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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26875.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2023 B E H A V I O R A L T R A F F I C S A F E T Y C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 5 Research sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association and National Highway Traf c Safety Administration Subscriber Categories Operations and Traf c Management • Safety and Human Factors Strategies to Improve State Traffi c Citation and Adjudication Outcomes Justin M. Owens Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Blacksburg, VA 16342-00b_FM-3rdPgs.indd 1 1/12/23 2:05 PM

BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Since the widespread introduction of motor vehicles more than a century ago, crashes involving their operation remain a significant public health concern. While there have been enormous improvements in highway design and construction, as well as motor vehicle safety, which have been instrumental in lowering the rate of crashes per mil- lion miles in the United States, more than 35,000 people die every year in motor vehicle crashes. In far too many cases, the root causes of the crashes are the unsafe behaviors of motor vehicle operators, cyclists, and pedestrians. Understanding human behaviors and developing effective countermeasures to unsafe ones is difficult and remains a major weakness in our traffic safety efforts. The Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP) develops practical solutions to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce costs of road traffic crashes associated with unsafe behav- iors. BTSCRP is a forum for coordinated and collaborative research efforts. It is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) under the direction and oversight of the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) with funding provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Funding for the program was originally established in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), Subsection 402(c), which created the National Cooperative Research and Evaluation Program (NCREP). Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act continued the program. In 2017, GHSA entered into an agreement with TRB to manage the research activities, with the program name changed to Behavioral Traf- fic Safety Cooperative Research Program. The GHSA Executive Board serves as the governing board for the BTSCRP. The Board consists of officers, representatives of the 10 NHTSA regions, and committee and task force chairs. The Research Committee Chair appoints committee members who recommend projects for funding and provide oversight for the activities of BTSCRP. Its ultimate goal is to oversee a quality research program that is committed to addressing research issues fac- ing State Highway Safety Offices. The Executive Board meets annu- ally to approve research projects. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The majority of panel mem- bers represent the intended users of the research projects and have an important role in helping to implement the results. BTSCRP produces a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating BTSCRP results to the intended users of the research: State Highway Safety Offices and their constituents. BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 5 Project BTS-04 ISSN 2766-5976 (Print) ISSN 2766-5984 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-68756-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2023948198 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or speci- fications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America 16342-00b_FM-3rdPgs.indd 2 1/12/23 2:05 PM

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 5 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Richard Retting, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor BTSCRP PROJECT BTS-04 PANEL Kevin P. Dusko, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT (Chair) Heather M. Barkholtz, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI Andrew H. Ceifetz, WSP, Walled Lake, MI Jeremy R. Chapman, Ramey Kemp & Associates, Inc., Asheville, NC Staci Hoff, Washington Traffic Safety Commission (WTSC), Olympia, WA Lorrie J. Laing, Cambridge Systematics, Columbus, OH Stacey Manware, Connecticut Judicial Branch, Wethersfield, CT Eduardo Romano, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Beltsville, MD Amy Berning, NHTSA Liaison

BTSCRP Research Report 5 provides an evidence-based approach to help states improve the tracking, sharing, communication, and accessibility of traffic citation data. The research team conducted a systematic review of current practices regarding state citation tracking efforts; identified methods to potentially improve data tracking, sharing, communication, and accessibility; and developed a set of practical deliverables including an interactive toolkit and a series of fact sheets. This report and the interactive toolkit will be of interest to state highway safety offices, traffic records officials, and other stakeholders concerned with improv- ing the tracking, sharing, communication, and accessibility of traffic citation data. Traffic citation and adjudication data systems, while interdependent across states, have different state-specific data elements, protocols, formats, personnel, and are managed by separate state agencies. This can impede clear communication and synergy among these systems. Responsibility for traffic citation and adjudication data systems is shared among various data-owning agencies, from local to statewide. For traffic records purposes, the goal of the citation and adjudication systems is to collect all the information relevant to traffic- related citations in a central, statewide repository (and linked to appropriate federal data systems) so the information can be analyzed by authorized users to improve and promote traffic safety. Ideally, information from these systems also supports traffic safety analysis that identifies trends in citation issuance, prosecution, and case disposition. The ability of state agencies to track citation, adjudication, and disposition data accurately and effectively is essential for the identification and appropriate adjudication of problem drivers and habitual offenders. Highway safety officials have long recognized the need to improve the overall quality and integration of traffic citation and adjudication systems. BTSCRP Project BTS-04 was undertaken to identify challenges and barriers to effective citation data tracking along with proven strategies and solutions to address these chal- lenges, with the ultimate goal of improving roadway safety by helping states improve their traffic records data and integration across distinct data systems. For this research project, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute was asked to (1) conduct a systematic review of current practices regarding state citation tracking efforts; (2) identify methods to poten- tially improve data tracking, sharing, communication, and accessibility; and (3) develop practical deliverables that could be used by states to help improve their traffic records data and integration. F O R E W O R D By Richard Retting Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Background 4 Objectives 4 Project Management 5 Chapter 2 State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Tracking Efforts 5 Information on Citation and Adjudication Tracking Systems 6 Interviews with Highway Officials from Representative States 7 Data Analysis and Synthesis 9 Chapter 3 Improving Data Tracking, Sharing, Communication, and Accessibility 9 Structural Challenges 11 Data Content Challenges 13 Digital Transition-Related Challenges 15 Strategies and Solutions 20 Lessons Learned 20 Conclusion 21 Chapter 4 Improving the Ability of States to Track Citation and Adjudication Data 22 Chapter 5 Recommendations for Future Research 22 Longitudinal Analyses 22 Implications of Technological Advances 22 Interstate Benefits of Standardization 23 Further Collaborative Opportunities 23 Standardized Methods to Align Data 23 Ways to Engage the Public 24 References A-1 Appendix A State-Level Data Collection Review and Synthesis B-1 Appendix B Tracking State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes: Summary Presentation C-1 Appendix C Technical Memorandum: Implementation of Research Findings and Products D-1 Appendix D Toolkit for Improving Citation and Adjudication Tracking: Slides

E-1 Appendix E Toolkit for Improving Citation and Adjudication Tracking: Voiceover Script F-1 Appendix F Resources for Improving Citation and Adjudication Tracking Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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The ability of state agencies to track citation, adjudication, and disposition data accurately and effectively is essential for the identification and appropriate adjudication of problem drivers and habitual offenders. Efficient data tracking can provide benefits at all steps of the citation-adjudication process, from providing real-time information and safer roadside stops for law enforcement officers to reducing errors and improving transmission speed during the adjudication stage to facilitating data storage and effective analyses following disposition.

The TRB Behavorial Transportation Safety Cooperative Research Program's BTSCRP Research Report 5: Strategies to Improve State Traffic Citation and Adjudication Outcomes identifies challenges and barriers to effective citation data tracking along with proven strategies and solutions to address these challenges, with the goal of developing a series of practical and meaningful steps that state highway safety officials could use to implement these strategies.

Supplemental to the report is Toolkit for Improving Citation and Adjudication Tracking, which is a PowerPoint presentation with voiceover components. Slides from the toolkit are presented in Appendix D and the script for the voiceover is included in Appendix E.

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