National Academies Press: OpenBook

Transit Service Evaluation Standards (2019)

Chapter: References

« Previous: Chapter 5 - Conclusions
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transit Service Evaluation Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25446.
×
Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transit Service Evaluation Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25446.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transit Service Evaluation Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25446.
×
Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transit Service Evaluation Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25446.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transit Service Evaluation Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25446.
×
Page 66

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

62 Akoto, E. 2016. Exploring Diversified Performance Indicators for Evaluating Non-Urbanized Transit Program Outcomes. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 28–48. Allen, W. Jr., and F. DiCesare. 1976. Transit Service Evaluation: Preliminary Identification of Variables Char- acterizing Level of Service. Transportation Research Record, No. 606, pp. 41–47. Allen, W. Jr., and L. Grimm. 1980. Development and Application of Performance Measures for a Medium-Sized Transit System. Transportation Research Record, No.746, pp. 8–13. American Public Transportation Association. 1979. Dallas Creates Performance Benchmarks. Passenger Trans- port, April 6. Anderson, S. 1981. The Michigan Transit Performance Evaluation Process: Application to a U.S. Sample. Trans- portation Research Forum. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting. Oxford, Ind.: Cross Company, pp. 94–103. Attanucci, J., L. Jaeger, and J. Becker. 1979. Bus Service Evaluation Procedures: A Review. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Barnum, D., S. Tandon, and S. McNeil. 2008. Comparing the Performance of Bus Routes after Adjusting for the Environment Using Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp. 77–85. Becker, A. J., W. Talley, J. Krumke, and P. Anderson. 1981. Prototype Bus Service Evaluation System. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Behrooz, H., and F. Jalali. 2012. Electronic Ticketing System for Urban Public Transport: A Transformational Change Far Beyond Fare Collection Automation. Presented at 19th Annual ITS Conference, Vienna, Austria. Benn, H. P. 1995. TCRP Synthesis of Transit Practice 10: Bus Route Evaluation Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Benvenuti, F., C. Diamantini, D. Potena, and E. Storti. 2017. An Ontology-Based Framework to Support Per- formance Monitoring in Public Transport Systems. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 81, pp. 188–208. Bitzan, J., and J. Hough. 1994. An Evaluation Guidebook for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems in the Mountain-Plains Region. Fargo, ND: Mountain-Plains Consortium, North Dakota State University. Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc. 1981. Transit System Performance Evaluation and Service Change Manual. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Bowles, B. 1979. Transit Performance in Central Ohio. Passenger Transport, Vol. 37, No. 34, p. 7. Bruun, E., and M. Vanderschuren. 2017. Assessment methods from around the world potentially useful for public transport projects. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 103–130. Bullard, D., and D. Christiansen. 1981. Level of Service Concept Applied to Public Transportation. Arlington, Tex.: Texas A&M Transportation Institute. Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; University of Maryland, Center for Advanced Transportation Technology; and Resource Systems Group. 2010. NCHRP Report 664: Measuring Transportation Network Performance. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Carter, D. N., and T. J. Lomax. 1992. Development and Application of Performance Measures for Rural Public Transportation Operators. Transportation Research Record, No. 1338, pp. 28–36. Carter, Goble, Roberts, Inc. 1982. Rural Public Transportation Performance Evaluation Guide. Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Catala, M. 2016. National Transit Network Level of Service Data and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Federal Transit Administration. Charnes, A. W., W. W. Cooper, and E. L. Rhodes. 1979. Measuring the Efficiency of Decision-Making Units. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 429–444. References

References 63 Choocharukul, K., and K. Sriroongvikrai. 2013. Multivariate Analysis of Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study of Bangkok’s Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Passengers. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 10, No. 0, pp. 1258–1269. Chu, X., G. Fielding, and B. Lamar. 1992. Measuring Transit Performance Using Data Envelopment Analysis in Urban Transport. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 223–230. Colin Buchanan and Partners. 2000. Confederation of Passenger Transport—The Factors Affecting Bus Reliability. Final Report. London: Colin Buchanan and Partners. Community Transportation Association. 1993. Performance Evaluation for Rural Transit Systems. RTAP Tech- nical Assistance Brief. Washington, D.C.: Community Transportation Association. Cook, C. 1979. Berkshire Regional Transit Authority: Transportation System Management Evaluation Report. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Cook, T., and J. Lawrie. 2006. Benchmarking for North Carolina Public Transportation Systems. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Transportation. Dajani, J., and G. Gilbert. 1978. Measuring the Performance of Transit Systems. Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 97–103. Debo, C. 1981. New Focus on/in Performance Standards. In Transitions, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University, pp. 1–21. Delaware Administration for Regional Transit and Urban Mass Transportation Administration. 1984. Delaware Administration for Regional Transit Ridership and Route Performance Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Dorfman, M. 1979. Evaluating the Small System. Passenger Transport, Vol. 37, No. 32, p. 7. Drosdat, H. 1977. Transit Performance Measures: Their Significance in Local Funding Allocation. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Everett, P. B. 1978. Service and Performance Indicators. In TRB Unpublished Report No. 7: Consumer-Related Issues in Public Transit: Workshop Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Fielding, G. J., R. Glauthier, and C. Lave. 1978. Performance Indicators for Transit Management, UCI-ITS-WP-78-1. Irvine, CA: School of Social Sciences and Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Irvine. Fielding, G. J., and S. G. Anderson. 1983. Public Transit Performance Evaluation: Application to Section 15 Data. Transportation Research Record, No. 947, pp. 1–7. Fielding, G. J., and L. Hanson. 1988. Determinants of Superior Performance in Public Transit: Research Oppor- tunities Using Section 15 Data. Transportation Research Record, No. 1165, pp. 94–98. Fielding, G. J., T. Babitsky, and M. Brenner. 1985. Performance Evaluation for Bus Transit, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 19A, No. 1, p. 73–82. Flusberg, M., J. Kruger, and J. Curry. 1979. Bus Transit Monitoring Study: Interim Report 1: Data Requirements and Collection Techniques. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Flynn, J., C. Thole, V. Perk, J. Samus, and C. Van Nostrand. 2011. Metro Orange Line BRT Project Evaluation. FTA Report No. 0004. Washington, D.C.: Federal Transit Administration. Fuller, E. 1978. Performance Measures for Public Transit Service. Sacramento, Cal.: California Department of Transportation. Furth, P. G., B. Hemily, T. H. J. Muller, and J. G. Strathman. 2006. TCRP Report 113: Using Archived AVL-APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Galindez, A. A., J. F. McLaughlin, C. Beard, and G. S. Spivack. 1997. Mobility Analysis of Transit Systems. Trans- portation Research Record, No. 1604, pp. 69–82. Gandhi, S., and G. Tiwari. 2017. Critical Appraisal of Current BRTS Performance Evaluation Methods. Pre- sented at 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Giannopoulos, G. 1989. Bus Planning and Operation in Urban Areas: A Practical Guide. Brookfield, Vt.: Gower Publishing. Giuliano, G. 1981. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Efficiency of Public Transit Service. Transportation Research Record, No. 797, pp. 11–16. Glascock, J. 2006. Customer Standards Method: Identifying Customer-Defined Performance Standards and Measures. Presented at 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Goble, R. T. 1983. Rural Public Transportation Conference Targets Performance and Productivity. TR News, No. 109, pp. 7–10. Greater Bridgeport Transit District. 1984. Service Evaluation and System Monitoring Process. Bridgeport, Conn.: Greater Bridgeport Transit District. Grisé, E., and A. El-Geneidy. 2017. Evaluating the Relationship Between Socially (Dis)Advantaged Neighbour- hoods and Customer Satisfaction of Bus Service in London, U.K. Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 58, pp. 166–175. Güner, S., and E. Coskun. 2016. Determining the Best Performing Benchmarks for Transit Routes with a Multi- Objective Model: The Implementation and a Critique of the Two-Model Approach. Public Transport, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 205–224.

64 Transit Service Evaluation Standards Hanumappa, D., P. Ramachandran, T. Sitharim, S. Lakshamana, and R. Mulangi. 2016. Performance Evaluation of Premium Services in Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC). Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 17, No. 0, pp. 184–192. Hensher, D. 1991. Performance Evaluation in Passenger Transportation: What Are Relevant Measures? Working Paper Series ITS-WP-91-3. Sydney, Australia: Institute of Transport Studies, University of Sydney. Hodge, D. C., and J. Orrell III. 1995. Measuring Level of Service and Performance in Public Transportation: Final Research Report. Seattle, Wash.: Washington State Transportation Center. Holec, J. 1985. Recovery Ratio/Performance Standards for the Transit Industry. Transitions, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University, pp. 15–22. Holec, J., and D. Schwager. 1981. Statewide Transit Evaluation in Michigan. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Kaparias, I., E. Manassa, N. Eden, A. Tsakarestos, P. Schmitz, S. Hoadley, and S. Hauptmann. 2015. Policy-Aware Environmental Impact Assessment for Urban Mobility and Intelligent Transport Systems. Presented at 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Kashfi, S., J. Bunker, and T. Yigitcanlar. 2016. Understanding the Influence of Availability Measures on Bus Rider ship: Brisbane Case Study. 38th Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Kelley, W., and G. S. Rutherford. 1983. Transit System Performance Evaluation Methodology for Washington State. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Department of Transportation. Kittelson & Associates, Inc. 1999. TCRP Web Document 6: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Kittelson and Associates, Inc. 2003a. TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance- Measurement System. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Kittelson & Associates, Inc. 2003b. TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Kittelson & Associates, Inc., Parsons Brinckerhoff, KFH Group, Inc., Texas A&M Transportation Institute, and ARUP. 2013. TCRP Report 165: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Kocur, G. 1982. Potential Impacts of Transit Service Changes Based on Analytical Service Standards. Transporta- tion Research Record, No. 854, pp. 60–67. Liekendael, J.-C., P. G. Furth, and T. H. J. Muller. 2006. Service Quality Certification in Brussels, Belgium: A Quality Process with Teeth. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1955, pp. 88–95. Lago, A. 1985. Transit Corporate Planning: A Methodology for Trading-off Fares, Service Levels, and Capital Budgets. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Liu, W., J. Teng, and D. Zhong. 2013. Performance Evaluation at Bus Route Level: Considering Carbon Emissions. Presented at Fourth International Conference on Transportation Engineering, Chengdu, China. Mandelzys, M., and B. Hellinga. 2010. Identifying Causes of Performance Issues in Bus Schedule Adherence with Automatic Vehicle Location and Passenger Count Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2143, pp. 9–15. Marx, P. 2004. Economic Impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Innovations and Case Studies. Research in Transportation Economics, Vol. 8, p. 405–414. METRO Transit Planning Division. 1977. Metro Transit Service Evaluation Criteria: A Report on System and Route Performance. Seattle, Wash.: Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle–METRO. Metropolitan Transportation Authority of Harris County and Urban Mass Transportation Administration. 1984. Bus Service Evaluation Methods: A Review. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Mistretta, M., J. Goodwill, R. Gregg, and C. DeAnnuntis. 2009. Best Practices in Transit Service Planning. Tampa, Fla.: Center for Urban Transportation Research. Multisystems. 2004. Innovative Practices in Paratransit Services. Washington, D.C.: Easter Seals Project ACTION. Munro, S., and A. Biemiller. 1977. Standards for Public Transit Part I: Criteria for Transit Service. Transit Canada, Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 5–8. Murugesan, R., and N. V. R. Moorthy. 1998. Level of Public Transport Service Evaluation: A Fuzzy Set Approach. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 216–240. National Committee on Urban Transportation. 1958. Better Transportation for Your City: A Guide to the Factual Development of Urban Transportation Plans. Chicago, Ill.: Public Administration Service. New York State Department of Transportation. 1982. 1982 Report on Transit Operating Performance in New York State. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Department of Transportation. Odeck, J., and S. Brathen. 2009. The Efficiency of Norwegian Ferries in Providing Public Transport Service. International Journal of Transport Economics, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 121–139. Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company. 1978. Transit System Performance Indicators: An Assessment of Current U.S. Practice. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration.

References 65 Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company. 1980. Evaluation Manual for Mid-Size Transit Systems in the State of Michigan. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan Department of Transportation. Perk, V. A., and D. P. Hinebaugh. 1998. Current Practices in the Use of Service Evaluation Standards at Public Transit Agencies. Transportation Research Record, No. 1618, pp. 200–205. Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan. 1979. Florida Transit System Performance Measures and Standards. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida Department of Transportation. Qu, L., H. Krambeck, D. Dou, and G. Ollivier. 2016. Improving the Efficiency and Efficacy of Benchmarking Transit Level of Service Indicators in Resource-Constrained Environments. Presented at 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Radow, L. J., and C. Winters. 1996. Rural Transit Performance Measurement, RTAP Technical Assistance Brief. Washington, D.C.: Community Transportation Association. Reddy, A., A. Lu, M. Boguslavsky, and B. Levine. 2014. Designing New York City Subways’ Key Performance Indicators to Improve Service Delivery and Operations. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2415, pp. 21–34. Ryus P., K. Coffel, J. Parks, V. Perk, L. Cherrington, J. Arndt, Y. Nakanishi, and A. Gan. 2010. TCRP Report 141: A Methodology for Performance Measurement and Peer Comparison in the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Sherman, H. D., and J. Zhu. 2006. Service Productivity Management: Improving Service Performance Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Springer. Sheth, C., K. Triantis, and D. Teodorovic. 2007. Performance Evaluation of Bus Routes: A Provider and Passenger Perspective. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 453–478. Sinha, K., and R. Guenthner. 1981. Field Application and Evaluation of Bus Transit Performance Indicators. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Smyth, A., and L. Kelleher. 2018. Differences in Control and Regulatory Structures of Public Transport within the UK and Ireland: Implications for Quality and Effectiveness of Service Delivery. Presented at 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority. 1979. Planning Procedures Manual. Cincinnati, Ohio: Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority. Stone, J. R., J. W. Baugh, S. Chakravarty, and M. N. Surasky. 2001. Winston–Salem Mobility Manager: Data Collection, Validation, and Performance Evaluation. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Trans- portation Research Board, No. 1760, pp. 114–120. Takyi, I. 1993. A Multidimensional Methodology for Evaluating Public Transportation Services. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 27, No. 5, p. 395–405. Talley, W. 1991. Transit Performance Evaluation and Time Prices: A Single Indicator Methodology. Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 31, No. 2, p. 462–470. Talley, W., and P. Anderson. 1981. Effectiveness and Efficiency in Transit Performance: A Theoretical Perspective. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 15A, No. 6, p. 431–436. Thompson, K., L. Hirsch, S. Loose, V. Sharma-Brymer, S. Rainbird, K. Titchener, M. Thomas, and D. Dawson. 2012. Riding a Mile in Their Shoes: Understanding Australian Metropolitan Rail Passenger Perceptions and Experiences of Crowdedness Using Mixed-Methods Research. Road and Transport Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 46–59. Tobias, M., J. Waisman, and H. de Paiva, Jr. 2009. Service Quality Attributes in Urban Bus Services: The Experi- ence of Belem-Para/Brazil. Urban Transport XV. Urban Transport and the Environment, pp. 405–414. Tomazinis, A. 1975. Productivity, Efficiency, and Quality in Public Transportation Systems. Lexington, Mass.: Heath and Company. Tran, K.-D., A. Bhaskar, J. Bunker, and B. Lee. 2017. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Based Transit Routes Performance Evaluation. Presented at 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. TRB. 2010. Highway Capacity Manual 2010. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. TTDC. 1979. The Transit Service Evaluation System of TTDC. Norfolk, Va.: TTDC. Ungemah, D. H., and C. M. Dusza. 2009. Transportation Demand Management Benchmark: Results from 2008 TDM Program Survey. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2118, pp. 55–66. Veeneman, W., and A. Smith. 2014. Workshop 1 Report: Developing an Effective Performance Regime. Research in Transportation Economics, Vol. 48, No. 0, pp. 62–66. Vlahogianni, E., K. Kepaptsoglou, and M. G. Karlaftis. 2015. Analyzing Performance of Transit Lines and Depots: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach. Presented at 94th Annual Meeting of the Transporta- tion Research Board, Washington, D.C. Vuchic, V., T. Komninos, G. List, K. Saddiqi, and J. Worster. 1976. Design for a National Urban Transportation Reporting System. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania.

66 Transit Service Evaluation Standards Wan, D., C. Kamga, J. Liu, A. Sugiura, and E. Beaton. 2016. Rider Perception of a Light Bus Rapid Transit System: The New York City Select Bus Service. Transport Policy, Vol. 49, pp. 41–55. Wang, Y., X. Chen, J. Ke, and L. Yu. 2018. Development of Key Indicator Systems for Performance Evaluation in Megalopolitan Transit System: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Presented at 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Wei, R., X. Liu, Y. Mu, L. Wang, A. Golub, and S. Farber. 2017. Evaluating Public Transit Services for Opera- tional Efficiency and Access Equity. Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 65, pp. 70–79. Weng, J., Y. Wang, J. Huang, and L. Zhang. 2013. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 2013, Article ID 389825. Wilbur Smith & Associates. 1989. South Carolina Five-Year Public Transportation Development Plan (1989–1993). Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina Department of Transportation. Williamson, J., and D. Boyle. 2001. Refinement and Use of Service Standards at the San Diego Metropolitan Transit Development Board. Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1760, pp. 68–73. Yan, Y., X. Guo, and C. Liu. 2010. Performance Evaluation of Bus Transit Routes Based on the BCC Model. Seventh International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Studies, Kunming, China. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 705–711. Zerrillo, R. J. 1981. Use of Service Evaluation Plans to Analyze New York State Transit Systems (Abridgment). Transportation Research Record, No. 797, pp. 58–61. Zhang, C., Z. Juan, Q. Lao, and G. Xiao. 2016. Performance Evaluation of Public Transit Systems Using a Combined Evaluation Method. Transport Policy, Vol. 45, pp. 156–167.

Next: Acronyms »
Transit Service Evaluation Standards Get This Book
×
 Transit Service Evaluation Standards
Buy Paperback | $80.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 139: Transit Service Evaluation Standards provides an overview of the purpose, use, and application of performance measures, service evaluation standards, and data collection methods at North American transit agencies.

The report addresses the service evaluation process, from the selection of appropriate metrics through development of service evaluation standards and data collection and analysis to the identification of actions to improve service and implementation.

The report also documents effective practices in the development and use of service evaluation standards. The report includes an analysis of the state of the practice of the service evaluation process in agencies of different sizes, geographic locations, and modes.

Appendix D contains performance evaluation standards and guidelines provided by 23 agencies.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!