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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 238 Quantitative Procedures for Designing and Operating Ferry Services Kristen Kissinger Kelly Lesoing Cassandra Durkin KPFF Consulting Engineers Seattle, WA Subject Areas Marine Transportationâ â¢â Passenger Transportationâ â¢â Terminals and Facilities Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the American Public Transportation Association 2023
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 238 The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project A-46 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- ISSN 2572-3782 rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must ISBN 978-0-309-68777-5 expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency Â© 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation published or copyrighted material used herein. Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, Cover figure credit: Sternstein Photography Cover figure: WSF, Mukilteo Ferry Terminal with Vessel operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized NOTICE as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- and APTA. APTA is responsible for forming the independent govern- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. ing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifi- Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but cations. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which pro- vide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- or specifications. fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- because they are considered essential to the object of the report. als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- Published research reports of the ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. are available from TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and Transportation Research Board Business Office complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 238 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT A-46 PANEL Field of Operations Justin Resnick, Washington State Department of Transportation, Seattle, WA (Chair) Martha A. R. Bewick, The Harbor Consultancy International, Hingham, MA Richard G. Bickel, Jr., Econsult Solutions, Inc., Ardmore, PA Charles R. Carr, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson, MS Alan Robert Danaher, WSP, Orlando, FL Mike W. Gougherty, San Francisco Bay Ferry, Alameda, CA Peter C. Martin, CDM Smith, San Francisco, CA Peggy Tadej, Northern Virginia Regional Commission (NVRC), Fairfax, VA James C. Wong, New York City Economic Development Corporation, New York, NY Steve Truong, FTA Liaison Vanessa Williams, FTA Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project A-46 by the Marine Transit Consulting Team at KPFF Consulting Engineers. Kristen Kissinger, AICP, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Kelly Lesoing, Planner, and Cassandra Durkin, Planner. Technical expertise and review were contributed by Mike Anderson, Director Marine Transit, and Andy Bennett, Principal. Anthony Bruzzone, AICP CTP, Associate Principal, Transport Planning, and Joseph Kaylor, Transportation Planner, from Arup conducted data collection and analysis and supported report development. Field surveys at ferry terminals were conducted by Lauren Romeo (Arup) and Austin Lucero (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, and 2021 Arup intern).
FOREWORD By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report provides guidance for assessing and planning ferry system capacity for fixed- route ferry services and facilities serving either passengers only or passengers and vehicles. Guidance looks at overall system capacity as well as the design and operation of ferry system elements, including vessels, facilities, service schedules, and terminal operations. This report will be of immediate use to ferry operators and transit decision makers with an existing ferry service. Ferry transportation services play an important role in many municipal and regional transportation systems throughout the United States and have the potential to play an even greater role. Ferries serve urban centers, island regions, and rural areas, and can provide an alternative to other transportation modes or provide lifeline access to unbridged commuÂ nities. Ferries have provided critical transportation in the United States during emergencies such as natural disasters, bridge failures, transit strikes, and tunnel flooding. Under TCRP Project A-46, âQuantitative Procedures for Designing and Operating Ferry Transit Services,â the research team led by KPFF Consulting Engineers was asked to: â¢ Build on the guidance provided in existing ferry transportation reports, including three reports developed by the TCRP; â¢ Present key quantitative procedures for designing and operating scheduled and fixed- route ferry transit services and facilities that serve passengers only and passengers and vehicles; â¢ Focus on ferry capacity concepts and analysis methods, including but not limited to vessels, docks, routes, terminals, and intermodal connections; â¢ Consider in-water, navigation, and regulatory factors in addition to environmental impacts of ferry services; and â¢ Strive to provide comparable detail to the bus, rail, and station chapters of TCRP Report 165: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM). TCRP Research Report 238 presents guidance for assessing and planning overall ferry system capacity as well as the design and operation of ferry system elements. This report expands on the ferry guidance provided in previous TCRP reports and focuses on: â¢ Identifying how ferry system elements, including operating conditions and assets (vessels and terminals), are related to each other and affect overall system capacity;
â¢ Quantifying and assessing passenger and vehicle movement; and â¢ Presenting quantitative procedures and best practices for addressing capacity challenges through design of infrastructure investments, operations, and service planning. The report also identifies gaps in this and previous reports where additional data collection and research are needed to more fully develop capacity guidance and quantitative proce- dures for ferry passenger services.
CONTENTS 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1âIntroduction 2 Research Objective 2 Definitions 4 Background and Need for Research 4 Research Approach 9 How to Use This Report 11 Chapter 2â Fundamentals of Ferry Capacity 11 Vessel and Fleet Planning 15 Terminal Capacity and Design 20 Maximizing Sailing Frequency 25 Governance and Policy Factors 31 Chapter 3âCapacity Concepts and Analysis Methods: Passenger-Only Ferries 31 Optimizing the Service Schedule 33 Passenger Facility Capacity Planning and Minimizing Dwell Time 44 Chapter 4âCapacity Concepts and Analysis Methods: Vehicle Ferries 44 Optimizing the Service Schedule 46 Understanding Vessel Capacity and Vehicle Demand 48 Vehicle Terminal Capacity Planning and Minimizing Dwell Time 54 Chapter 5â Example Capacity Procedures Use 54 Example 1: Passenger-Only Ferry 57 Example 2: Vehicle Ferry 60 Chapter 6â Suggested Further Research 60 Summary of Identified Gaps 62 References 63 Abbreviations and Acronyms 64 Appendix AâOperator Questionnaire and Summaries of Responses 69 Appendix Bâ Data Collection and Findings