National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY ADDRESSING INACCURATE AND MISLEADING INFORMATION ABOUT BIOLOGICAL THREATS THROUGH SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION AND COMMUNICATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Committee on Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information about Biological Threats through Scientific Collaboration and Communication Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Human-Systems Integration Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and CRDF Global, Award No. 10005248. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26466 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26466.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON ADDRESSING INACCURATE AND MISLEADING INFORMATION ABOUT BIOLOGICAL THREATS THROUGH SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION AND COMMUNICATION DIETRAM A. SCHEUFELE (Co-Chair), Taylor-Bascom Chair and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor, University of Wisconsin–Madison ABHI VEERAKUMARASIVAM (Co-Chair), Dean and Professor, Sunway University DAVID B. ALLISON, Dean, Distinguished Professor, and Provost Professor, Indiana University Bloomington SONIA BEN OUAGRHAM-GORMLEY, Associate Professor, George Mason University CHAI LAY CHING, Senior Lecturer, Centre of Research Services, University of Malaysia GIOVANNI LUCA CIAMPAGLIA, Assistant Professor, University of South Florida JEANNE MARIE FAIR, Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory PAMELA J. HINDS, Fortinet Founders Chair and Professor, Stanford University SHIRLEY S. HO, Professor, Nanyang Technological University REBECCA L. MORITZ, Biosafety Director, Colorado State University WIBOOL PIYAWATTANAMETHA, Professor, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang GAVIN SMITH, Programme Director (Interim) and Professor, Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore (until December 2021) HERAWATI SUDOYO, Indonesia Academy of Sciences LE THI THU HIEN, Associate Professor, Deputy Director, Institute of Genome Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology SEEMA YASMIN, Director, Stanford Health Communication Initiative; Clinical Assistant Professor, Stanford University Department of Medicine; and Visiting Assistant Professor, University of California, Los Angeles, Anderson School of Management Study Staff KAVITA M. BERGER, Study Co-Director; Board Director, Board on Life Sciences JENELL WALSH-THOMAS, Study Co-Director (until February 2022); Program Officer, Board on Human-Systems Integration JESSICA DE MOUY, Research Associate, Board on Life Sciences DAISHA WALSTON, Program Assistant, Board on Life Sciences SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant (until November 2021), Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics ANDREA HODGSON, Study Director (until June 2021), Senior Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences TOBY WARDEN, Board Director, Board on Human-Systems Integration (until June 2021) KOSSANA YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant (until June 2021), Board on Life Sciences Research Center Contributors ANNE MARIE HOUPPERT, Senior Librarian CHRISTOPHER LAO-SCOTT, Senior Librarian Prepublication Copy v

Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: LELA BAKANIDZE, Georgian Agricultural University DOMINIQUE BROSSARD, University of Wisconsin–Madison LOCK PIN CHEW, Singapore Ministry of Communication and Information SAMANTHA DITTRICH, Merrick & Company ANG PENG HWA, Nanyang Technological University ANDERS KARLSON, Elsevier DAVID LAZAR, Northeastern University DZUNG LE (LÊ TIẾN DŨNG), Nguyen Tat Thanh University FINARYA LEGOH, Indonesian Academy of Sciences SEBASTIAN MAURER-STROH, A*STAR Bioinformatics Institute VIJI VIJAYAN, Duke-NUS Medical School Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by JENNIFER OLSEN, Rosalynn Carter Institute for Caregivers, and GEORGES BENJAMIN, American Public Health Association. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy vii

Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 1 BUILDING A TRUSTED SCIENTIFIC NETWORK: THE STRATEGY .................................................. 3 COMPOUNDING THREATS OF FALSE INFORMATION AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL THREATS .................................................................................. 5 Mis- and Disinformation Involving Infectious Diseases, 6 Scientific Information Overload: A New Threat Landscape, 8 Types of Scientific Inaccuracies and Misinformation, 9 SCIENTISTS AS PART OF THE SOLUTION ............................................................................................... 9 STRATEGY OF THE TRUSTED NETWORK OF SCIENTISTS.............................................................. 12 Implementation Plan, 19 NETWORK STRUCTURES CONSIDERED IN THE STUDY .................................................................. 20 Network of Individuals, 21 Network as a Consortium (of Science Societies and Institutions), 22 Hybrid of Consortium and Individual Models, 23 REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 23 NETWORK INFLUENCE............................................................................................................................... 24 INTERVENTIONS AGAINST INACCURATE AND MISLEADING INFORMATION: WHAT WE KNOW AND WHAT WE DO NOT KNOW............................................................................. 25 Determining Whether and How to Address Misinformation Claims, 30 UNDERSTANDING UNCERTAINTY IN CORRECTING INACCURATE AND MISLEADING INFORMATION.................................................................................................................... 32 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 33 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................. 33 APPENDIXES A COMMITTEE MEETING AGENDAS ................................................................................................. 44 B BIOGRAPHICAL SKETHCES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS ...................................................... 51 BOXES AND FIGURES BOXES 1 Statement of Task, 14 2 Values and Characteristics of the Trusted Scientific Network, 2 3 National Academies’ Reports on Science Communication, 17 Prepublication Copy ix

Contents FIGURES 1 Illustration of recommended strategy, vision, and tactics for the trusted scientific network, 5 2 Questions for scientists when determining communication approaches with various stakeholders, 27 x Prepublication Copy

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Misinformation about outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics is a decades-old problem that has been exacerbated by the rise of the internet and the widespread use of social media. Some false claims may be addressed through sound scientific analysis, suggesting that scientists can help counter misinformation by providing evidence-based, scientifically defensible information that may discredit or refute these claims. This report explains how scientists can work collaboratively across scientific disciplines and sectors to identify and address inaccuracies that could fuel mis- and disinformation. Although the study focused on a scientific network primarily in Southeast Asia, it is relevant to scientists in other parts of the world. A companion "how-to-guide", available in print and in digital form, outlines practical steps that scientists can take to assess mis- or disinformation, determine whether and how they should address it, and effectively communicate the corrective information they develop.

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