National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26731.
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© 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SPECIAL RELEASES The Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) Special Release series publishes the findings of projects managed by CRP upon request by organizations outside of CRP’s core research programs. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply endorsement by TRB and any of its program sponsors of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER To facilitate more timely dissemination of research findings, this pre-publication document is taken directly from the submission of the research agency. The material has not been edited by TRB. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this document are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. This pre-publication document IS NOT an official publication of the Cooperative Research Programs; the Transportation Research Board; or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Recommended citation: Mitchell, A., C. Williges, and J. Messner. 2022. Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management. Pre- publication draft of CRP Special Release 4. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

Lifecycle BIM for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management ii A U T H O R A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S The research reported herein was performed under TFRS-02 by HDR; Pennsylvania State University; Weris, Inc.; and Fernanda Leite. Final Report Authors: Alexa Mitchell (Co-Principal Investigator), Chris Williges (Project Manager and Co-PI), Dr. John Messner (Co-PI), Sarah Henly-Thomas, Daphne Federing, Xiahoui Wang, and Fernanda Leite (technical reviewer). Appendix A - Multi-Media Plan: Ruth Tane, Eileen Smith, Kailey Krystyniak, Monica Anderson, Monica Doebel, and Lauren Walters. Special thanks go to the Colorado Department of Transportation, Costain Group PLC, Denver International Airport, New York State Department of Transportation, and Utah Department of Transportation for participating in the case study interviews; and to Ahmad Abu-Hawash, Allen Melley, Charles Hixon, Matt Blake, Nick Laga, Trisha Stefanski, Steve Hutsell, and Vern Danforth for their participation in the BIM subject matter expert (SME) panel.

Lifecycle BIM for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management iii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 1: Background .............................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Objectives...................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Motivation ...................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Scope of Work ............................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Organization of Report .................................................................................................. 4 Chapter 2: Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 BIM Adoption in Infrastructure ....................................................................................... 6 2.3 Return on Investment Analysis for BIM Adoption ........................................................ 15 2.4 Measuring BIM Adoption in Organization and Projects ............................................... 28 2.5 BIM Adoption in Published Case Studies .................................................................... 32 2.6 Conclusions and Observations .................................................................................... 35 Chapter 3: Case Studies and BIM Expert Validation Panel ................................................... 36 3.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................... 36 3.2 Case Study 1: New York State Department of Transportation Kew Gardens Interchange Program .............................................................................................................. 37 3.3 Case Study 2: Utah Department of Transportation Digital Delivery Experience ......... 42 3.4 Case Study 3: Colorado Department of Transportation I-70G Edwards Spur ............. 47 3.5 Case Study 4: Denver International Airport Hotel and Transit Center Program .......... 52 3.6 Case Study 5: Highways England A556 Dual Carriageway ........................................ 57 3.7 BIM Expert Validation Panel ........................................................................................ 61 Chapter 4: Making the Busines Case ...................................................................................... 63 4.1 Overview of Business Case Approach ........................................................................ 63 4.2 Benefit-Cost Analysis Framework ............................................................................... 67 4.3 Factors Influencing Realization of Benefits ................................................................. 72 4.4 Identified Benefits and Costs of BIM ........................................................................... 75 4.5 Monetizing Benefits ..................................................................................................... 81 4.6 Conclusions and Observations .................................................................................... 87 Chapter 5: BIM for Asset Data Management .......................................................................... 91 5.1 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 91 5.2 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 91 Part 1: BIM for Asset Data Management Strategic Plan ......................................................... 93 Part 2: Information Exchange Requirements for BIM Asset Data ........................................... 96 Part 3: BIM in the Delivery Phase ......................................................................................... 100 Part 4: BIM for Operations Phase ......................................................................................... 102 5.3 Conclusions and Observations .................................................................................. 103

Lifecycle BIM for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management iv Chapter 6: Conclusions and Suggested Research .............................................................. 104 Research Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 104 Future Research ................................................................................................................... 105 Concluding Remarks ............................................................................................................. 106 References ............................................................................................................................... 107 Appendix A: Multi-Media Toolkit ............................................................................................... 1 Appendix B: ROI Workbook and User Guide ....................................................................... B-1 ROI Workbook ...................................................................................................................... B-1 ROI Workbook User Guide ................................................................................................... B-1 Appendix C: Glossary of Terms ............................................................................................ C-1 BIM Terms ............................................................................................................................ C-1 Data-Related Terms .............................................................................................................. C-3 Data Management Terms ..................................................................................................... C-3 Use Cases ............................................................................................................................ C-4 Appendix D: Mapping of Use Cases to Benefits .................................................................. D-1 Appendix E: BIM Maturity Matrix for Transportation Agencies .......................................... E-1

Lifecycle BIM for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management v F I G U R E S Figure 2-1. Common Model Uses by Project Phase ................................................................... 10 Figure 2-2. Image of IFC Roads Process with Expanded Section .............................................. 11 Figure 2-3. Partial Table of BIM Use Cases in IFC Roads Project Specifications ...................... 12 Figure 2-4. Model Uses by Project Phase for Infrastructure ....................................................... 14 Figure 2-5. Table of Capability Maturity Model ........................................................................... 30 Figure 2-6. Sample of One Category within the Slimgim-T CMM ............................................... 31 Figure 3-1. 3D BIM model of I-80 bridge ..................................................................................... 43 Figure 3-2. Actual I-80 bridge after construction ......................................................................... 43 Figure 3-3. Illustration of workshop components ........................................................................ 62 Figure 4-1. Input-Output Approach for Identifying Outcomes from Adopting BIM....................... 64 Figure 4-2. BIM Use Cases for ROI Analysis .............................................................................. 65 Figure 4-3. Illustration of BCA Approach .................................................................................... 68 Figure 4-4. Uneven Stream of Benefits and Costs from BIM-Related Investments .................... 70 Figure 4-5. Levels of BIM Adoption ............................................................................................. 74 Figure 4-6. Benefits Realized by Levels of BIM Adoption ........................................................... 75 Figure 4-7. Agency Cost Savings – Reduced Cost ..................................................................... 82 Figure 4-8. Agency Cost Savings – Reduced Quantity ............................................................... 83 Figure 4-9. Project Cost Savings – Reduced Cost ..................................................................... 84 Figure 4-10. Project Cost Savings – Reduced Quantities ........................................................... 85 Figure 4-11. Staff Time Savings Per Project ............................................................................... 86 Figure 4-12. Staff Time Savings – Organizational ...................................................................... 87 Figure 5-1. Representation of Information Requirement Hierarchy (aligned with ISO 19650 Part 3, although hierarchy is not represented under this structure and there is also an EIR defined as subset of PIR and AIR) ............................................................................................................... 93 Figure 5-2. BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners – Outlines a process for developing a strategic plan for BIM .................................................................................................................. 95 Figure 5-3. BIM Planning Elements (Source: Messner et al. 2019) ............................................ 95 Figure 5-4. Data Entities (or Object Types) as Building Blocks for Data Model .......................... 97 Figure 5-5. BIM Uses by Phase .................................................................................................. 98 Figure 5-6. Sample Drainage Asset Class Sheet from MNDOT ................................................. 99 Figure B-1. START Sheet ......................................................................................................... B-3 Figure B-2. START Sheet—Select Default Analysis ................................................................. B-4 Figure B-3. Clear User Inputs Button ........................................................................................ B-4 Figure B-4. ROI RESULTS DEFAULT Sheet ........................................................................... B-5 Figure B-5. START Sheet—Select Detailed Analysis ............................................................... B-6 Figure B-6. START Sheet—Select Investigate ......................................................................... B-8 Figure E-1. Transportation Agency BIM Maturity Matrix (Instructions) ..................................... E-2 Figure E-2. Transportation Agency BIM Maturity Matrix (Page 1) ............................................ E-3 Figure E-3. Transportation Agency BIM Maturity Matrix (Page 2) ............................................ E-4 Figure E-4. Summary of Organizational BIM Assessment Profile............................................. E-5 Figure E-5. Example of Individual BIM Planning Element Summary ........................................ E-6 Figure E-6. Detailed Summary .................................................................................................. E-6 Figure E-7. Summary Calculations ........................................................................................... E-6

Lifecycle BIM for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management vi T A B L E S Table 2-1. IFC Roads Project “Must and Should Have” Use Cases ............................................. 9 Table 2-2. BIM Cost Savings Benefits in Asset Management by Owner .................................... 16 Table 2-3. BIM Staff Time Savings Benefits in Asset Management by Owner ........................... 17 Table 2-4. BIM Organizational Ancillary Benefits in Asset Management by Owner.................... 18 Table 2-5. Project Cost Savings Due to Shorter Delivery Times and Process Efficiencies in Design and Construction ............................................................................................................. 20 Table 2-6. Project Cost Savings Due to Reduced Field Conflicts and Improved Visualization for Planning ...................................................................................................................................... 21 Table 2-7. Project Cost Savings Due to Improved Safety and Reduced Waste ......................... 21 Table 2-8. Project Cost Savings Due to Project Delivery Method Cost Savings, Clear Process Definition, and Asset Turnover Efficiency ................................................................................... 22 Table 2-9. Lifecycle BIM Investments for Organizational and Asset Management ..................... 23 Table 2-10. Lifecycle BIM Investments for Project Delivery ........................................................ 23 Table 2-11. General Information on Four ROI Calculation Case Studies ................................... 26 Table 3-1. NYSDOT Kew Gardens LOD Specifications ............................................................. 39 Table 4-1. Base Case versus Investment Case for BIM in the Literature ................................... 69 Table 4-2. In-House Agency Cost Savings from Adopting BIM .................................................. 77 Table 4-3. Project Cost Savings from Adopting BIM ................................................................... 78 Table 4-4. Staff Time Savings from Adopting BIM ...................................................................... 79 Table 4-5. User Benefits from Adopting BIM .............................................................................. 80 Table 4-6. Costs from Adopting BIM ........................................................................................... 81

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Building Information Modeling (BIM) allows transportation infrastructure project teams to improve the overall quality of the planning and design of projects, along with more efficiently constructing the project through improved planning, cost control, and automation, such as machine-guided equipment.

The TRB Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of CRP Special Release 4: Lifecycle Building Information Modeling for Infrastructure: A Business Case for Project Delivery and Asset Management focuses on the development of resources to support the adoption of BIM by highway agencies.

Supplemental to the report are Appendix E: BIM Maturity Matrix for Transportation Agencies, a Dataset, and Video Interviews.

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