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Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26735.

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48 Glossary Artificial intelligence: Intelligence demonstrated by machines. Blanket purchase agreement (BPA): (1) A method of filing repetitive needs for supplies or services with qualified sources of supply, or (2) an arrangement under which a supplier agrees in advance to provide goods or services, when ordered, over a specified period with pre-established prices, terms, and conditions; quantities or dollar amounts are not guaranteed. There is no set contract under a BPA until a purchase is made. BPAs are designed to reduce acquisition administrative costs. Emergency purchases: Purchases that occur when the public interest would likely suffer by delay or when emergency repairs are necessary. Good faith effort: An honest and sincere intention to comply with policies and procedures. Hardware: Physical elements that make up technology. Internet of things (IoT): A system of interconnected objects capable of collecting and trans- ferring data without human involvement. Invitation to negotiate (ITN): A process that requires a publicly posted, written solicitation for sealed offers. Once offers are received, negotiations commence with the entities that present the most advantageous option(s) with respect to price and evaluation criteria. Negotiations can be discontinued at any time. Joint solicitation: A cooperative practice that aggregates two or more agencies’ needs in a single solicitation. Piggybacking: A cooperative practice that uses another agency’s contract. Procurement: The end-to-end process of identifying a need to acquire hardware, software, or technology services. Purchase order (PO): a Legally binding contract that includes price points, delivery dates, shipping arrangements, and payment terms. Public-private partnership (P3): A government agency contracting with a private-sector partner. Request for information (RFI): A general request to survey the market and obtain available information about a product, services, or solutions. Request for proposal (RFP): A document to solicit proposals. Request for qualifications (RFQ): A type of solicitation generally used for services that is evalu- ated first on qualifications and then on negotiated price. An RFQ is most appropriate for procur- ing professional services that are not exempt from the bidding requirements.

Glossary 49 Request for quote (RFQ): A formal request for suppliers to submit a quote to provide technology hardware, software, or services. This approach allows airports to gather the financial details behind a solution before executing a purchase. Rightsizing: Synonymous with scoping; defining the technical capabilities and desirable features of needed technology. Services (for technology): Professional technology-oriented service offerings that facilitate the use of technology. Categories of service can include cloud-based or managed services. Software: Programs and operating information used with technology hardware. Sole source purchase: When one supplier possesses unique capability to be the only qualified source of an identified procurement need. This method is the least competitive sourcing vehicle and typically requires authorization for use. Sourcing: A process for finding and vetting vendors and suppliers.

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Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing Get This Book
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The technology procurement process includes sourcing and acquiring software, hardware, and services. Systems and nuances of technology procurement vary within each airport, and navigating such variances at a pace that meets the airports’ needs and technology evolution can be challenging.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 120: Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing identifies the efficient and innovative technology sourcing and procurement practices developed by airports.

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