost of each delivery. If the delivery schedule is not frequent enough, a larger tank may be necessary to maintain an adequate supply. The standard fuel delivery truck is approximately 8,000 gallons. Almost all newer aviation fuel tank systems include a floating suction system to offload fuel. A floating suction system reduces the capacity of the fuel tank. For example, a 12,000 gallon tank with a floating suction system results in approximately 1,800 gallons worth of unusable space. A 12,000 gallon tank with floating suction does not need to be empty to receive a full delivery of 8,000 gallons. A 10,000 gallon tank would have a hard time taking a full truck unless the tank were empty. If space is an issue or low fuel sales are anticipated, a smaller 8,000 or 10,000 gallon tank should suffice. If a smaller tank is chosen, a containment area big enough to accommodate a future larger tank should be considered. Example If a fuel farm needed three 12,000 gallon tanks and a secondary containment for the tanks and the delivery truck transfer area, the following planning guidelines would be used. • Tank dimensions: 32 feet long by 8 feet wide • Space between the tanks: 10 feet • Secondary containment on sides and back of tanks: 5 feet • Area in front of tanks for mechanical equipment skid: 15 feet • Delivery truck transfer area: 70 feet long and 20 feet wide Total fuel farm size for four tanks (future expansion), not including maneuver area for delivery trucks, would be approximately 72 feet wide and 72 feet deep. Note: Dark areas indicate secondary containment areas Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-30. Typical fuel farm dimensions.

84 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Sample 1 Sample 2 Exhibit 5-31. Large fuel farm layouts.

GA Facility Planning by Type 85 Note: Dark areas indicate secondary containment areas Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Sample 3 Sample 4 Exhibit 5-31. (Continued).

86 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Fuel tanks can be either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal tanks are more common for tank sizes less than 30,000 gallons. The layouts differ between the semi-permanent and the permanent types of fuel farms. The semi-permanent farm layouts have very little infrastructure. The greatest impact of a semi-permanent fuel farm is the required clear area around the fuel system in accordance with NFPA 407 “Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing.” At a minimum, no fuel system should be within 50 feet of any building. At least one fuel tank should be provided for each fuel type. The number for each tank per fuel type will depend on the anticipated operations and fuel use as determined by the master plan. Exhibit 5-31 depicts sample layouts of large remote fuel farms. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a fuel farm include an 8-ft chain link fence with barbed wire and enough lighting to sufficiently illuminate the entire farm. Addi- tional and more expensive measures would include security cameras and after-hours alarms. The TSA has guidelines on security for GA airports. These guidelines can be found in “Secu- rity Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004. It is recommended that these guidelines be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Fuel Tender Parking A dedicated area for fuel tenders is required in many localities to meet current regulations. A fuel tender is considered a mobile fuel farm and must meet many of the same guidelines as a fuel farm. When not in use, fuel tenders are to be parked in a location that has secondary contain- ment similar to a fuel farm. A dedicated parking area for fuel tenders would involve a concrete area surrounded by curbing to contain a fuel spill for collection and disposal. Fuel tender park- ing also requires a minimum separation distance of 10 feet between parking spaces. The size of the parking area will depend on the number of vehicles and the length of the longest vehicle. For planning purposes, a 10-ft parking space with 10 feet in between and on the edges will determine the width. A depth of 30 feet should accommodate the typical fuel tender and allow for containment in the rear. Fuel tender parking can be in many places. A spot adjacent to the fuel farm can provide econo- mies of scale by using the same facilities for containment and disposal. Sometimes the fuel farm is too far from the aircraft that need refueling and a parking area is needed closer to the main apron. When locating fuel tender parking near the terminal area, care must be taken to provide the required separation distances from aircraft and buildings (50 feet) and remain outside OFAs. See NFPA 407 for additional information. Engineering & Construction Engineering issues that should be considered include • Stormwater and erosion control measures that may require the size of the impervious areas to be adjusted to fit the space available. • The grades in the area. Do not plan or construct up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • The potential for jet blast.

GA Facility Planning by Type 87 • Access to utilities including, power, communication, and sanitary sewer. • Driveway grades need to be flat enough for delivery trucks and fuel tenders to maneuver around and park next to the facility during fuel transfer operations. • Security fence and gate locations. • Construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities. • Preparation or update of the Spill Prevention and Countermeasures Control Plan (SPCC) for the facility. The Ideal Fuel Farm The ideal fuel farm would include the following characteristics: • Above ground fuel tanks • At least one 12,000 gallon tank per fuel type • Room for expansion for at least one additional 12,000 tank • A concrete containment area for existing and future tanks • Room for smaller non-aviation fuel tanks like diesel or unleaded fuel • A concrete containment area for fuel delivery and tender trucks during fuel transfers • Located inside the security fence so fuel tenders do not have to use public roads • Landside access for delivery truck that does not enter AOA and does not require the vehicle to back up at any time • Ample area lighting • Security fence • Containment area for fuel tender parking • Located so future development is not restricted • Option for self-service capability that does not affect other airfield operations Facility-to-Facility Relationships How a fuel farm interacts with other GA facilities depends on the facility. A small semi- permanent fuel facility will likely be close to a main apron, hangar, or terminal building where most activity is located. Locating a fuel farm near these GA facilities will likely affect them in the future should development needs arise. A larger remote facility may have little to no interaction with other GA facilities other than vehicle access. The fuel farm could also be near the maintenance equipment storage building or wash rack to share common utilities. Locating the fuel farm with the maintenance equipment storage building, airfield electrical vault, and emergency generator could also reduce response time to problems and access to tools and equipment in case of an emergency. Fuel farm facilities are neither the nicest looking facilities nor the most aromatic. Potential corporate hangars, GA terminal buildings, and FBO buildings may not be appropriate near or within sight of a fuel farm facility. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-32 provides a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for an aviation fuel farm.

88 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Aircraft Wash Facility (Wash Rack) Aircraft wash facilities (wash racks) provide GA aircraft owners with a common area with access to water to wash and clean their aircraft. A wash rack will also allow the airport to address and meet any required environmental regulations with regard to wash water. A wash rack can collect the wash water which can contain cleaning chemicals and aircraft fuel and oil. Restricting the number of areas for washing reduces the risk of discharging wash water into the environment. Questions to ask when planning a wash rack: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about a wash rack? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet wash racks needs? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • How many aircraft are anticipated to use the wash rack at the same time? • What size aircraft are anticipated to use the wash rack? • Will the wash rack need to be expanded in the future? • What are the local environmental requirements? Location & Type The wash rack location should • Provide safe and easy ingress and egress for the aircraft expected to use the facility. • Be outside taxiway and TLOFAs. • Not interfere with other aircraft or airfield operations (e.g., ARFF). • Not be next to a parallel or primary taxiway. • Be close to necessary utilities. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Avoid prop wash, jet blast, and rotor wash. Wash racks come in three basic types: • Open Air. An open air wash rack is a piece of pavement completely exposed to the elements with a system that collects wash water and precipitation. • Covered. A covered wash rack has a roof and open sides. This type reduces the amount of precipitation collected by the wash rack. This type requires a check of Part 77 clearances, much like a hangar. • Enclosed. An enclosed wash rack is a hangar with or without a door that prevents precipita- tion from being collected by the wash rack facility to the maximum extent possible. This type will require a check of Part 77 clearances, much like a hangar. Exhibit 5-32. Fuel farm facility development plan checklist. Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s or operator’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Meets local environmental regulations Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget

GA Facility Planning by Type 89 The type of facility depends on the local environmental requirements, utility requirements, and funding. Size & Layout Wash racks are usually sized to accommodate one single aircraft at a time; however, depending on the demand and layout, multiple aircraft can be accommodated at the same time. Larger and more expensive aircraft stored in hangars are usually washed in the han- gars while single-engine piston and smaller twin-engine aircraft are washed outside. To help determine the size of the wash down area, tenants should be surveyed to determine who would use the wash rack. A good rule of thumb would be to take the aircraft with the largest wingspan and greatest length that the airport would like to accommodate and add 10 feet (5 feet each side). The 10 feet will capture overspray and provide room for personnel to walk around the aircraft. Example 1 Example 2 Beech Baron 58 Wingspan ~38 feet Length ~30 feet Use the longer of the two dimensions, add 10, and round up to the nearest 5 Beech King Air 200 Wingspan ~55 feet Length ~44 feet Use the longer of the two dimensions, add 10, and round up to the nearest 5 Wash down area: 50 feet by 50 feet Wash down area: 65 feet by 65 feet If the intention is to provide an area for the largest most common aircraft in use that would use the facility, a Beech King Air B200 is a good place to start. A King Air B200 is approximately 55 feet wide by 45 feet long. In addition to the area needed for the aircraft, additional area is needed for overspray and access around the aircraft. A 65 foot by 65 foot wash area would accommodate the King Air B200 and approximately 60% of the existing aircraft fleet, including many small and mid-size business jets. If the aircraft were parked at an angle on the wash area, even larger aircraft could use the facility. Additional pavement may be required if a tug is used to pull the aircraft into position without the tug driving off the pavement. A cheaper solution would be to push the aircraft into place and then pull the aircraft out. A clear area around the wash down area should be provided so aircraft can be maneuvered into and out of position. This area will also provide room to install any necessary utility appa- ratus (e.g., hose bibs, outlets, lights, oil/water separators, and control panels); 10 to 15 feet of clear area would be sufficient. Exhibit 5-33 provides a sample layout of a proposed wash rack. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making a wash rack as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Because wash racks are within the perimeter fence, there are no special security recommenda- tions. The TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004 should be consulted when planning this type of facility.

90 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Other Considerations Utilities Water. In conjunction with finding a location that meets the safety and traffic flow considerations, the availability and proximity to a water source will be a significant driver in the location and cost of the facility. If a water source is readily available, a meeting with the local utility provider should be considered to determine their requirements for the facility and available water pressure. Sanitary Sewer. If the local water and sewer authority permits the wash water to discharge into the sanitary sewer system, it will be necessary to be within a reasonable proximity to the system. Electrical Power. Providing electrical power to the wash rack should also be considered. This would allow the use of power washers, vacuum cleaners, and other electrical cleaning equipment. Power may also be required if the wash rack system has area lighting, automated controls, and monitoring devices. Communications. If there is a desire or plan to charge a fee for the use of the facility, a telephone line or other communications line may be required if a credit card or similar system is employed. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-33. Sample wash rack layout. Water design issues: • Hose bibs (more than one may be needed) • Hose for the hose bibs (the use of multiple hose bibs at the same time may result in low water pressure and should be studied) Sanitary Sewer design issues: • The sewer authority may require fuel traps, oil/water separators prior to discharging to their system • The sewer authority may also require flow meters to monitor the amount of discharge

GA Facility Planning by Type 91 Wash Water Discharge One of the first meetings when planning a wash rack should be with the local environmental agencies and the local water and sewer company. This meeting will help define what can and cannot be done with the wash water and may help determine the location and type of facility. A common requirement is that the wash water must be treated prior to discharge. There are different levels of treatment which will be determined by the local environmental agencies. Treatment can range from a fuel trap and oil/water separator to complete collection and treatment at a sanitary sewer treatment plant or similar facility. Example scenarios follow: Scenario 1: Wash water does not need to be treated Possible electrical power needs: • Outlets • System controls • Area lighting • Monitoring devices • Payment device Option A: Construct an open air facility and allow wash water to drain into a ditch or storm sewer through a fuel trap. Option B: Construct an open air facility with the potential for future collection and treat- ment should regulations change. Scenario 2: Wash water must be treated Option A: Collect onsite for removal by truck and transport to a treatment facility If this option is chosen, the amount of wash water to be treated should be reduced in one of the following ways: • Construct an open air facility and install a valved system that opens during wash events and closes during precipitation events • Construct an enclosed facility • Construct a covered facility Option B: Collect and discharge to the sanitary sewer system for treatment If this option is chosen and the local utility does not treat precipitation, wash water should be collected in one of the following ways: • Construct an open air facility and install a valved system that opens during wash events and closes during precipitation events • Construct an enclosed facility • Construct a covered facility (if acceptable to local utility) If this option is chosen and the local utility does treat precipitation, the amount of wash water should be reduced in one of the following ways to reduce treatment costs: • Construct an open air facility and install a valved system that opens during wash events and closes during precipitation events • Construct an enclosed facility • Construct a covered facility All Option B scenarios may require sanitary sewer meters for additional monitoring. If the local utility and environmental requirements are not known during the initial planning of the facility, the scenario with the greatest impact should be considered during planning.

92 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Engineering & Construction Engineering issues that should be considered during the planning process include • Stormwater and erosion control measures that may require the size of the wash area to be adjusted to fit the space available. • The grades in the area. Do not plan up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • The potential for jet blast when choosing a location. • Apron grades need to be flat enough for aircraft to be pulled into and out of the wash area but sloping enough to drain. • Will the construction and phasing impact existing facilities. • Prepare or update the Spill Prevention and Countermeasures Control Plan (SPCC) for the facility. Deicing The wash facility can also be used as a deicing facility if the facility is constructed properly. The wash facility could be constructed to contain the deice fluid until it could be collected and disposed of properly. Additional information on deicing facilities can be found in AC 150/5300-14C. Facility-to-Facility Relationships A wash rack can interact well with many other GA facilities and not interact well with others. A wash rack would not interact well with facilities that have pedestrian traffic or large aircraft traffic like a terminal building, FBO building, or helicopter parking area due to overspray and prop wash or jet blast. Given that wash racks are primarily used by smaller aircraft, a location in the vicinity of t-hangars or a based aircraft apron would work well together. Co-locating the wash rack with a fuel farm can be beneficial if both facilities tie to the sanitary sewer system. Both facilities may be able to use the same systems to reduce construction and maintenance costs. Locating a maintenance equipment storage (MES) building nearby can offer the same benefits if the MES building has a wash facility. Co-locating these and other facilities that require utility connections can help reduce overall construction and maintenance costs. The Ideal Wash Rack The ideal wash rack facility would include the following characteristics: • An enclosed facility (no door) • 70 feet by 70 feet with 18-ft-high opening • Overhead lighting • At least two hose bibs • At least one electrical outlet per side • A minor curb along the entrance to separate wash water from rainwater runoff • Connection to sanitary sewer • Overall height below Part 77 Surfaces • Located outside taxiway and TLOFAs • Near existing water, sewer, and electrical connections • Reasonably accessible for aircraft owner’s automobiles to transport washing supplies to the aircraft • Clear of future development opportunities Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-34 provides a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for a wash rack.

GA Facility Planning by Type 93 GA Terminal Building Airports typically have at least one building that serves as a focal point for general aviation— for basic meeting/greeting and pilot services. Some also house airport-related businesses and airport administrative offices. GA terminal buildings range from a very basic waiting room, restrooms, and telephones to multi-story buildings with amenities such as pilot briefing rooms, pilot lounges, restaurants, gift shops, conference and training rooms, and rental car counters. The specific layout of a GA terminal is often driven by whether or not it is an airport-owned and operated facility or a private FBO building. Various types of ownership/operation models for GA terminal buildings include the following: • Owned and operated by the airport owner who also provides aircraft and pilot services at the airport • Owned by the airport owner but the entire building is leased to a private firm that manages the services • Owned by the airport owner with a portion of the building for airport needs (e.g., airport administration) and a portion leased to an FBO that provides services to the GA users • FBO owned and operated Regardless of which ownership/operator model is used, the GA terminal facilities should meet the needs of the GA community. Questions to ask when planning a GA terminal building: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about the terminal building? • Can associated facilities (e.g., access road, auto parking, and apron) be developed in balance with the terminal building? • What functions will the building layout provide for? • What kind of community outreach is needed to plan the building? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • What community goals and standards will affect the building plans? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • Will the building serve non-airport functions such as community activities? • Will the building need to be expanded in the future? Location The GA terminal building location should • Provide maximum visibility from the runway and/or parallel taxiway for arriving aircraft. • Provide good visibility of the airfield from the terminal. • Provide safe and efficient access from primary roadways. • Be close to an adequate apron for based and transient aircraft. Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-34. Wash rack development plan checklist.

94 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Have room for adequate automobile parking. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Have room for future expansion of the building and associated parking. • Allow easy access to utilities or areas for well water and/or a septic system. For most GA airports, the terminal building will be the focal point of the airport. Because of this, the building should be easy to locate and navigate to from both the airside and landside. The view of the terminal should not be blocked by other buildings and other buildings should not block the view of the airfield from the terminal. The GA terminal building should be aligned with a parallel taxiway or the runway as much as possible. Users & Services While choosing a location for the GA terminal building, it is important to determine who the users will be and what services will be provided. These users typically include • Pilots – Student – Corporate – Based – Transient • Passengers • Airport Management • FBOs • Restaurants • Community Taking the proposed users of the terminal into account, the services need to be determined. Typical services in a GA terminal building include • Passenger Waiting Area • Restrooms (24/7 airside access) • Vending • Pilot Lounge • Pilot Room • Mechanical Room • Storage Room • Circulation • Flight Planning (including weather station) • Conference Room • Operations/FBO Counter • Airport Administration • Office Lease Space • Restaurant Several State Aviation System (SAS) plans have planning guidance on GA terminal buildings. The guidance ranges from the size of the building to the functions and areas inside the building. Most of the guidance is on the areas and space eligible for state funding. There are no general rules of thumb based on the different SAS plans due to the wide-ranging guidance provided. Most SAS plans that have guidance indicate that, at a minimum, the following services should be provided: • Passenger Lounge • Restrooms • Vending • Pilot Lounge

GA Facility Planning by Type 95 Size & Layout If no preliminary planning has been completed for a GA terminal building and a size needs to be determined for an ALP and for cost estimating, the following guidelines can be used. The peak-hour operations from the approved master plan will be needed to get started. For planning, a factor of 2.5 people (pilots and passengers) per peak-hour operation can be assumed. An area of 100 to 150 square feet of space per person was considered adequate to accommodate the peak- hour traffic. The square footage per person will depend on the functions anticipated and any additional areas expected in the terminal. Using these figures, the following formula can be used to provide a planning size for a GA terminal building for an ALP: (Peak-hour operations) × (2.5) × (100 sf to 150 sf) = Building square footage Example Peak-Hour Operations: 10 (from Master Plan) Square foot per person: 125 (this size was chosen due to a request by the Airport for a larger conference room and sleep rooms in the pilot’s lounge) 10 x 2.5 x 125 = 3,125 sf This formula is for general planning purposes only to help determine a size for showing on an ALP or in a master plan and initial cost estimating. Each airport will need to assess the demand for public space and private space and have an accurate forecast of operations to help determine the size and functions of the GA terminal. Secondary space around the terminal building also needs to be planned for on an ALP. Second- ary space would include walkways, entrance plazas, airside patios, landscape areas, and buffers with other buildings. Space should also be provided for future expansion of the terminal building. Exhibit 5-35 provides sample GA terminal building layouts. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and per- pendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making a terminal building as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a GA terminal building include tamper- proof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the hangar to sufficiently illuminate the area. Additional more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system with cameras. The TSA has guidelines on security for GA airports. These guidelines can be found in “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004. Ideally, these guidelines should be consulted when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Utilities GA terminal buildings require access to water and sewer connections. This may dictate the location of the building and may affect the budget.

96 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-35. Sample GA terminal building layouts. Sample 1. Sample 2.

GA Facility Planning by Type 97 Exhibit 5-35. (Continued). Sample 3. (continued on next page) Engineering & Construction Engineering issues that should be considered during planning include • Security fence and gate locations • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the building • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the building and adjacent impervious areas to be adjusted to fit the space available • The grades in the area. Do not plan up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities • The potential for jet blast • Construction and phasing effects on existing facilities Facility-to-Facility Relationships A GA terminal building has to interact with many other facilities, the most common being the apron and automobile parking and access. The terminal building may also interact with hangars. When a terminal building and hangars interact, the terminal building must not be hidden or blocked by the hangars. The terminal building should be closer to the runway than adjacent hangars to allow a good line of sight to the airfield. A wash rack, fuel farm, or helicopter parking apron should not be close to a terminal building. A helicopter parking apron should be far enough away to reduce rotor wash near pedestrians but close enough to allow helicopter pilots easy access to the terminal. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-36 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for a GA terminal building.

98 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Sample 4. Note: GA Terminal Building attached to the side of a hangar Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-35. (Continued). Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Meets community needs Meets local building code Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-36. GA terminal building development plan checklist.

GA Facility Planning by Type 99 FBO Building An FBO building is very similar to a GA terminal building. They generally serve the same function except that an FBO building is usually privately owned or publicly owned and leased to a private entity. In addition to the FBO operations, some also house airport-related businesses. FBO buildings can range from a simple building with basic waiting room, restrooms, and FBO counter to multi-story buildings with amenities (e.g., pilot briefing rooms, pilot lounges, restau- rants, gift shops, conference and training rooms, and rental car counters). Questions to ask when planning an FBO building: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about an FBO building? • Can associated facilities (e.g., access road, auto parking, and apron) be developed in balance with the FBO building? • What functions will the building layout provide for? • What kind of community outreach is needed to plan the building? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • What community goals and standards will affect the building plans? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • Will the building serve non-airport functions such as community activities? • Will the building need to be expanded in the future? Location An FBO building location should • Provide maximum visibility from the runway and/or parallel taxiway for arriving aircraft. • Provide good visibility of the airfield from the building. • Provide safe and efficient access from primary roadways. • Be close to an adequate apron for based and transient aircraft. • Have room for adequate automobile parking. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Allow room for future expansion of the building and associated parking. • Allow easy access to utilities or areas for well water and/or a septic system. For many larger GA airports, an FBO building may be a focal point of the airport. Because of this, the building should be easy to locate and navigate to—from both the airside and landside. The view of the FBO building should not be blocked by other buildings and other buildings should not block the view of the airfield from the terminal. The FBO building should be aligned with a parallel taxiway or the runway as much as possible to maximize development space. Users & Services When choosing a location for an FBO building, it is important to determine who the users will be and what services will be provided. Users typically include • Pilots – Student – Corporate – Based – Transient

100 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Passengers • Restaurants Taking the proposed users of the building into account, the services need to be determined. Typical services in a FBO building include • Passenger Waiting Area • Restrooms • Vending • Pilot Lounge • Pilot Room • Mechanical Room • Storage Room • Circulation • Flight Planning with weather station • Conference Room • Operations Counter • Office Space • Lease Space • Restaurant Size & Layout The sizing of an FBO building can use the same guidelines for a GA terminal building. The sample GA terminal building layouts provided earlier can be used for an FBO building. The main difference would be that the administrative space and lease space could be used for FBO offices. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making an FBO building as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Recommendations for basic security measures for an FBO building include tamperproof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the building to illuminate the area. Additional and more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system with cameras. The TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004, should be consulted when planning such a facility. Other Considerations Utilities FBO buildings require access to water and sewer connections. This may dictate the locations of the buildings and may affect the budget. Engineering and Construction Engineering issues that need to be considered during planning include • Security fence and gate locations • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the building

GA Facility Planning by Type 101 • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the building and adjacent impervious areas to be adjusted to fit the space available • The grades in the area. Do not plan up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities • The potential for jet blast • Construction and phasing effects on existing facilities Facility-to-Facility Relationships An FBO building has to interact with many other facilities, the most common being the apron and automobile parking and access. The FBO building may also interact with hangars. When an FBO building and hangars interact, the FBO building must not be hidden or blocked by the hangars. The FBO building should be closer to the runway than adjacent hangars to allow a good line of sight to the airfield. A wash rack, fuel farm, or helicopter parking apron should not be close to an FBO building. A helicopter parking apron should be far enough away to reduce rotor wash near pedestrians but close enough to allow helicopter pilots easy access to the building. If FBO buildings and a GA terminal building are at the same airport, consider sufficient separation between the facilities to accommodate development around the airport. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-37 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for an FBO building. Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s/Tenant’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Meets community needs Meets local building code Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-37. FBO building development plan checklist. Airport Administration Building A separate airport administration building is not very common to GA airports, but such buildings are sometimes on larger GA airports that have multiple FBOs with their own FBO buildings. An administration building can also serve as an incubator for aviation-related busi- nesses if additional lease space is planned for. An administration building can also provide a neutral location for community and airport events and meetings. Questions to ask when planning an airport administration building: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about the administration building? • Can associated facilities (e.g., access road, auto parking, and apron) be developed in balance with the building?

102 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • What functions will the building layout provide for? • What kind of community outreach is needed to plan the building? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • What community goals and standards will affect the building plans? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • Will the building serve non-airport functions such as community activities? • Will the building have attached MES facilities? • Will the building have attached ARFF facilities? • Will the building need to be expanded in the future? Location The airport administration building location should • Provide good visibility of the airfield from the building. • Provide safe and efficient access from primary roadways. • Have room for adequate automobile parking. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Allow room for future expansion of the building and associated parking. • Allow easy access to utilities or areas for well water and/or a septic system. If the administration building will serve as only an office and community building, a location that does not impede revenue-generating airside development (e.g., hangars and FBO buildings) is recommended. If the building is to have attached maintenance or ARFF facilities, a location with airside access is recommended. In determining a location, the airport must weigh the pros and cons of locating the administration building in a potential revenue-generating location versus providing good airside visibility and access. Users & Services When choosing a location for an administration building, it is important to determine who the users will be and what services will be provided. In addition to the airport administration, users typically include • Aviation-Related Businesses • Other Government Agencies • Community Groups Taking the proposed users of the administration building into account, the services need to be determined. The typical services in an airport administration building include • Lobby • Restrooms • Vending • Mechanical Room • Storage Room • Circulation • Conference Room • Airport Management Offices • Office Lease Space

GA Facility Planning by Type 103 Size & Layout The size of the administration building will depend on the needs of the airport and the chosen functions of the building. There are no guidelines for sizing the building, but a large enough foot print should be used with room for modifications and expansion. It will be important to plan for the secondary space around the administration building. Sec- ondary space would include walkways, entrance plazas, patios, landscape areas, and buffers with other buildings. If the building is to serve community functions that have large gatherings, plan for the appropriate sized parking lot. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and per- pendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making an admin- istration building as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Recommendations for basic security measures for an administration building include tamper- proof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the building to sufficiently illuminate the area. Additional and more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system with cameras. If the building is part of the security perimeter, appropriate airside access security measures will need to be incorporated into the building. Consult “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004, when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Utilities Administration buildings will require access to water and sewer connections. This may dictate the locations of the building and may affect the budget. Engineering Engineering issues that should be considered during planning include • Security fence and gate locations • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the building • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the building and adjacent impervious areas to be adjusted to fit the space available • The grades in the area. Do not plan or construct up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities • The potential for jet blast • Construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities Facility-to-Facility Relationships An administration building can be a standalone building or interact with other airport-owned facilities. The building could be constructed in the vicinity of a maintenance building or ARFF building with shared access and parking in a campus format. These facilities can also be a part of the same building to consolidate services and for economies of scale. The administration building should have easy ground access. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-38 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for an airport administration building.

104 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning MES Buildings Not all airports require a separate facility to store airport maintenance equipment. Some airports contract out the mowing and snow removal to private companies, other use municipal or county equipment used and usually housed elsewhere. If an airport has its own maintenance equipment, there are several options for storing it. Some airports leave the equipment outside, others park it in hangars, and others have dedicated storage facilities. A dedicated maintenance equipment storage (MES) building allows an airport to protect investment in equipment and may free potential lease space in aircraft hangars to generate revenue. Questions to ask when planning a MES building: • Is there an airport master plan and what does it say about the MES building? • Can associated facilities (e.g., access road and auto parking) be developed in balance with the building? • What functions will the building layout provide for? • What kind of community outreach is needed to plan the building? • Will there be an architectural theme and how will that affect layout, size, and location? • Are there significant engineering issues such as cut/fill challenges? Drainage challenges? • Are there existing and planned utilities to meet building needs? • What community goals and standards will affect the building plans? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? • Will the building have attached Administrative offices? • Will the building have attached ARFF facilities? • How much equipment needs to be stored? • Will the facility need to be expanded in the future? • Does the facility need both airside and landside access? • Will maintenance be performed on the equipment? If so, what type and how will this affect layout? Location & Orientation AC 150/5220-18A, “Buildings for Storage and Maintenance of Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment and Materials” has good information for snow removal equipment (SRE) buildings that can be applied to MES buildings. Similar to the SRE building, the MES building should be located • So that maintenance equipment activities do not interfere with aircraft operations • So maintenance equipment is not required to cross large amounts of airfield pavement thereby increasing the chances of FOD • So that employees do not have to cross active airfield pavements to reach the facility • So that it does not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities • To meet AC 150/5300-13a and FAR Part 77 guidelines • To allow for future expansion Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Meets local building code Meets community needs Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-38. Airport administration building plan checklist.

GA Facility Planning by Type 105 In addition to location, the orientation of a MES building can be important. A MES building should be oriented so that • In heavy snow regions, the doors are parallel to the primary wind direction to help prevent snow buildup in front of the doors • In regions that have ice and snow, the doors do not face north blocking the apron in front of the door from the sun • In hot and sunny regions, the doors do not face south such that the inside of the hangar does not receive direct sunlight in the afternoons heating up the building. This is especially impor- tant if maintenance is being performed • The primary wind direction is not into the building Depending on the size of the airport, activity level, and personnel assigned to maintenance, it may be beneficial to co-locate the MES building with the fuel farm and possibly the airfield electrical vault. Size & Layout The building size will depend on many things. In determining the building size, the following questions need to be answered: • How much equipment needs to be stored? • What type of equipment is to be stored? • Can the facility also be used for ARFF equipment? • Will the facility store snow removal equipment? • Will maintenance be performed on the equipment? If so, what type? • Does the facility need office and restroom facilities? • What type of utilities will be needed, including internet for weather? Exhibit 5-39 presents planning guides for the size of the facility based on the size of the airport. These numbers are just a starting point. Airports with significant snow and larger runways will probably need a larger facility to accommodate the snow removal equipment along with grass cutting and other maintenance vehicles. Airports may also need additional vehicle bays for use as a maintenance bay or for ARFF equipment. Exhibit 5-40 depicts examples of MES buildings for all three size airports with side-by- side vehicle bays. Exhibits 5-41 and 5-42 depict examples of MES buildings for the medium and large size airports with stacked vehicle bays. The support facilities shown are a general layout and description only. Each airport should decide what facilities they need and their sizes. Coordination with the FAA for eligibility of space is recommended. Exhibit 5-43 depicts a building layout with the footprints of maintenance equipment including trucks, tractors, and attachments. The building also has a heated maintenance bay for cold weather climates. Areas Small (less than 250 acres) Medium (between 250 and 500 acres) Large (between 500 and 750 acres) Equipment Storage 1,200 - 1,600 sf (2 bays) 2,400 - 3,200 sf (4 bays) 3,600 - 4,800 sf (6 bays) Support 0 sf 600 - 800 sf (1 bay) 1,200 - 1,600 sf (2 bays) Total 1,200 - 1,600 sf (2 bays) 3,000 - 4,000 sf (5 bays) 4,800 - 6,400 sf (8 bays) Note: Airports larger than 750 acres should refer to AC 150/5220-18A for guidance Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-39. MES building sizing.

106 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-40. MES building with side-by-side vehicle bays.

GA Facility Planning by Type 107 Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-41. MES buildings with stacked vehicles bays for medium airports.

108 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Exhibit 5-42. MES buildings with stacked vehicles bays for large airports.

GA Facility Planning by Type 109 Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-43. MES buildings with sample equipment layout. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making a MES building as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and airfield infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a MES building include tamperproof locks on all doors and enough lighting on all sides of the building to sufficiently illuminate the area. Additional and more expensive measures would include a monitored alarm system and cameras. If the building is part of the security perimeter, appropriate airside access security measures will need to be incorporated into the building. Consult the TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Information Publication A-001, May 2004, when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations In addition to the actual building itself, the space around the building needs to be considered. Large pieces of maintenance equipment often require large maneuvering space due to the size of the unit or other attachments. A large paved or gravel driveway should be provided in front of the vehicle bays. The area should be large enough to be able to pull the vehicle out and remove or attach additional equipment. Utilities MES buildings may require access to water and sewer connections. This may dictate the loca- tions of the building and may affect the budget. Engineering and Construction Engineering issues that need to be considered during the planning process include • Security fence and gate locations • Grading limitations due to the flat finished floor of the building • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the building and adjacent impervious areas to be adjusted to fit the space available

110 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Grades in the area. Do not plan or construct up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities • The potential for jet blast • Construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities • Grades around the building and access to the airfield for the equipment The airport should consult local building codes during design to determine building requirements. Facility-to-Facility Relationships A MES building can be a standalone building or interact with other airport-owned facilities. The building could be constructed near an airport administration building or ARFF building with shared access and parking in a campus format. These facilities can also be a part of the same build- ing to consolidate services and for economies of scale. Exhibit 5-44 illustrates an administra- tion building with an attached maintenance facility. This illustration is based on the Opa-locka Executive Airport administrative building. The MES building could also be near the fuel farm or wash rack to share common utilities. Locat- ing the MES building with the fuel farm, airfield electrical vault, and emergency generator could also reduce response time to problems and access to tools and equipment in case of an emergency. The benefits of locating or co-locating the MES building with other facilities needs to be weighed against the possible effect on prime airside real estate and potential revenue-producing facilities. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. & Opa-locka Airport Authority Exhibit 5-44. Sample administration building with attached MES building.

GA Facility Planning by Type 111 Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-45 provides a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for a MES building. Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Meets local building code Meets FAA design criteria Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-45. MES building development plan checklist. Automobile Parking and Access Providing access and parking areas for airfield facilities should be integral to planning each of the facilities. Access should be safe and efficient. Good visibility all along the access road and in the parking area is very important. Providing adequate safe parking will also create a positive impression of the facility. Not all facilities will need or require parking. In many instances, the facility parking will depend on the local guidelines. Questions to ask when planning automobile parking and access: • How much parking is needed by facility type? • Will the parking area need to be expanded in the future? • What are the local parking requirements? • What utilities are needed? • What are the local emergency services requirements? • Will the parking be used by users of other facilities? • Is/are the access roads easy to find? • What type of vehicles are the access roads going to accommodate? • Are there significant engineering issues (e.g., cut/fill challenges)? Drainage challenges? • Will construction affect other facilities on the airport and how does that affect planning? Location Automobile parking should • Provide safe and easy ingress and egress for the vehicles expected to use the spaces. • Be close to the facility they are serving. • Ensure that employees do not have to cross active airfield pavements to reach their destination. • Ensure that pedestrians do not have to cross other roads to reach their destination. • Not interfere with the possible expansion or construction of other airfield facilities. • Ensure that vehicles do not have to back out of the space directly into a primary road. An access road should • Provide a safe and as direct as possible access to the proposed destination. • Avoid restricting future airfield development. • Provide access to as many different facilities as possible.

112 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Configuration Type Figure Description A 1 Single row of spaces 1 Single driving lane 55 foot depth B 2 single rows of spaces 1 Single driving lane 75 foot depth C 1 Double row of spaces 2 driving lanes 100 foot depth Exhibit 5-46. Parking lot depth types. Size & Layout Once a location is chosen, the size of the parking lot and the number of parking spaces will need to be determined. The size of each parking space and the number of spaces will most likely be determined by local parking guidelines. Very few state aviation system plans have guidelines on automobile parking. The states that do generally recommend one space per based aircraft plus a percentage for employees and visitors. If there are no local or state guidelines, a typical parking space size for planning purposes is 20 feet long and 10 feet wide. A driving lane between rows of parking is typically 25 feet wide. These are the dimensions that will be used for the purposes of this Guidebook. Exhibit 5-46 presents dimensions for minimum depths for different configurations with an accompanying exhibit. The depths include a 5-foot buffer for signs, light poles, fences, bollards, and other parking accessories.

GA Facility Planning by Type 113 These depths do not include access drives or offsets from the primary roadways. For park- ing adjacent to hangars, check local requirements and those in the International Building Code (IBC). IBC requires that no public way (e.g., road, parking, and sidewalk) be within 30 feet of a hangar unless the hangar has a 2-hr rated firewall. Consult your local fire marshal and building code official for this and other unique parking requirements. For this Guidebook, parking spaces and driving lanes will be no closer than 30 feet to a hangar. One of the best ways to maximize development space is to plan facilities to be parallel and perpendicular to each other as much as possible. Angles create unusable space. Making automobile parking as parallel or perpendicular to other facilities and infrastructure also provides for safer traffic flow and expandability. Exhibit 5-47 depicts several examples of parking lot layouts. D 1 Single row of spaces 1 Double row of spaces 2 driving lanes 120 foot depth E 2 Single row of spaces 1 Double row of spaces 2 driving lanes 140 foot depth Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-46. (Continued).

114 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Security Recommendations for basic security measures for a parking lot are to provide enough light- ing to sufficiently illuminate the area. Additional and more expensive measures would include security cameras. Consult the TSA’s “Security Guidelines for General Aviation Airports,” Infor- mation Publication A-001, May 2004, when planning this type of facility. Other Considerations Number of Spaces When planning for automobile parking areas, a rough idea of the number of parking spaces is needed. As noted in Exhibit 5-48, local codes and ordinances should be consulted first to deter- mine the number of required parking spaces. If there are no local requirements or additional guidance is needed, Exhibit 5-48 provides general rules of thumb for the number of parking spaces at the GA facilities addressed in this Guidebook. Note: * = Distance as needed to meet local guidelines or allow a radius to accommodate the expected vehicle traffic. (Recommend not less than 25 feet) Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-47. Sample parking lot layouts.

GA Facility Planning by Type 115 For “resort” airports, providing additional long-term parking of vehicles for infrequent users should be considered. As an example, planning for a shared parking lot for the GA terminal building, box hangar with maintenance, and t-hangar in Exhibit 5-48, would require 70 parking spaces. When determining the number of parking spaces, remember to follow the current federal guidelines for handicapped parking requirements. Engineering and Construction Engineering issues that need to be considered during the planning process include • Construction and phasing impacts on existing facilities. • Stormwater and erosion control measures may require the size of the parking to be adjusted to fit the space available. • The grades in the area. Do not plan up to the property or lease line. Provide adequate buffer for grade tie-ins, grading limits, drainage swales, and storm sewer facilities. • If lighting is required, make sure there is access to the appropriate electrical power. Also make sure that space is provided in the interior of the parking lot as well as the perimeter for the light poles. Box Hangar (storage only) Per local parking requirements or 1 space per 1,000 sf of hangar floor space (5 minimum) Sample: a 6,400 sf hangar would need 7 spaces Box Hangar (with office or maintenance space) Per local parking requirements or 1 space per 1,000 sf of hangar floor space (5 minimum) and 1 space per 200 sf of office space (5 minimum) and 1 space per 750 sf of maintenance/shop space (5 minimum) Sample: a 10,000 sf hangar (10) with 2,000 sf of office (10) would need 20 spaces T-Hangar Per local parking requirements or 1 space for 50% of units Sample: a 12 unit t-hangar would need 6 spaces GA Terminal Building/ FBO Building2 Per local parking requirements or 2.5 spaces per peak-hour operations (operations from the master plan) and 1 space per 200 sf of office space (5 minimum) Sample: an airport with 15 peak-hour operations (38) and 1,200 sf of offices (6) would need 44 spaces Airport Administrative Building2 Per local parking requirements or 1 space per 200 sf of office space (5 minimum) Sample: a 4,000 sf administration building would need 20 spaces MES Building Per local parking requirements or 1 space per vehicle bay and 1 space per 750 sf of maintenance/shop space (5 minimum) Sample: a MES building with four bays (4) and 810 sf (5) of shop space would need 9 spaces Based Aircraft Apron Per local parking requirements or 1 space for 50% of based tie-down spaces Sample: an apron with 10 tie-down spaces would need 5 spaces Notes: 1. These are general planning numbers only. The local guidelines should be consulted to determine the actual number of parking spaces required. 2. The number of parking spaces should be increased as appropriate if the buildings include space for community events. Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-48. Recommended number of parking spaces per type of facility.1

116 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning Source: Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. Exhibit 5-49. Dead end parking lots for emergency services vehicles. • Check the local landscaping requirements and plan for adequate green space. • If the parking is for a public-use facility (e.g., a terminal building), consider providing unob- structed access to the facility from the parking lot via a raised walkway or central plaza. • The potential for jet blast. • Consider providing overflow parking for special events (e.g., airshows) adjacent to the access roads in fields or other turfed areas. Be aware of any local design codes for parking lots and emergency services vehicles when planning. Many localities do not permit deadend parking lots that require emergency services vehicles to back up. Exhibit 5-49 provides options if this condition is required. Facility-to-Facility Relationships Every GA facility discussed in this Guidebook will interact with either automobile parking or vehicle access. For the most part, parking for any publicly accessible building with office space will require parking per the local guidelines. The interaction with each facility has been discussed in each individual section.

GA Facility Planning by Type 117 Criteria Yes No Comment Meets the Airport’s needs Maximizes development space Does not interfere with other nearby or future development Does not impact or restrict taxilanes or taxiways Provides space to meet local engineering requirements (i.e., stormwater and erosion control) Meets local parking regulations Interacts well with other facilities Provides room for expansion Within the project budget Exhibit 5-50. Automobile parking and access plan checklist. Plan Evaluation Exhibit 5-50 is a simple checklist to help evaluate the proposed development plan for auto- mobile parking and access.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning provides guidance for planning airport facilities that accommodate general aviation aircraft. The guidance is designed to help airport practitioners plan flexible and cost-effective facilities that are responsive to industry needs.

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